Wireless is a term
used to describe
waves are used for
The first wireless transmitters went on
the air in the early 20th century using
radiotelegraphy (Morse code). Later,
as modulation made it possible to
transmit voices and music via wireless.
Wireless LANs provide
Ease of Installation
A wireless local area network (WLAN)
links two or more devices using some
wireless distribution method and usually
providing a connection through an
access point to the wider Internet. This
gives users the ability to move around
within a local coverage area and still be
connected to the network.
In response to lacking standards, IEEE
developed the first internationally
recognized wireless LAN standard –
IEEE published 802.11 in 1997, after
seven years of work
Most prominent specification for WLANs
Scope of IEEE 802.11 is limited to
Physical and Data Link Layers.
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN
Access point (AP): A station that provides
access to the DS.
Basic service set (BSS): A set of stations
controlled by a single AP.
Distribution system (DS): A system used to
interconnect a set of BSSs to create an
DS is implementation-independent. It can be a
wired 802.3 Ethernet LAN, 802.4 token bus,
802.5 token ring or another 802.11 medium.
Extended service set (ESS):Two or more
BSS interconnected by DS
Portal: Logical entity where 802.11 network
integrates with a non 802.11 network.
IEEE 802.11 Terminology
The IEEE 802.11 has two basic modes of
operation: ad hoc mode
and infrastructure mode. In ad
hoc mode, mobile units transmit directly
peer-to-peer. In infrastructure mode,
mobile units communicate through
an access point that serves as a bridge
to other networks (such
as Internet or LAN).
IEEE 802.11a and IEEE
Makes use of 5-GHz band
Provides rates of 6, 9 , 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps
Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
802.11b operates in 2.4 GHz band
Provides data rates of 5.5 and 11 Mbps
Future of WLAN
WLANs move to maturity
Seamless end-to-end protocols
Better Error control
Wi-Fi means Wireless Fidelity
Wi-Fi is a wireless local area
network that enables portable
computing devices to connect easily to
the Internet. Standardized as IEEE
802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi approaches speeds
of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi
has become the de facto standard for
access in private homes
Formed in April 2001.
Based on wireless MAN technology.
Developed by CONSORTIUM.
Worldwide interoperability for microwave
Broadband internet access.
Replaces satellite internet services by
providing universal internet access.
Data rate 75Mbps.
Wi-Max provides 2 types of services :
1) Non-line-of-sight :
Service is a Wifi sort of service.
Small antenna on the computer connects
the computer to Wi-max tower.
2) Line-of-sight :
Services where a fixed dish antenna
points straight at the Wimax tower from a
roof top or pole.
More stable ,so a lot of data with
Wimax system has 2 major parts. They are :
A Wimax base station
A Wimax receiver
Wimax base station
Single station can serve hundreds of users.
Speed of 10Mbps at 10km with line-of-site.
It is standardized.
Weather conditions like rain can
interrupt the signal.
Other wireless equipment could cause
Requires strong electrical support.
Big installation and operational cost.
It is a specification for a suite of high
level communication protocols.
It can activate in 15msec.
Can transmit data over long distances.
Speed rate- 250Kbps.
Low power requirement.
Wireless mesh networking proprietary
Longer life with smaller batteries.
Easy –to-use touchpads.
LED lighting control.
Eliminates dependence on infrared devices.
Low power requirement.
Battery lasts for upto 10yrs.
It is confusing at first to the homeowner.
Battery not rechargeable.
It is vulnerable to various network attacks
Restrictions in the case of memory size,
processing speed of data etc.
Voice over internet protocol
Provisioning of communications services
over the internet.
(Voice , SMS, Fax etc)
In VOIP telephone calls, digital
information is packetized and transmission
occurs as IP packets over a packet
VOIP employs session control and signaling
Transport audio streams over IP networks
using special media delivery protocols that
encode audio with codecs and video with
VOIP solutions for business-
WHY USE VOIP… ???
Simple user interface
Maintainance becomes simpler
PROBLEMS YOU CAN EXCEPT
Prone to congestion and DoS attacks
REGULATORY AND LEGAL ISSUES
Types of internet telephony permitted
PC to PC: within or outside India
PC/ a device/ adapter to PSTN abroad
Any device/adapter to similar device or
adapter within or outside India
Bluetooth is a wireless technology
standard for exchanging data over
short distances from fixed and mobile
devices, building personal area
Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson
It can connect several devices,
overcoming problems of
Physical range up to 50 metres
Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth
Special Interest Group (SIG).
The SIG oversees the development of the
specification, manages the qualification
program, and protects the trademarks.
To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it
must be qualified to standards defined by
the SIG.A network of patents is required to
implement the technology, which is licensed
only for that qualifying device.
Bluetooth uses a radio technology
called frequency-hopping spread
The transmitted data are divided into
packets and each packet is
transmitted on one of the 79
designated Bluetooth channels. Each
channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz.
Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol
with a master-slave structure. One
master may communicate with up to
seven slaves .
The master chooses which slave
device to address; typically, it
switches rapidly from one device to
another in a round-robin fashion.
Bluetooth is a standard wire-
replacement communications protocol
primarily designed for low power
Because the devices use a radio
(broadcast) communications system,
they do not have to be in visual line of
sight of each other, however a quasi
optical wireless path must be viable.
Bluetooth mobile phone headset.
Wireless control of and
communication between a mobile
phone and a hands free headset.
Wireless control of and
communication between a mobile
phone and a Bluetooth compatible car
Wireless control and communication
with tablets and speakers such as I-
Pad and Android devices.
Wireless networking between PCs in a
confined space and where little
bandwidth is required.
Wireless communication with PC input
and output devices, the most common
being the mouse, keyboard etc.
A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m
Bluetooth exists in many products,
such as telephones, tablets, media
players, robotics systems, handheld
and console gaming equipment, and
some high definition headsets,
modems, and watches.
All versions of the Bluetooth
standards are designed for downward
compatibility. That lets the latest
standard cover all older versions.
Bluetooth v1.0 and v1.0B - had many
problems, and manufacturers had
difficulty making their products
also included mandatory Bluetooth
hardware device address (BD_ADDR)
transmission in the Connecting process
(rendering anonymity impossible at the
major setback for certain services
planned for use in Bluetooth
Many errors found in the 1.0B
specifications were fixed.
Added possibility of non-encrypted
Received Signal Strength Indicator
Faster Connection and Discovery
• Adaptive frequency-hopping spread
spectrum (AFH), which improves
resistance to radio frequency
interference by avoiding the use of
crowded frequencies in the hopping
• Higher transmission speeds in
Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR
Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster
Bluetooth v2.1 + EDR
The headline feature of 2.1 is secure
simple pairing (SSP): this improves the
pairing experience for Bluetooth
devices, while increasing the use and
strength of security
"Extended inquiry response" (EIR),
which provides more information
during the inquiry procedure to allow
better filtering of devices before
connection; and sniff subrating, which
reduces the power consumption in low-
Bluetooth v3.0 + HS
Bluetooth 3.0+HS provides theoretical
data transfer speeds of up to 24
Enhanced Power Control
The main new feature is AMP
(Alternative MAC/PHY), the addition
of 802.11 as a high speed transport
for large quantities of data .
Bluetooth Smart (v4.0 & 4.1)
adopted as of 30 June 2010. It
includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth
high speed and Bluetooth low energy
protocols. Bluetooth high speed is
based on Wi-Fi, and Classic Bluetooth
consists of legacy Bluetooth protocols.
Near field communication
Near field communication (NFC) is a
set of standards for devices to
establish radio communication with
each other by touching them together
or bringing them into proximity,
usually no more than a few inches.
applications include contactless
transactions, data exchange, and
simplified setup of more complex
communications such as Wi-Fi.
Near field communication
NFC is a set of short-range wireless
technologies, typically requiring a
distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates
at 13.56 MHz. Data rates ranging from
106 kbit/s to 424 kbit/s.
. NFC always involves an initiator and a
target; the initiator actively generates
an RF field that can power a passive
target. This enables NFC targets to
take simple form factors such as tags,
or cards that do not require batteries.
RuBee (IEEE standard 1902.1) is a two
way, active wireless protocol designed
for harsh environment, high security
asset visibility applications. RuBee
utilizes Long Wave (LW) magnetic
signals to send and receive short (128
byte) data packets in a local regional
RuBee is slow (1,200 baud) compared
to other packet based network data
131 kHz as an operating frequency
provides RuBee with the advantages of
ultra low power consumption (battery
life measured in many years), and
normal operation near steel and/or
water. These features make it easy to
deploy sensors, controls, or even
actuators and indicators.
RuBee uses long wavelengths and
works in the near field (under 50 feet)
it is possible to simultaneously
transmit and receive from many
adjacent antennas, without
interference providing the signals are
RuBee has no reflections and is not
blocked by steel or liquids and
therefore is not line-of-sight.
RuBee is robust in harsh environment
visibility and security applications. It
also means RuBee has no eavesdropping
risks in secure facilities. RuBee is the
only wireless technology to ever be
approved for use in secure facilities by
the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE).
Li-Fi refers to 5G visible light
communication systems using light
from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a
medium to deliver networked, mobile,
high-speed communication in a similar
manner as Wi-Fi and Optical fibre. Li-
Fi could lead to the Internet of
Things, which is everything electronic
being connected to the internet, with
the LED lights on the electronics
being used as internet access points.
The light waves cannot penetrate walls
which makes a much shorter range,
though more secure from hacking.
Direct line of sight isn't necessary for
Li-Fi to transmit signal and light
reflected of walls achieve 70 Mbps.
Li-Fi can be used in electromagnetic
sensitive areas such as in aircraft
cabins, hospitals and nuclear power
plants without causing electromagnetic
Transfer Jet is a new type of close
proximity wireless transfer technology
by Sony and initially demonstrated
2008. By touching (or bringing very
close together) two electronic devices.
Allows high speed exchange of data.
Transmission Rate 560 Mbits (max) /
375 Mbits (effective throughput).
Transfer jet maintain a robust link
even when the surrounding wireless
Poken is a technology that utilizes NFC
technology to allow the exchange of
online social networking data between
two keychain accessories.
Poken are used for social networking,
personal identification and as a device
for loyalty programs.
Corporations such as BMW and IBM
use poken at conferences to enhance
interaction with conference attendees
and to facilitate business networking.
1G refers to the first-generation of
wireless telephone technology, mobile
telecommunications. These are the
analog telecommunications standards
that were introduced in the 1980s.
After 2G was launched, the previous
mobile telephone systems were
retrospectively dubbed 1G. While
radio signals on 1G networks are
2G is short for second-generation
wireless telephone technology.
commercially launched on the GSM
standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now
part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.
Three primary benefits of 2G
phone conversations were digitally
2G systems were significantly more
efficient on the spectrum allowing for
far greater mobile phone penetration
2G introduced data services for
mobile, starting with SMS text
messages, picture messages and MMS.
, radio signals on 2G networks are
digital. Both systems use digital
signaling to connect the radio towers
3G, is the third generation of mobile
3G finds application in wireless voice
telephony, mobile Internet access,
fixed wireless Internet access, video
calls and mobile TV.
3G networks support services that
provide an information transfer rate
of at least 200 Kbits to several Mbits
to smartphones and mobile modems in
4G is the fourth generation of mobile
communication technology standards.
A 4G system provides mobile ultra-
broadband Internet access.
Conceivable applications include
amended mobile web access, IP
telephony, gaming services, high-
definition mobile TV, video
conferencing, 3D television, and cloud
Flash transfer is an application
software used in mobiles and tablets.
Two device with flash transfer can
transfer data of large size with great
This application is available for
devices using android O.S.
Single Image can be transferred by
sliding and image folders and other
documents can be transferred by
The Global Positioning System (GPS) a
space-based satellite navigation system
that provides location and time
information in all weather conditions,
anywhere on or near the Earth where
there is an unobstructed line of sight to
four or more GPS satellites. The system
provides critical capabilities to military,
civil and commercial users around the
world. It is maintained by the U.S and is
freely accessible to anyone with a GPS
The GPS project was developed in
GPS was created and realized by
the U.S. Department of
Defence (DoD) and was originally run
with 24 satellites.
It became fully operational in 1995.
Bradford Parkinson, Roger L. Easton,
and Ivan A. Getting are credited with
The Russian Global Navigation
Satellite System (GLONASS) was
developed contemporaneously with
GPS, but suffered from incomplete
coverage of the globe until the mid-
There are also the planned European
Union Galileo positioning system,
India's Indian Regional Navigational
Satellite System and Chinese Compass
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