Think Visibility 2009 - Accessibility and Disability - A History of Innovation, Artur Ortega, Yahoo!


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Think Visibility 2009 - Accessibility and Disability - A History of Innovation, Artur Ortega, Yahoo!

Think Visibility 2009
There is a lot of talking about making our content visible and to increase our audience. But we usually forget that SEO is only a way to make our content accessible to a search engine who is blind and deaf. Search engines can't see our images only their associated descriptions, they don't understand audio and they can't watch videos. They need caption and description of audio and video.

In my talk I took a step back and looked how accessibility and disability contributed to innovation and how a change of thinking made products accessible and of general use for everyone - especially in our offices.

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Think Visibility 2009 - Accessibility and Disability - A History of Innovation, Artur Ortega, Yahoo!

  1. 1. Accessibility and Disability A History of Innovation Artur Ortega September 2009 Think Visibility
  2. 2. The Office of Today
  3. 3. Keyboard
  4. 4. Keyboard <ul><li>- Pellegrino Turri di Castelnuovo, </li></ul><ul><li>Countess Carolina Vantoni </li></ul><ul><li>- Precursor to the typewriter </li></ul>
  5. 5. Keyboard <ul><li>- 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>- Picture based keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>- Today: McDonald’s </li></ul>
  6. 6. Printer
  7. 7. Printer <ul><li>- Pellegrino Turri di </li></ul><ul><li>Castelnuovo </li></ul><ul><li>- Printer </li></ul><ul><li>- Ink: Tracing paper coated </li></ul><ul><li>with coal dust </li></ul>
  8. 8. Scanner
  9. 9. Scanner & OCR <ul><li>- 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>- Ray Kurzweil </li></ul><ul><li>- Reading Machine </li></ul><ul><li>- Flatbed scanner and OCR </li></ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul>
  10. 10. Telephone
  11. 11. Telephone <ul><li>- Alexander Graham Bell </li></ul><ul><li>- Hearing devices </li></ul><ul><li>- U.S. patent on </li></ul><ul><li>telephone </li></ul>
  12. 12. Telephone <ul><li>- 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>- ADA </li></ul><ul><li>- Accessible phones </li></ul>
  13. 13. Telephone <ul><li>1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Loopset </li></ul>
  14. 14. Radio
  15. 15. Radio <ul><li>- Transistor </li></ul><ul><li>- Graham Bell and Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>- Hearing Aids </li></ul><ul><li>- Sony: Transistor radio </li></ul>
  16. 16. Radio <ul><li>Spectrogram </li></ul><ul><li>Graham Bell Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Making speech visible </li></ul>
  17. 17. CPU
  18. 18. Binary Code <ul><li>- 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>- Louis Braille six dot code </li></ul><ul><li>- Binary code, character set </li></ul>
  19. 19. Punchcards <ul><li>1876 </li></ul><ul><li>Herman Hollerith </li></ul><ul><li>- Punched cards </li></ul><ul><li>- Tabulating machine </li></ul>
  20. 20. PDA <ul><li>  - 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>-Deane Blazie </li></ul><ul><li>-Braille 'n Speak </li></ul>
  21. 21. Microphone
  22. 22. Microphone <ul><li>- 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>- E.C. Wente of Bell </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>- Condenser microphone </li></ul>
  23. 23. Speech Recognition <ul><li>- 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>- Davis, Biddulph and Balashek of </li></ul><ul><li>Bell Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>- Ten digits: 97 percent accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>- Today: Dragon NaturallySpeaking </li></ul>
  24. 24. Headphones
  25. 25. Talking books <ul><li>- 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>- American Foundation for </li></ul><ul><li>the blind </li></ul><ul><li>- Durable long playing </li></ul><ul><li>record </li></ul><ul><li>- Today: Audio books </li></ul>
  26. 26. Voice Indexing <ul><li>A Guide for Handicapped Visitors” </li></ul><ul><li>-Today: Apple iPod shuffle </li></ul><ul><li>1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Talking book “Access to National Parks: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Speech synthesiser <ul><li>- 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>- H.W. Dudley of Bell Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>- Artificial talking machine </li></ul><ul><li>- “Voice coder“: &quot;Voder“ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Applications
  29. 29. Subtitling <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrim Imaging </li></ul><ul><li>Captioned Films for the Deaf Program </li></ul><ul><li>Today: BBC subtitles 100% </li></ul>
  30. 30. Teletype machine <ul><li>- 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>- Marsters and Weitchrecht </li></ul><ul><li>- Teletype machine attached to </li></ul><ul><li>the telephone system </li></ul>- Today: Internet chat and Instant Messaging
  31. 31. Email <ul><li>&quot;I have spent, as you can imagine, a fair chunk of my time trying to persuade people with hearing impairments to make use of electronic mail because I found it so powerful myself.“ </li></ul><ul><li>1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Vint Cerf </li></ul><ul><li>protocols for the ARPANET </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Office of the Future Accessibility and Disability The Future of Innovation
  33. 33. “ The origins of such technological staples as public address systems, text messaging and even the Internet itself can be traced to innovative accommodations to people with disabilities. This phenomenon is the basis for a growing awareness among engineers, architects and product developers of the significance of universal design in our physical and electronic environments.” - Deborah Kendrick, Cincinnati Inquirer
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Artur Ortega <ul><li>Accessibility Evangelist Yahoo! Europe Ltd 125 Shaftesbury Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>London WC2H 8AD </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul>