L 14 (pdet4101)


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  • Dispenser means distributor/providing
  • Reinstate means restore
  • L 14 (pdet4101)

    1. 1. L -14<br />Technique in Teaching and Learning<br />PDET 4101<br />
    2. 2. Engage<br />Engage the students in material that has personal relevance and is meaningful i.e. real life examples and problems<br />
    3. 3. Variety<br />Give the students assignments that involve a variety of learning styles<br />Research with book<br />technology<br />
    4. 4. Students Teaching<br />Provide times when students can teach each other the material within the classroom i.e. individual or group presentations<br />– Leadership<br />– Ownership<br />– Mastery<br />
    5. 5. preview<br />Every other day or so, allot 10 minutes at the beginning of each class for students to discuss among themselves what they learned in previous lessons.<br />
    6. 6. Reward<br /><ul><li> Implement a reward system for students to encourage them to take their learning outside the classroom</li></ul>• Reward students who can apply the material to real life examples<br />• Reward students who improve from test to test<br />• Reward students who engage in group discussions outside of the classroom to discuss ideas on how to use their knowledge to solve problems<br />
    7. 7. Goals<br />Help students establish short term, self referenced goals at the beginning of the term and have them check up midterm to see if they are still on track to accomplishing their goals<br />
    8. 8. Stimulate group work<br />At the end of each class, present the students with a “challenge for the night” and allow students to work in groups of 3 or 4 to solve the challenge over the course of the evening and present answers in class the next day<br />
    9. 9. Evaluation<br />Evaluation of students should be private and focus on individual improvement, progress and mastery of the material, not simply on performance.<br />
    10. 10. Collaboration<br />Teachers collaborate with students to work on a big project.<br />
    11. 11. professionals<br />Bring in professionals in related careers to give talks about what they do in their work<br />
    12. 12. Learning techniques<br />Proper instruction helps students learn<br />Do you agree with it?<br />
    13. 13. How do we view “instruction”?<br />“The previously dominant view of instruction as direct transfer of knowledge from teacher to student does not fit the current perspective. <br />The present view places the learner’s constructive mental activity at the heart of all instructional exchanges…”<br />
    14. 14. Structured Discovery<br />“…Thisdoes not mean that students are left to discover everything for themselves, nor that what they discover and how they choose to describe and account for it are left solely to them…<br />
    15. 15. Dispenser of knowledge vs.facilitator of learning<br />THINK/PAIR/SHAREIdeally, what percentage of your total contact time with student each year would you like to spend as…<br />_____ Dispenser of knowledge<br />_____ Facilitator of discovery learning<br />What actual percentage of your total contact time with student this year was spent as…<br />_____ Dispenser of knowledge<br />_____ Facilitator of discovery learning<br />
    16. 16. How do we get there?<br />Incrementally…<br />Small changes<br />Practice is essential<br />Expect resistance<br />Experimentally…<br />A learning process for all<br />Some things work well in your setting<br />Most things need “tweaking”(change or correction)<br />
    17. 17. Teaching and Learning:Three Strategies Toward aStudent-Centered Classroom<br />Inquiry-Based Lessons<br />Interactive Lectures<br />Authentic Assessment<br />
    18. 18. What is it?<br />Why do it?<br />How do you do it?<br />Inquiry-Based Teaching and Learning<br />
    19. 19. Why inquiry-based?<br /> First, inquiry-based teaching is strongly recommended by the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for teaching; the two-page summary of teaching standards specifically mentions inquiry-based teaching and learning at least 16 times, far more than any other teaching strategy.<br />Second, inquiry-based teaching is recommended and/or mandated by many state science curriculum standards. Third, inquiry-based learning has been shown to have a positive impact on both student content understanding and skills acquisition. In sum, when inquiry-based teaching is implemented well, it produces excellent results with students from diverse groups. <br />Finally, inquiry-based learning fosters skills that help students prioritize information, deciding which information is most important and which is least helpful. It is anticipated that this skill will become increasingly important in an age when vast information is available at the touch of a button or the click of a mouse. <br />
    20. 20. What is it?<br />Inquiry approach places the student in the role of the investigator<br />Asking questions<br />Structuring investigations<br />Confronting ambiguous findings<br />Constructing relationships and creating metaphors<br />
    21. 21. Learners…<br />Are engaged by scientifically oriented questions.<br />Give priority to evidence which allows them to develop and evaluate explanations that address scientifically oriented questions<br />Formulate explanations from evidence<br />Evaluate their explanations in light of alternative explanations, especially those reflecting scientific understanding; and<br />Communicate and justify their proposed explanation. <br />
    22. 22. Why do it?<br />Impact on content knowledge<br />Impact on skills that are applicable in diverse situations<br />Addresses multiple learning styles<br />
    23. 23. How do you do it?<br />Consider ways to facilitate learning rather than dispensing(providing) knowledge <br />Expand & hone (sharpen) your questioning skills <br />Inquiry is NOT a “free for all”<br />Educator sets the focus and parameters<br />Students generate questions within this framework<br />Students design investigations given basic methods and materials<br />
    24. 24. Interactive Lecture<br />Breaks the lecture at least once per class <br />Students participate in an activity that lets them work directly with material. <br />Allows students to:<br />Apply what they have learned earlier; or<br />Gain a context for upcoming lecture material. <br />
    25. 25. Possible Activities<br />Interpretation of graphs<br />Making calculations and estimations<br />Predictions of demonstrations<br />Brainstorming<br />Tying ideas together<br />Applying what has just been learned in class or reading to solve a problem<br />Collecting student responses<br />
    26. 26. Authentic assessment (Scholars’ findings)<br />Think-pair-share (several sources)<br />Case studies during lecture (Goodman, et al., 2005)<br />“Rapid response test” – (Rao, 2006)<br />Role playing by students (van Loon, 1993)<br />“Pause” midway through lecture (Trautwein, 2000)<br />Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) (Angelo & Cross, 1993)<br />High Tech & Low Tech<br />Interaction “scoreboard” promoted readiness (Kumar, 2003)<br />Colored letter cards (DiCarlo & Collins, 2001)<br />Lecture sketchbook (Smoes, 1993)<br />Broken Lecture (Nayak, 2006)<br />
    27. 27. Impact? <br />Consistently higher exam scores<br />Higher instructor evaluations<br />Positive student comments<br />
    28. 28. Pros and Cons… <br />Pro’s…<br />Increased ability to spot student misconceptions<br />More focused lectures<br />Increased enjoyment for the instructor due to more interaction with students<br />Increased student understanding of the content<br />Con’s…<br />Believing that the actively-learned material was always the most important<br />Students not participating with group reports<br />Not incorporating outside readings into in-class problems<br />Active learning tasks not always matched to current abilities of students<br />
    29. 29. 7 learning Techniques<br />1. Allocate your attention efficiently.<br />2. Interpret and elaborate on what you are trying to learn.<br />3. Make your studying variable (e.g., location, interpretations, examples)<br />4. Space your studying of a topic or area and repeat your study several times.<br />5. Organize and structure the information that you are trying to learn.<br />6. Visualize the information. Reinstate the context during a test.<br />7. GENERATE, GENERATE, GENERATE, RETRIEVE, RETRIEVE, RETRIEVE!!<br />
    30. 30. Closing the class<br />Walking this sleeping giant of teacher leadership has unlimited potential in making a real difference in the pace and depth of school change- <br />Hope you will wake up as it said above and contribute to nation building<br />