Stem cells


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Introduction to Stem Cells with basic concept of stem cells in Islam and Christianity.

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Stem cells

  1. 3. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Cell Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature Stem Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic Stem Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application of Stem Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
  2. 7.   
  3. 9. <ul><li>Mature Stem cells are part of a tissue/cell renewal mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Millions repairing and replacing our damaged body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Multipotent </li></ul><ul><li>Considered limited in their potential to become any type of body cell </li></ul>
  4. 10. <ul><li>Bone Marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Stream </li></ul><ul><li>Human Eye </li></ul><ul><li>Dental pulp </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul>
  5. 11. <ul><li>Immune response is unlikely </li></ul><ul><li>They are available in blood stem cells </li></ul><ul><li>They are partially specialized, and require less coaxing to create specialized cells </li></ul>
  6. 12. <ul><li>Limited longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to find and extract from mature tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Many unknowns </li></ul><ul><li>limited flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommon and growing scarce with age </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable quality due to genetic defects </li></ul>
  7. 13. <ul><li>Also called Early Stem Cells </li></ul><ul><li>In normal human reproductive development early stem cells become all the cells of the body, making them Pluri-potent </li></ul>
  8. 14. <ul><li>An embryo that has developed for three to five days </li></ul><ul><li>A mass of about 100 or so cells. </li></ul><ul><li>A thin-walled hollow sphere made up of an outer layer of cells, a fluid filled cavity, and an inner cell mass containing stem cells </li></ul>
  9. 15. Blastocyst
  10. 16. Blastocyst
  11. 17. <ul><li>Early stem cells are found in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the inner cell mass is removed from the blastocyst, the stem cells are placed in a culture dish where they grow and replicate over time. </li></ul><ul><li>In normal reproductive development, the inner cell mass becomes all the tissues of the body and the yolk sac. </li></ul>
  12. 19. <ul><li>Immortal </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to extract in Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>very flexible and can make any body cell </li></ul><ul><li>Readily Available </li></ul><ul><li>With SCNT immune rejection is not an issue because the patients are using their own cells. </li></ul>
  13. 20. <ul><li>Immune rejection is possible if stem cells are derived from an blastocyst created through in vitro fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to control </li></ul>
  14. 23. <ul><li>To  test new medications  for safety and effectiveness for human beings </li></ul><ul><li>Medication could be tried out far more quickly than it could be tested in clinical trials </li></ul><ul><li>Would save experimentation on live patients, speed up research process, make quick results available </li></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>To repair cells or tissues that have been damaged by disease or injury </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Cell-based Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Its like reconditioning your body </li></ul>
  16. 25. <ul><li>To grow entire organs in a laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First create a sort of mould out of a biodegradable polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then seed it with stem cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth factors to guide the organ's development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue-covered mould implanted into the patient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the tissue grew from the stem cells, the scaffold would degrade, leaving a complete ear, liver or other organ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There will be huge organ factories around the world </li></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>Parkinson's disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord injury </li></ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer's </li></ul><ul><li>Vision loss </li></ul>
  18. 30. <ul><li>Master the Art of Signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to direct a stem cell to differentiate into a specific tissue or cell type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to control that differentiation once the cells are injected into a person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The problem of Rejection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With stem cells taken from a donated embryo,  immune system may attack against them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult stem cells can overcome this problem But adult stem cells are less flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objection by Religious Groups </li></ul>
  19. 31. <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create insulin-producing cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate Insulin Production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triggering Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal cues   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External cues   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding the Triggering Signal </li></ul>
  20. 33. <ul><li>Embryos are considered a human soul the day they are conceived </li></ul><ul><li>Ends don’t Justify Means </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately each of us will die, but that gives no one a right to kill us </li></ul>
  21. 34. <ul><li>Majority View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilized ova are not held to be sacred by the Shariah at all, until they become embedded in the uterine wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minority View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilization of the ovum is the first phase of the human being and honoured by Allah </li></ul></ul>
  22. 35. <ul><li>Distinction between &quot;actual life&quot; and &quot;potential life,&quot; with &quot;actual life&quot; given a higher priority for protection in the law. </li></ul><ul><li>An embryo created in a dish is not yet a human being </li></ul><ul><li>The question is when exactly the soul enters into the fetus, rendering it &quot;actual life&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Some say 40 days, others say 120 days </li></ul>
  23. 36. <ul><li>&quot;Each of you possesses his own formation within his mother's womb, first as a drop of matter for forty days, then as a blood clot for forty days, then as a blob for forty days, and then the angel is sent to breathe life into him.&quot; </li></ul>
  24. 37. <ul><li>Use the knowledge God has given us to cure disease, alleviate human suffering, and save human life </li></ul><ul><li>It is not only allowed, but it is obligatory ( fard kifayah ) to pursue this research </li></ul>
  25. 38. <ul><li>Saudi Ulemas, Irani Ulema like Ayatollah Khamanei, Pakistani Ulema like Dr Israr Ahmed have stressed the need to master this technology </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently Stem cell research is thriving in Muslim Countries </li></ul>
  26. 39. <ul><li>Iran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made significant progress with laboratory animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is in the top 10 of countries in the world in embryonic stem cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successfully completed the regrowth of a rat's severed spinal cord using stem-cell research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Turkey and Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good progress in stem cell research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet to enter this field of research </li></ul></ul>