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Innovation and organizational learning sids 2012_v2_revista


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Presentation on IST's Seminars on Innovation, Dec 4th, 2012

Presentation on IST's Seminars on Innovation, Dec 4th, 2012

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  • 1. INNOVATION ANDORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Artur Ferreira da Silva SIDS/IST 2012, December 03
  • 2. INNOVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING ContentA dialogic presentation with no PPT’sAdditional materials:• PPT presentation (to see after the session)• Takeuchi et al, “The Contraditions that drive Toyota sucess” AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 3. INNOVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNINGNote:  PowerPoint Is Evil Power Corrupts. PowerPoint Corrupts Absolutely. By Edward Tufte AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 6. Other Domains of Concern • Values • Culture • Complexity • Chaos Theory • Self-organization • Emergence • Paradigms • Metanoia • … AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 7. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING What does “Learning” means?  “Impart of Knowledge” or Knowledge Creation?  Learning by socialization in a community?  Life-long Learning?  All work is learning? (learning by doing, reflective practice)  Incremental Learning Vs. Deep Learning  Piaget, Khun, Argyris, Schön  Learning and Unlearning (of obsolete “knowledge”)  Learn how to Learn AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 8. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Learning (L) and Knowledge (K)  L = dK/dt (not an exact mathematic formula)  Learning is “Knowledge Creation”  Explicit Knowledge (Know what) Vs. Tacit Knowledge (Know how) It’s neither possible nor interesting to manage knowledge; one must create an organizational context that facilitates knowledge creation (adapted from Von Krogh et all, 2000 - see also Wilson, 2002, “The Nonsense of KM”) AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 9. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING(Argyris & Schon)  Many organizations understand that they need to learn but  The great majority of organizations have big difficulties in change their “mental models” in order to deep learn (they have ‘learning disabilities’) AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 10. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING(Argyris & Schon) Single Loop Learning Vs Double Loop Learning governing action consequences variables Single-loop learning Double-loop learning AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 11. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Learning and Change  Type 1 and Type 2 Change (Watzlavick)  All deep Learning implies Change and all deep Change implies Learning  Deep Change and deep Learning involves a Paradigm Shift (Khun) or a Metanoia (Alberoni) AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 12. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Learning and Innovation  Innovation involves the creation of new applicable knowledge, hence it involves learning  Breakthrough Innovation needs double-loop Learning  Both imply new ways to see learning and innovation (meta-learning, meta-innovation)  Both need a new paradigm of resilient organizations, in a resilient and sustainable world, more close to real people and to nature AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 13. INNOVATION & META-INNOVATION«(…) Really, what we need is “meta-innovation” – innovation about ways to innovate. (…) We need innovation not just in the technology but innovation in (…) the institutions that manage the collaboration and that manage a global community working on problems. The question is: Is there a way that we can create an institution or a set of institutions where the right answers emerge consistently from collaborative efforts? (…)».Erik Brynfolson, “Beyond Enterprise 2.0” AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 14. INNOVATION & META-INNOVATION«(…) I’m not saying that the complete level playing field that the Internet makes possible is a great idea in all cases. But the business opportunity it presents is to create the architecture of participation – the ground rules of the game – so that the good material emerges. (…)».Andrew McAfee, “Beyond Enterprise 2.0” AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 15. INNOVATION & META-INNOVATION Innovate PLAN OF INNOVATION Sharing Creating Justifying Building Cross- Tacit a a a -Levelling Knowledge Concept Concept Prototype KnowledgeSource: Adapted to Innovation by AFS, from Van Krogh et al. (2000). AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 16. INNOVATION & META-INNOVATION META-PLAN (Cultivate a Context Enable Innovation that Enables Instill a Manage Mobilize Create the Globalize Innovation) Knowledge Conversa- Knowledge Right Local Vision tions Activists Context Knowledge Innovate PLAN OF INNOVATION Creating Building Sharing Justifying Cross- Tacit a a a -Levelling Knowledge Concept Concept Prototype KnowledgeSource: Adapted to Innovation by AFS, from Van Krogh et al. (2000). AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 17. INNOVATION & META-INNOVATIONMETA-META-PLAN Change the Way to Think about Enabling(Paradigm Shift or Innovation: Patterns for OrganizationalMetanoia – multiple Resilience – Some ExemplesEnabling Patterns) 1) Combine incremental/planned change & learning with transformational/emergent change, learning & innovation; 2) Use Open Space Technology - that facilitates bothMETA-PLAN Enable Innovation(Cultivate a Context that Enables Instill a Manage Mobilize Create the GlobalizeInnovation) Knowledge Conversa- Knowledge Right Local Vision tions Activists Context Knowledge InnovationPLAN OFINNOVATION Sharing Creating Justifying Building Cross- Tacit a a a -Levelling Knowledge Concept Concept Prototype Knowledge AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 18. INNOVATION & META-INNOVATIONMETA-META-PLAN(Paradigm Shift or Metanoia:Change the way we thinkabout Innovation, Learning and Change )META-PLAN(Cultivate a Context that EnablesInnovation)PLAN OFINNOVATION AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 19. How to promote OrganizationalMetanoia A Value based Organization Respect for people and diversity Action Research and Reflexive Practice at all levels OST – Open Space Technology (Owen, 1997)  WW OST NING  OST Institute of Portugal – http://www.instituto- Creativity Culture (Robinson, 2011) Presencing (Scharmer, 2000, 2006 ) AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 20. PRESENCING Dialog on Leadership Bill O’Brian: «The success of the intervention depends on the interior conditions of the intervener» (Scharmer, 2000). «Presencing: the process of coming-into-being of emerging futures» (Scharmer, 2000). «The experience of presencing is twofold: co- creating and giving birth to a new reality and, at the same time, being transformed and born into a new world by the very same process» (Scharmer, 2000). AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 21. PRESENCING The U-Theory AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 22. PRESENCING – TWO MODELS OF LEARNINGFrom Past Experiences From the Emerging Future Observe SeeingReflect Act Sensing Enacting Plan Presencing AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 23. Long-living (resilient) Companies(Shell Study): Learning Companies Arie de Geus, 1988, 1997  Long-living Companies (200-700 years) versus the majority (30-40 years for “Fortune 500” companies)  The first ones are able to adapt and survive the competition in their “eco-system” with the same identity (a form of “natural selection”) – hence they are able to learn and change (they are “learning companies”) and they are “resilient”  From the Shell study, long-living companies are:  “Sensitive to their environment” (open, learning)  “Cohesive, with a strong sense of identity” (have a “persona”)  “Tolerant” (also used “decentralized”)  “Conservative inIST SIDS 2012 AFS - Finance”
  • 24. Organizations, Communities andSocieties “Life Cycles” (Greiner, 1988,adapted by Gómez-Pallete, 1995) AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 25. The Sigmoide Curve ( Handy,1994) AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 26. The Sigmoide Curve:Consequences Companies normally understand the need to change their business model at point B But then it is too late – they no longer have neither the resources nor the energy There is no way to define where the correct point to begin a new life cycle (point A) is located The only solution is to be resilient that is to undergo deep changes without or prior to a crisis (Hamel and Välikangas, 2003) This implies an “Architecture for Resilience” AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 27. An Architecture for Resilience Combine incremental change with transformational emergent change Be prepared for the possibility of transformational change, before it is too late (Handy’s point B) – be prepared to be surprised! Have a culture of double-loop learning and breakthrough innovation, not only on products, but also on structures and policies Try multiple patterns of innovation until one (or some) emerge(s) as the correct one(s) Have adequate meeting procedures – Open Space Technology is the most powerful as it enhances self-organization and emergence AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 28. BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) Alberoni, F., 1990, Génese, Bertrand Editora, Lda. Alexander, C., 1979, The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press Alexander, C., et all, 1977, A Pattern Language – Towns, Buildings, Construction, Oxford University Press Argyris, C. and Schön, D., 1974, Theory in Practice – Increasing Professional Effectiveness, San Francisco, Jossey-Bassey Publishers. Argyris, C. and Schön, D., 1996, Organizational Learning II – Theory, Method and Practice, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Arthur, W.B., 1991, “What Counts is Where You’re Coming From In Your Inner Self”, conversation with J. Jaworsky, G. Jusela and C.O. Scharmer. Available: (8/5/2007). Brynjolfsson, E. and Mc.Afee, A., 2007, “Beyond Enterprise 2.0”, Special Report: The Future of the Web, Sloan Management Review, Spring, pp.50-55. Dialog on Leadership, 2001. Available: (2/12/2012). de Geus, A., 1988, “Planning as Learning”, Harvard Business Review, March-April, pp.70-74. de Geus, A., 1997, The Living Company – Growth, Learning and Longevity in Business, Harvard Business School Press. Gómez-Pallete, F., 1995, La Evolución de las Organizaciones, Noesis, Madrid Greiner, L. E., 1988, Evolution and Revolution as organizations grow. HBR, May Kaufman, F. e Senge, P., 1993, Communities of Commitment: the Heart of the Learning Organization, Organizational Dynamics, Autumn Kuhn, T., 1962, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (1996), The University of Chicago Press, USA. Lao Tse, 1989, Tao te King, 4ª ed., Editorial Estampa. AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 29. BIBLIOGRAPHY (2) Hamel, G., and Välikangas, L., 2003, The Quest for Resilience, HBR, September: 52-63 Handy, C., 1994, The Age of Paradox, HBS, Boston, UAS Instituto OST, 2009, (12/12/2010) Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, N., 1995, The Knowledge-Creating Company – How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, Oxford University Press, USA. Owen, H., 1990, “Learning as Transformation – The evolution of Consciousness”. Available: (8/5/2007). Owen, H., 1997, Open Space Technology – A User’s Guide, 2nd ed., Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. OST World Wide Community NING, 2009, (12/12/2010) Robinson, Ken, 2011, Out of Our Minds – Learning to be Creative, Capstone, Chicester, UK, 2nd ed. Scharmer, O., 2000, “Presencing: Learning from the Future as It Emerges. On the Tacit Dimension of Leading Revolutionary change”, Conference on Knowledge and Innovation, May 25-26, Helsinki School of Economics, Finland. Available: (8/5/2007). Scharmer, O., 2005, “A New Social Technology for Transforming Capitalism and Deepening Democracy” Voices from the Edge”, presentation recorded live at Foxhollow Forum , MA (2005). Available: (8/5/2007). Scharmer, O., 2006, “Theory U: Leading from the Future as It Emerges. Fieldnotes: an online Newsletter of the Shambhala Institute for Authentic Leadership”, Setp.-Oct. Available: (8/5/2007). Schön, D., 1983, The Reflective Practitioner – How Professionals Think in Action, Basic Books. Senge, P., Scharmer, C.O, Jaworski, J. and Flowers, B.S., 2005, Presence – Exploring Profound Change in People, Organizations and Society, Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Smith, M. K., 2001 “Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning”, the encyclopedia of informal education. Available: (8/5/2007). AFS - IST SIDS 2012
  • 30. BIBLIOGRAPHY (3) Van Krogh, G., Ichijo, K. and Nonaka, I., 2000, Enabling Knowledge Creation – How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the Power of Innovation, Oxford University Press. von Hippel, E. (1976). The dominant role of users in the scientific instrument innovation process. Research Policy, 5(3), 212-239 . ( von Hippel, E., 2001, Innovation by User Communities: Learning from Open-Source Software. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42(4), 82 ( von Hippel, E., 2005, Democratizing Innovation, MIT Press (also Creative Commons License: Watzlawick, P., Weakland, J. and Fisch, R., 1974, Change – Principles of Problem Formation and Problem Transformation, New York, Norton Inc, tradução em castelhano (1985) Cambio, Barcelona, Ed. Harder. Wenger, E., 1998, Communities of Practice – Learning, Meaning and Identity, Cambridge University Press. Wenger, E., McDermott, R. and Snyder, W., 2002, Cultiving Communities of Practice, Harvard Business School Press. Wilson, T.,2002A,The Nonsense of Knowledge Management, 1/paper144.html Wilson, T., 2002B,The Nonsense of Knowledge Management (presentation) AFS - IST SIDS 2012