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Stem cells


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Introduction to Stem Cells with basic concept of stem cells in Islam and Christianity.

Introduction to Stem Cells with basic concept of stem cells in Islam and Christianity.

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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Introduction
    • Stem Cell Basics
      • Mature Stem Cells
      • Embryonic Stem Cells
    • Application of Stem Cells
    • Challenges ahead
    • Islamic Perspective
    • Conclusion
    • Q & A
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.   
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Mature Stem cells are part of a tissue/cell renewal mechanism
    • Millions repairing and replacing our damaged body cells
    • Multipotent
    • Considered limited in their potential to become any type of body cell
  • 10.
    • Bone Marrow
    • Blood Stream
    • Human Eye
    • Dental pulp
    • Liver
    • Skin
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Pancreas
  • 11.
    • Immune response is unlikely
    • They are available in blood stem cells
    • They are partially specialized, and require less coaxing to create specialized cells
  • 12.
    • Limited longevity
    • Difficult to find and extract from mature tissues
    • Many unknowns
    • limited flexibility
    • Uncommon and growing scarce with age
    • Questionable quality due to genetic defects
  • 13.
    • Also called Early Stem Cells
    • In normal human reproductive development early stem cells become all the cells of the body, making them Pluri-potent
  • 14.
    • An embryo that has developed for three to five days
    • A mass of about 100 or so cells.
    • A thin-walled hollow sphere made up of an outer layer of cells, a fluid filled cavity, and an inner cell mass containing stem cells
  • 15. Blastocyst
  • 16. Blastocyst
  • 17.
    • Early stem cells are found in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst.
    • Once the inner cell mass is removed from the blastocyst, the stem cells are placed in a culture dish where they grow and replicate over time.
    • In normal reproductive development, the inner cell mass becomes all the tissues of the body and the yolk sac.
  • 18.  
  • 19.
    • Immortal
    • Easy to extract in Laboratory
    • very flexible and can make any body cell
    • Readily Available
    • With SCNT immune rejection is not an issue because the patients are using their own cells.
  • 20.
    • Immune rejection is possible if stem cells are derived from an blastocyst created through in vitro fertilization
    • Difficult to control
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • To  test new medications  for safety and effectiveness for human beings
    • Medication could be tried out far more quickly than it could be tested in clinical trials
    • Would save experimentation on live patients, speed up research process, make quick results available
  • 24.
    • To repair cells or tissues that have been damaged by disease or injury
    • Also called Cell-based Therapy
    • Its like reconditioning your body
  • 25.
    • To grow entire organs in a laboratory
      • First create a sort of mould out of a biodegradable polymer
      • Then seed it with stem cells
      • Growth factors to guide the organ's development
      • Tissue-covered mould implanted into the patient
      • As the tissue grew from the stem cells, the scaffold would degrade, leaving a complete ear, liver or other organ
    • There will be huge organ factories around the world
  • 26.
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Diabetes
    • Heart disease
    • Spinal cord injury
    • Burns
    • Alzheimer's
    • Vision loss
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Master the Art of Signaling
      • How to direct a stem cell to differentiate into a specific tissue or cell type
      • How to control that differentiation once the cells are injected into a person
    • The problem of Rejection
      • With stem cells taken from a donated embryo,  immune system may attack against them.
      • Adult stem cells can overcome this problem But adult stem cells are less flexible
    • Objection by Religious Groups
  • 31.
    • Requirements
      • Create insulin-producing cells
      • Regulate Insulin Production
    • Triggering Mechanism
      • Internal cues  
      • External cues  
    • Understanding the Triggering Signal
  • 32.  
  • 33.
    • Embryos are considered a human soul the day they are conceived
    • Ends don’t Justify Means
    • Ultimately each of us will die, but that gives no one a right to kill us
  • 34.
    • Majority View
      • Fertilized ova are not held to be sacred by the Shariah at all, until they become embedded in the uterine wall
    • Minority View
      • Fertilization of the ovum is the first phase of the human being and honoured by Allah
  • 35.
    • Distinction between "actual life" and "potential life," with "actual life" given a higher priority for protection in the law.
    • An embryo created in a dish is not yet a human being
    • The question is when exactly the soul enters into the fetus, rendering it "actual life"
    • Some say 40 days, others say 120 days
  • 36.
    • "Each of you possesses his own formation within his mother's womb, first as a drop of matter for forty days, then as a blood clot for forty days, then as a blob for forty days, and then the angel is sent to breathe life into him."
  • 37.
    • Use the knowledge God has given us to cure disease, alleviate human suffering, and save human life
    • It is not only allowed, but it is obligatory ( fard kifayah ) to pursue this research
  • 38.
    • Saudi Ulemas, Irani Ulema like Ayatollah Khamanei, Pakistani Ulema like Dr Israr Ahmed have stressed the need to master this technology
    • Subsequently Stem cell research is thriving in Muslim Countries
  • 39.
    • Iran
      • Made significant progress with laboratory animals
      • Is in the top 10 of countries in the world in embryonic stem cells
      • Successfully completed the regrowth of a rat's severed spinal cord using stem-cell research
    • Egypt, Turkey and Malaysia
      • Good progress in stem cell research
    • Pakistan
      • Yet to enter this field of research
  • 40.