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Brand Image Measurement - Cadbury Dairy Milk
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Brand Image Measurement - Cadbury Dairy Milk Document Transcript

  • 1. PRAXIS BUSINESS SCHOOL Brand Image Measurement - ‘Cadbury Dairy Milk’Submitted To: Prof. SrinivasGovindrajanPresented By: Ankita Singh Arunachalam Ramanathan GauravTalwar Zeeshan Mohammad
  • 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cadbury Dairy Milk is considered to be the „golden‟ brand under the corporate umbrella, Cadbury (now acquired by Kraft), since its 107 years of existence. In its initial years in India, this brand was a monopoly in the chocolate market due to less competition. This gave the brand a big boost to be easily accepted by the consumers and thus, it was able tocharge a premium for its sheer quality and exceptional taste. Cadbury Dairy Milk is a clear winner with respect to the market share in the chocolate category in India. This gives us the past performance of the brand, but is uncertain about the future growth. Thus, based on two models the brand audit was conducted: Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator® This quantitative model gives the current strength and growth potential of the brand. It also conveys whether the consumers‟ perception of the brand is same as the message conveyed by the brand. The analysis confirms that Cadbury Dairy Milk is the leader in the chocolate category in India. Brand Stature Brand Vitality Brand Brand BrandBrands Brand Knowledge Esteem Relevance Differentiation Cadbury Dairy Milk 94% 94% 58% 91% 2
  • 3. Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation TestThis qualitative model gives the consumers‟ inner values of the brand. It also conveys thecurrent perception of the brand.From the analysis, it was found that, Cadbury Dairy Milk is perceived to be as„An universally accepted brand that instigates a child like behavior and happinessamongst all the age groups, due to its exceptional taste. It is considered to be one of thebest gifts in order to show your love and care for someone, as it looks royal, affordableand convenient to purchase.‟Based on the analysis of both the models, Cadbury Dairy Milk will be the leader in thechocolate market due to its excellent positioning and marketing mix. 3
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSS.NO TITLE PAGE NO 1 Timeline of Cadbury 5 2 Young & Rubicam‟s Brand 10 Asset Valuator® 3 Zaltman Metaphor 17 Elicitation Technique 4
  • 5. TIMELINE OF CADBURY 1824- John Cadbury opened a shop in Birmingham in UK 1897 - The Cadbury Brothers first made milk chocolate 1900 - George Cadbury was determined to meet this challenge and, together with the experts from the Bournville factory, started to research new recipesand production methods 1904 - The recipe was perfected and a delicious new milk chocolate was made with full cream milk 1905 - The chocolate was launched under the name Cadbury Dairy Milk (CDM) 1948 - Cadbury India limited was set up as a wholly owned subsidiary of theUK-based Cadbury Schweppes Overseas Limited 2010 – Kraft acquired CadburyTransformation of Cadbury Dairy Milk: 5
  • 6. Cadbury India Limited:Cadbury has successfully differentiated CDM over the years by strategic brand buildingin India. The company had realized that chocolates by itself do not satisfy any immediateneeds (soft drinks would satisfy thirst, ice cream would provide relief from heat), so theywould have to be associated with human feelings of romance, magic, love and affection.So it had at one point of time employed emotional attachment as basis of differentiation. Market Share of Chocolates in Market Share of Chocolates in India (2011) India (2011) (Rs.2500 crore) (Rs.2500 cr) 6% 30% 43% CDM 22% Cadbury 5 Star Nestle 14% Munch 72% 5% 8% Others Kit Kat OthersOn analyzing the market, the success of the company can be associated to:The Pioneer Advantage (First Mover Advantage) –Cadbury was the first to enter theIndian market in 1948. For a long time, it was practically the only dominant player in themarket. It, therefore, enjoyed a large share of both customer‟s heart and mind. So muchso that for an entire generation, chocolate was synonymous with Cadbury. It is onlyrecently that the company has started facing some threat from Nestle.A Strong Endorser brand - Cadbury realized early that volumes would not be enough tosupport all its brands with heavy advertisements. Hence they took CDM as the flagshipbrand and advertised it heavily to popularize the brand name to help the flanker brandsaround CDM. 6
  • 7. Right Product Formulation - The climatic conditions and the Indian taste were verydifferent from the western markets (where the company first started its operations).Cadbury was able to successfully reformulate its product as per the Indian conditions,while Nestle could not do so in its initial stage.Presence in all segments – Cadbury has a presence in the entire range, starting from lowpriced hard-boiled sweets and sugar confectionery to the premium range of chocolates.The company also claims success in all these segments it has been entering recently.BRAND POSITIONING:Positioning is the space occupied by Cadbury Dairy Milk in the minds of the consumer.For the chocolate market, Cadbury is pitted against competitors like Nestle, Amul andsubstitutes like, chips, biscuits, mithai and other light snacks. Idea of positioning Cadburyis to occupy a distinct space, which is differentiable, yet powerful.Phase 1:This ad firmly established awareness for CDM in the country. It broughttogether cricket, youth and a simple catchy tune.The most important aspect was that the Target Group (TG) was theprojected audience of the advertisement. The TG was No Longer limitedto kids. It was about every age group of life, from kids to adults. Thecampaign positioned Cadbury tobeassociated with the „special quality‟that all of us possess and are particularly proud of (kuchkhaashai hamsabhimein)The efforts were focused on expanding the market piesimultaneously with its share in it. 7
  • 8. Phase 2: Cadbury wanted to increase the number of occasions for chocolate consumption. They realized that CDM might be an impulse buy, but it was not impulse consumption. When the „impulse buy‟ to „impulse consumption‟ transition takes place, the frequency as well as quantity of purchase goes up.Hence, Cadbury gave the users more reasons to eat chocolates through the following ad: “KhaneWaaleKoKhane ka BahanaChahiye”Phase 3:Chocolate consumption is always seen as an act of indulgence and self-pampering by the individual. This was followed up by positioning CDM asthe means to celebrate happiness in both small and big things in life. Thefoundation was laid about CDM being the celebration mode, using thefamous „pappupaas ho gaya„ campaign with AmitabhBacchan. This wasthe first connect to CDM being usable as „sweets‟.Phase 4: They have now recently started positioning CDM as a sweet- substitute. Bringing in occasions of sweet consumption, such as beginning new endeavors (shubhaarambh), CDM has put itself as a possible replacement for sweet. The campaign sticks to the original backdrop of simple things in life that bring a smile to face. 8
  • 9. PROMOTION:Cadbury’s MishtiSheraShrishti- A creative Brand CampaignA creative Brand campaign hit the streets of Kolkata on Monday, 9th January 2012.Scenario:AfterKuchMeetha Ho Jaye, (encouraging families to enjoy Cadbury‟s postdinner) Cadbury moved one chain up. They conducted a competition amongst 9 Mishtimakers (such as KC Das) and the subject was to make sweets with CDM as an ingredient.The best Mishti Maker Award was given based on the consumers‟ feedback.Objective:To increase the consumption and to encourage the usage of CDM as anintegral part of sweets 9
  • 10. YOUNG & RUBICAM’S BRAND ASSET VALUATOR®Young and Rubicam, a marketing communications agency, developed a quantitative toolcalled Brand Asset Valuator® (BAV).It was developed to diagnose the power and valueof a brand. BAV uses two dimensions: 1. Brand Vitality (Strength): It is a combination of Differentiation (Distinction of brand in the market) and Relevance (Brand‟s appropriateness to the customer) 2. Brand Stature: It is a combinationof Esteem (Quality perception, Popularity and regards for the brand in the mind of the consumers) and Knowledge (Recognition and recall of the brand).FOUR PILLARS OF BRAND ASSET VALUATOR®:Relevance: It measures the personal appropriateness of a brand to a consumer and isstrongly tied to household penetration.Differentiation: It is a technique that measures the strength of the brand‟s meaning and italso helps the brand to stand apart from its competitors.Knowledge: Brand knowledge is about the awareness and understanding of the brand‟scharacteristics. This gives the level of involvement shown by the consumer towards thebrand. 10
  • 11. Esteem: It is the extent to which consumers like a brand and hold it in his/her highregards. It is driven by two factors: Perception of quality and popularity, which dependsupon the country and culture.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Sample Size: 40 Target Group: Consumers of Chocolate in the age group of 18-25 Sampling Technique: Simple Random Sampling Data Collection: Computer Assisted Personal InterviewingFor this research, Cadbury 5 Star, Nestle Munch and Nestle Kit Kat were taken ascompetitors of CDM.The results of questions 1 – 6 gave the number of respondents who answered thequestions correctly. Each question was given a weightage (in their respective pillar i.eKnowledge and Differentiation) and was multiplied with the number of correct answers.The summation of the results (in each pillar) gave the brand‟s overall score, rank,percentage.The results of questions 7-8 gave the number of respondents who preferred a brand,based on the personal characteristics and purchase parameters. Each question was givena50% weightageandwas multiplied with the number of responses for a particular brand.The results of questions 9-10 gave the number of respondents who preferred a brand tothe others, based on their esteem factors. The respondents were told to rank the brandsfrom 1 to 4 and their weights were assigned from 4 to 1. The weights were multipliedwith their respective ranks. Each question was a given a 50% weightage. 11
  • 12. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: 1. What are the visuals present on the package of the following chocolates (other than package colour& name of chocolate)? [Brand Knowledge: 25%] Correct Incorrect a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat 2. Match the tagline with the respective brand [Brand Knowledge: 35%] Dairy Milk 5 Star Munch Kit Kat a) Jo Khaye, KhoJaye b) Have a Break, Have a ____ c) Big Bite, Light Inside d) KuchMeetha Ho Jaye 3. Identify the advertisement [Brand Knowledge: 45%] Correct Incorrect a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat4. What is the colour of the package? [Brand Differentiation: 25%] Blue Violet /Purple Gold Red a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat5. What is the design of the chocolate? [Brand Differentiation: 25%] Correct Incorrect a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat 12
  • 13. 6. Identify the chocolate after tasting it [Brand Differentiation: 50%] Correct Incorrect a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat7. On what parameters, will you purchase the following chocolates? [Brand Relevance: 50%] Dairy Milk 5 Star Munch Kit Kat a) Price b) Chocolate taste c) Variety d) Grandness e) Celebrations (Birthday, Achievements etc) f) Emotional Connect (To say sorry, to convey your love &care etc)8. According to you, which characteristics represent the brand?[Brand Relevance: 50%] Dairy Milk 5 Star Munch Kit Kat a) Enthusiastic b) Affectionate c) Friendly d) Humble e) Royal9. When you gift the chocolate, which brand will you prefer? (Rank from 1 to4)[Brand Esteem: 50%] a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat10. Which brand do you associate yourself with? (Rank from 1 to 4)[Brand Esteem: 50%] a) Cadbury Dairy milk b) Cadbury 5 Star c) Nestle Munch d) Nestle Kit Kat 13
  • 14. BAV ANALYSIS: 1) Cadbury Dairy Milk Dairy Milk 100% 94% 94% 91% 80% Percentage 58% 60% 40% 20% 0% Brand Knowledge Brand Esteem Brand Relevance Brand DifferentiationBased on the percentages in all the four pillars, Cadbury Dairy Milk is a strong brand andthe leader in the chocolate market as it has high brand stature and brand vitality. 2) Cadbury 5 Star 5 Star 95% 100% 80% 74% 64% Percentage 60% 40% 20% 20% 0% Brand Knowledge Brand Esteem Brand Relevance Brand DifferentiationCadbury 5 Star is a strong brand but has to be repositioned due to its low relevance andhigh differentiation. 14
  • 15. 3) Nestle Munch Munch 80% 74% 67% 60% Percentage 39% 40% 20% 11% 0% Brand Knowledge Brand Esteem Brand Relevance Brand DifferentiationNestle Munch is on the verge of a declining brand. It is highly differentiated based ontaste. Due to its low relevance and high differentiation, it has to be repositioned. Due toits high knowledge and low esteem, its brand personality has to be rectified. 4) Nestle Kit Kat Kit Kat 100% 78% 74% 80% Percentage 54% 60% 40% 20% 12% 0% Brand Knowledge Brand Esteem Brand Relevance Brand DifferentiationNestle Kit Kat is on the vergeof a declining brand. This brand is highly differentiatedbased on colour of the package and design of the chocolate, but not by taste. Since it hasvery low relevance and high differentiation, the brand has to be repositioned. 15
  • 16. BAV Power Grid: 16
  • 17. ZALTMAN METAPHOR ELICITATION TECHNIQUE (ZMET) ZMET is a qualitative research technique used to discover a person‟s conscious and unconscious thoughts about a brand. It is conducted by asking him/her to collect pictures of his/her mental representation of the brand. These pictures act as metaphors that serve an entry point into his/her feelings. Pictures are very important in a research because some feelings can be missed out in the absence of it. ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’ORIGIN OF ZMET In 1990, Dr. Olson Zaltman (founder of ZMET) thought about the power of usingimagery in research while on a vacation in Nepal. Zaltman gave the local residents somedisposable cameras and asked them to take pictures that would explain „What life waslike in their villages‟. After developing the pictures, Zaltman returned to the village to ask the residentsabout what they meant in the photograph. For example, the photographers often cut offpeople‟s feet in the photographs and this was intentional. In Nepal, bare foot is a sign ofpoverty. Zaltman believed that the imagery tended to reveal ideas that would have beendifficult or unacceptable to put into words.BRANDS THAT USE ZMET 17
  • 18. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:Sample Size: 8Target Group: Consumers of chocolate in the age group of 18-25Steps followed in ZMET:1. Narrate an incident– The respondent was asked to narrate an incident where CDMplayed a vital role2. Images that were missed – The respondent was asked whether he missed a picturethat could have represented his/her feelings about CDM.3.Sort pictures– The respondent was requested to collate the pictures (collected byhim/her) into groups4. Construct Elicitation (Kelly Grid) - The interviewer randomly selected three picturesand asked the respondent, „How were the two pictures similar and different from the thirdone?‟. This gave an insight about their different perceptions about CDM.5. Most Representative Image: The respondent was asked to select a picture fromhis/her collage as the most representative image of CDM.6. Opposite Image: The respondent was asked to describe the opposite feeling of CDM,in order to understand his/her negative perception of the brand7. Sensory Images: The respondent was asked to indicate the most important attribute ina chocolate (i.e taste, colour etc)8. Mental Map: The respondent was requested to collate all the pictures in one slide 18
  • 19. PICTORIAL ANALYSIS: 19
  • 20. The common perceptions of Cadbury Dairy Milk by 8 respondents:Thus, from the above description, the common perception of the brand is„Cadbury Dairy Milk is an universally accepted brand that instigates a child likebehavior and happiness amongst all the age groups due to its exceptional taste. It isconsidered to be one of the best gifts in order to show your love and care for someone asit looks royal, affordable and convenient to purchase.‟ 20
  • 21. REFERENCES: http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/kraft-takes-over-cadbury-india- changes/1/21920.html http://www.cadburyindia.com/in/en/about/pages/ourbusinessinindia.aspx http://www.4psbusinessandmarketing.com/05052011/storyd.asp?sid=4544&pagen o=1 http://mediapanther.co.in/marketing/cadbury-expanding-the-market/ http://www.afaqs.com/news/story/26203_Cadbury-Dairy-Milk-Silk:-Coz-a- chocolate-needs-to-be-savoured http://market-simplified.blogspot.in/2010/09/cadbury-dairymilk-real-taste-of- life.html http://brandeed.blogspot.in/2010/08/cadbury-dairy-milks-shubh-aarambh- happy.html http://fnbnews.com/article/detnews.asp?articleid=30106&sectionid=4 http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp?id=7644 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/European-Journal- Management/260874449.html 21