India politicaleconomy


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India political economy

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India politicaleconomy

  1. 1. India’s Political Economy An introduction
  2. 2. Outline A Long-Term View  2004 Elections. What do they mean?  Globalization and Nationalism  Trends and Questions  Regions, Cities, and Business  Q & A 
  3. 3. India has been integrated into the world economy since the 14th century
  4. 4. Its world economy became global after 1500
  5. 5. Specific routes and points of contact became critical by 1800: especially the coasts and northwest interior
  6. 6. In the 1800s, The British Empire produced a new territorial domain for the evolution of modern state power
  7. 7. A transition to a modern development regime consumed the decades 1840-1880. In 1853, Governor General Dalhousie announced a plan to build an Indian railway with state contracts that guaranteed English companies a minimum five percent return; and to secure that return, government kept control of railway construction and management. In 1871, the Government of India obtained authority to raise loans for productive purposes, and large irrigation projects began, following earlier success raising revenues from smaller projects. Development projects were all government endeavours that employed many native contractors and their benefits also filtered down to native owners of land receiving new irrigation and producing commodity crops.
  8. 8. Between 1880 and 1914, industrial development in India took off during decades of low prices in Europe and America when rising prices in South Asia encouraged investments in India by firms producing for Indian markets and for diversified world markets. Commodity prices in India rose with export commodity production until 1929. Imported industrial machinery was domesticated in new Indian factory towns. In 1853, the first Indian cotton mill appeared in Bombay, and the Factory Act (1881) imposed rules on Indian factories to reduce their comparative advantage in virtue of low labour costs and cheap access to raw materials in India.
  9. 9. In 1887, J.N.Tata's Empress Mill arose at Nagpur, in the heart of cotton country, in 1887. The Tatas became India's industrial dynasty. Tata Iron and Steel Works at Jamshedpur consumed increasing supplies of ore and coal, which by the 1920s rivalled exports from Calcutta. In 1914, India was the world's fourth largest industrial cotton textile producer: cotton mills numbered 271 and employed 260,000 people, 42% in Bombay city, 26% elsewhere in Bombay Presidency (mostly Nagpur), and 32% elsewhere in British India, at major railway junctures. Coal, iron, steel, jute and other industries were developed at the same time, producing specialized regional concentrations of heavy industrial production around Bombay, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Kanpur, Calcutta, Jamshedpur, and Madras.
  10. 10. Growth rate of India's real GDP per capita (Constant Prices: Chain series) (1857–1900 ). Data Source: Penn World tables.
  11. 11. Percapita incomes per Capita Relative to India Gregory Clark,“The Great Divergence – World Economic Growth since 1800.”
  12. 12. Indian GDP per Capita relative to Britain and the USA, 1873 to 1998 Gregory Clark,“The Great Divergence – World Economic Growth since 1800.”
  13. 13. Historical Share of Global GDP,1015,sid%253D...
  14. 14. Growth rate of India's real GDP per capita (Constant Prices: Chain series) (1950–2006) Data Source: Penn World tables.
  15. 15. Relative GDP map of the world
  16. 16. Per capita GDP of South Asian economies & SKorea (1950-1995)
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Value of Indian rupee as per dollar & pound (1980-2005)
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Private and public industry employment in India (2003).
  21. 21. Composition of India’s agricultural output 2003-04
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Per capita Net State Domestic Product in India (1997-98). •
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Partitioned into India and Pakistan in 1947. East Pakistan became Bangladesh in 1971
  27. 27. Three decades from the start of India's first Five Year Plan in 1952 to the end of its Sixth Plan in 1985 were the heyday of nationally planned development in South Asia. National planning required the institutional enclosure of national economies. South Asia's national plans focused on national markets. National planners formulated priorities for allocating state resources acquired both internally and externally. Planning agencies organized regional and local initiatives like cooperative societies and community development programs. National governments set up public food procurement and distribution systems to establish a ceiling on food costs for the poor. National health and education expanded. State ownership expanded to basic industries, public utilities, banks, and insurance.
  28. 28. Countries >20 million population <$1,000 percapita GDP (UNICEF data 1994) Nigeria Viet Nam Indonesia Pakistan Bangladesh Philippines Egypt Ethiopia Myanmar Sudan Zaire Kenya Other India Tanzania Korea, DPR Uzbekistan Nepal China Uganda
  29. 29. India is the largest and richest country in the region spanning all of southern Asia … the second largest national economy in Asia, after China, with comparably rapid PC growth rates today, and rather higher poverty measures …
  30. 30. Since the opening of the Indian economy and liberalization of internal market structures since 1990, economic development has had no one guiding vision or dominant logic and several contradictory trends are prominent. National economies are more global as are the cultural communications that shape national politics.
  31. 31. Since 1990, the national economy has grown more rapidly, and economic disparities have increased …    In Bombay, India's Wealth and Poverty on Display Listen Morning Edition, February 17, 2004 · India's economy is booming, but the new wealth is not shared by all. Some 400 million Indians still live on less than a dollar a day. This disparity in wealth is starkly evident in Bombay, which doubles as the commercial capital of India and the home of the largest slum in Asia. Miranda Kennedy reports.
  32. 32. Sunil Mehta is Forbes’ #186 among richest men in the world 46 , self made Source: telecom Net Worth: $2.7 bil Country of citizenship: India Residence: Delhi, India Industry: Technology Marital Status: married , 3 children Punjab University, Bachelor of Arts / Science From making bicycle parts in Ludhiana, a trading town in North India, Mittal is now India's leading telecom pioneer and the first private operator to launch cellular services in the country. His $1.1 billion (revenues) Bharti group runs country's largest GSM-based mobile phone service. Mittal has his hands full battling arch rivals, the Ambanis of Reliance and the Tata group. Biggest asset is family's stakein flagship Bharti Tele-Ventures, in which Singapore Telecom and Warburg Pincus have jointly invested nearly $1 billion. The stock, first listed two years ago, soared 376% last year, propelling Mittal into the billionaire ranks. A believer in lucky charms, Mittal travels in his ten-yearold Mercedes to important business meetings.
  33. 33. In the 1990s, television media owned by multinational corporations flooded public information systems. The growth of exports from South Asian countries measured 13.5% annually in the 1990s, almost four times the rate of the 1970s. Foreign direct investment (FDI) grew, though it remains a small proportion of India's GDP at 0.1 percent before 1991 and 0.5 percent in 1992-6. In 1990-1996, FDI increased (in millions of US dollars) from under 100 to over 5,000 in India, from under 250 to over 650 in Pakistan, from under 60 to over 600 in Bangladesh, and from under 60 to over 2,400 in Sri Lanka. In the first six months of 1996 alone, Korean companies made nine technical and twentyfive financial agreements in India.
  34. 34. Forging alliances between national and international business now preoccupies national policy makers. Linkages between FDI and national investors are increasing the pool of investment capital inside the national economy.
  35. 35. In 1999, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) became the leading party in a National Democratic Alliance (NDA) coalition government that held power until May 2004. By leading India’s first major non-Congress national government, Prime Minister Vajpayee and colleagues opened a new political era. The BJP was in fact a new kind of dominant party as a pivot of national coalition building. Its Sangh brethren the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) also moved from margins to mainstream by occupying the Prime Minister’s office and all national ministries. Hindutva acquired official respectability as a national party ideology.
  36. 36. In 2004, the incumbent NDA alliance government launched a campaign called “India Shining” to highlight its success in stimulating economic growth – it failed         BBC REPORT --- 28 May 2004 BJP admits 'India Shining' error India's Bharatiya Janata Party has admitted its "India Shining" approach was harmful in its recent unsuccessful election campaign. Speaking for the first time since the BJP was ousted, former deputy premier LK Advani said the catchphrase was "not wrong... but not appropriate". Congress became the biggest party in parliament after a campaign pledging to improve the plight of India's poor. However, Mr Advani warned the result had not given Congress a clear mandate. Bouncing back Mr Advani said the two catchphrases "Feel Good" and "India Shining" had hurt the BJP.
  37. 37. 2004 elections established a Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in New Delhi. In aggregate national voting statistics, BJP and Congress are evenly matched. Both depend on allies to win. In 2004 Lok Sabha polls, each alliance received about 35% of the total vote, and total votes for NDA and UDA parties declined compared to 1999 (by 3.62% and 2.36%, respectively), while non-aligned parties increased their vote share, most notably the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in UP. The 2004 change in national government came not from a voter shift away from the BJP but from a few key Congress victories and many good Congress alliances with victorious regional parties, which together with “outside support” gave the UDA over 320 Lok Sabha votes, more than the NDA ever had, and drove the NDA into Lok Sabha minorities in all but five Indian states.
  38. 38. What do elections mean? National governments comprise alliances among regional parties  NDA gave way to UDA on the basis of a small voter swing toward Congress allied parties in several key states, including Andhra Pradesh  Economic issues were critical  Economic policy is at issue, in the states and at the Centre (New Delhi) 
  39. 39. Economic disparities translated into votes for government efforts to spread the wealth
  40. 40. New Government headed by growth oriented economists  Finance Minister P Chidambaram  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who launched liberalization in 1990s
  41. 41. The UDA government, like its NDA predecessor, depends on decisions by voters and politicians who respond to short-term assessments of practical self-interest. Experts attribute say effective promises of good government are more politically important than ideology.   Confident Manmohan Singh focuses on governance: [India News]: New Delhi, Nov 2 : Over five months into office, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's first meeting with his ministers reflected his quite confidence over the stability of his government and the importance he attaches to good governance, analysts and ministers said Tuesday. They said the meeting also showed that the prime minister, catapulted to the office after Congress president Sonia Gandhi declined to take up the prized job, has quickly learnt the art of managing a coalition government. "He has settled in quite a bit and is clearly putting his own stamp on the administration," said Mridula Mukherjee, a professor of political science at the Jawaharlal Nehru University here. "He now wants the ministers to focus on implementing the promises, to deliver," Mukherjee told IANS.
  42. 42. The affluent urban classes, epitomized by stylish folks in Bombay (Mumbai) … prosper in the world of globalization
  43. 43. Middle class desires drive much of urban economy
  44. 44. Bollywood
  45. 45. Urban building boom …
  46. 46. Tourism and heritage biz … nation in the world
  47. 47. High class hotels … where national and global elites meet
  48. 48. Public arts and expressions …
  49. 49. Everyday capitalism
  50. 50. Everyday needs …
  51. 51. India gate …
  52. 52. Southern India: Hyderabad is Cyberabad Although Bangalore was first out of the hi-tech gate, many Indian cities have now joined the race for informationtechnology jobs. Hyderabad's one of them, and the results are incredible to anyone who remembers the city 20 years ago.
  53. 53. Peoples' War Group (PWG) Since 1980 clashes between police and Naxalite Maoist revolutionaries of the Peoples' War Group (PWG) have taken place in northwestern Andhra Pradesh. The PWG champions the cause of the landless and targets landlords, law enforcement personnel and other symbols of authority in the northeast, east central and southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa. Naxalite Maoist revolutionaries of the Peoples' War Group have killed dozens of persons, declaring them "class enemies" or police informers. In June 1998, Naxalites attacked a tribal village in Andhra Pradesh's east Godavari district, where they killed the village chief and beat eight women and shot two men. On 22 February 1998, an Orissa policeman was killed by suspected PWG militants, who had entered the state from neighboring Andhra Pradesh. In areas under their control, Naxalites dispense summary justice in "People's Courts", which in some cases condemn to death suspected police informers, village headmen, and others deemed to be "class enemies" or "caste oppressors." Madhya Pradesh state transport minister Likhiram Kware was hacked to death on 16 December 1999. The Naxalites also extort money from businesses. Their victims, in addition to police and local government officials, include suspected police informers, village headmen, and landlords whom they accuse of oppressing scheduled caste members. The PWG also used land mines to kill police, and insurgents used bombs to kill government officials, police, and civilians.
  54. 54.  India PM pledge over suicide farmers Manmohan Singh is expected to announce compensationIndian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has promised assistance to families of farmers who have committed suicide in southern India. Mr Singh is visiting Andhra Pradesh, where nearly 3000 farmers have taken their lives because of crippling debt. The prime minister's visit is his first since taking office in May. It comes a week before his newly elected Congress government presents its first federal budget, which is expected to be pro-farmer. Correspondents say Mr Singh's visit is aimed at showing his government's commitment to poor Indian farmers, who had
  55. 55. Gujarat killings, Feb-Apr 2002
  56. 56. Gujarat Violence And unemployment  Human rights report  And investment and FDI  And Gujarat BJP Government under Narendra Modi  And justice 
  57. 57. Breman, Jan, Arvind Das, and Ravi Agarwal Down and Out: Labouring Under Global Capitalism. Distributed for the Amsterdam University Press. 164 p., richly illustrated. 11 x 8-3/4 2000 Cloth CUSA $11.50spec 9-05356-450-0 Poverty is the dominant feature of the working lives portrayed in this book. But the misery of these men, women, and children in India has little to do with the underdevelopment of the past. The poverty here is caused by development and is concentrated mainly in what is referred to as the informal sector of the economy, which is what four-fifths of India's population depends on for its livelihood. It concerns the type of work that requires little or no capital investment or education and is small-scale by nature. The wages earned from these enterprises are not only low but are also characterized by strong work fluctuations per day, month, or season. Two other factors characterize this type of work: the absence of governmental monitoring and also, the absence of organizations, namely unions, which traditionally represented the concerns of the working class. The choice for India emerges from the research of Jan Breman, performed over a 30year period in an area located on India's west coast, the site of enormous economic growth. He has now returned to this location with photographer, Ravi Agarwal, to present a portrait of the working classes of this particular area. Together with Arvind Das, a wellknown journalist and commentator on business matters in India, Jan Breman has written the text which accompanies the photographs. edu. Click here for our privacy policy. If you have other questions or comments about the shopping cart, please click here.
  58. 58. Delhi, Hyderabad (Cyberabad), and Mumbai are hotspots for business opportunities in India The Delhi Metro, which has become synonymous for state-of-the-art technology, may now sport two see-through fibre glass lifts in the ISBT (Kashmere Gate) station. "The underground section, which will be ready in December, will have 11 lifts in all. Out of these, we will have two lifts which will have see-through glass windows", said Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) spokesman Anuj Dayal.
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