OUR ART IS AWAKENING THE BEST IN HUMAN BEINGS0 4INDISPENSABLE UTOPIANS 02 A WORD ABOUT US 22EDUARDO MONTECHI VALLADARES MARIA ANGELA DE SOUZA LIMA RIZZI MARIA HELENA DA CRUZ SPONTON1THE NOTION OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY 5FROM EARLY MODERNITY TO THE THE VIEW FROM OUTSIDE 40CONTEXT IN WHICH ASSOCIAÇÃOARTE DESPERTAR EMERGED 05 6RUI LUIS RODRIGUES YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW 54 REGINA VIDIGAL GUARITATIMELINE 11 OUR PARTNERS 562THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE ART OF SELF-CREATION 17FELIPE DE SOUZA TARÁBOLA ABOUT THE AUTHORS 633AWAKENING WITH AND FOR ART 19 SPONSORS 64MARIA CHRISTINA DE SOUZA LIMA RIZZI
0 event the publication of a book that recounts ten Caring for or about oneself does not mean one can- years of activities of an organization that shows us not look at others. On the contrary, it is only fromINDISPENSABLE UTOPIANS day after day that solidarity is possible and that the and with others that we become what we are from perspectives proposed are achievable is always en- birth onward: social human beings.Eduardo Montechi Valladares couraging news. For Jean-Paul Sartre, another French philosopher, man The raison d’être of Associação Arte Despertar is to is condemned to be free, meaning each of us is alonein me awaken (despertar) – to wake people up, to try to make responsible for choosing our goals and the way toi see the other sure every individual has the opportunity to access his achieve them. Because we are absolutely free to makeand other or her creative potential. Perhaps its most important our own choices, we can modify an initial project at anyand other role is to remind us all the time of something of which time. We are whatever we decide to be.dozens everyone should already have been convinced: thetrains passing Other should never be treated as an inanimate object We all continuously experience problematical or absurdcarriages full of people that can be manipulated at will. The wishes and needs situations. Our finitude makes it important that wehundreds of others should always be taken into consideration, choose our own pathways. The discovery that we are along with their characteristics and peculiarities. free is inevitably disturbing because it means we arethe other responsible for all the consequences of our choices. Try-who is me The fundamental ethical question for each of us is : ing to escape freedom means accepting that someoneis you How should I live? In a late interview, French phi- else is responsible for our lives. Attributing ouryou losopher Michel Foucault said this: “What strikes successes and failures to others may make us feel me is the fact that in our society, art has become comfortable or secure, but it shows we have chosenPaulo Leminski – Contranarciso (1980) something which is related only to objects and not to live the life of a slave. By choosing freedom and to individuals, or to life. (...) But couldn’t everyone’s facing up to the anguish of being free, we assume life become a work of art? Why should a lamp or a the risk of living an adventure in unmapped territory.This is an invitation. Dear reader, read this book at- house be an art object, but not our life?” The an- In sum, risk is synonymous with freedom. Perhapstentively. Its chapters, written by different people, tell swers to the questions posed by Foucault may point nothing is more contemptible than a person who isthe ten-year story of Associação Arte Despertar. A the way to all those who wonder how they should “always a cautious little take-your-time” (Mário destory that certainly deserves to be known. live their lives. Andrade). So we can choose to make our lives a work of art. Suffice it to dare.Decades are arbitrary milestones, of course, but Foucault’s “aesthetics of existence” is an invitation tothey have symbolic significance for most people. us to take responsibility for the beauty of our own Producing art involves the use of the real and theIn the history of mankind, this predilection for the lives. This is achievable by anyone capable of asking imaginary, the subjective and the objective, the non-number ten has not been fortuitous. In antiquity themselves ethical questions and creating a lifestyle utilitarian and the practical. Works of art, like peoplesome primitive peoples used base-ten numbering based on values such as generosity, solidarity and cour- who dare make the break with conformism, alwayssystems because ten symbolized the idea of an end- age. The idea that we should see ourselves as subjects have several layers of meaning. They not only por-ing, of consummation. This idea is probably linked undergoing constant self-fashioning also demands tray a world but enable a variety of readings as wideto the fact that counting on your fingers can get large doses of creativity. Accepting this openness to as the imagination of those who produce them. It isyou no farther than ten. Even today, when we pre- the new means not recognizing labeling, stereotyping precisely this possibility of the emergence of suchtend we are already civilized, we remain imprisoned or compartmentalization of any kind, rejecting all at- an immense diversity of gazes that can make art anin the ancient beliefs of our ancestors. But in any tempts at normalization. agent that facilitates relations among human beings.
Another key point is that art can produce moments Our identity can often be diminished by the per- Another important activity is the education and train-of catharsis (from the Greek katharsis; translatable formance of repetitive and monotonous work. ing of young people who live in the communitiesas purging, cleansing or purification) – a powerful Activities that leave no room for the expression of where the programs and projects are located. This isdischarge of emotion that gives us relief from tension desires and individuality are stultifying and corrode not limited to vocational or multiplier training, butthrough communal experience. It is also important our self-esteem. also aims to enable them to exercise their citizen-to recall that for Aristotle, an Athenian philosopher ship more completely. Meetings include discussionin the fourth century B.C., catharsis had a clear mor- Daily life can be either a space and time of tedious of issues and situations involving interpersonal rela-al and political connotation. Its significance for the repetition or an essential condition for creating the tionships, limits, self-discipline, teamwork, belonging,moral enhancement of the polis, the city-state of an- bonds of solidarity needed for a more enjoyable life. identity, inclusion-exclusion, and other motivationscient Greece, resided in its potential to allow citizens It is up to each person to choose what he or she wants for the development of life projects.to find solutions to conflicts of interest and opinion. in the knowledge that this choice can contributeAn active citizenry is one where the citizens actively to the creation of collective ventures. This concern with continuing education is not limitedparticipate in the political decisions that affect them. to the people involved in the programs and projects.There are two preconditions for this: equality before The struggle for recognition of each person’s It is also obsessively shared by the technical staff andthe law (isonomia), and genuine freedom of speech uniqueness is a hallmark of Associação Arte Des- board of governors.(isegoria, freedom of public address, i.e. equality of pertar. In ten years of existence it has developedthe right to address the sovereign assembly of the countless projects in poor communities. The tens of Associação Arte Despertar has also devoted itself topeople on public policy, on what the city should or thousands of children and adults who have benefited working in hospitals, using art as a component ofshould not do). throughout this period have always been treated as the healing process to benefit not only the patients individuals endowed with original qualities and spe- but also the medical staff and other health workers.In the twenty-first century blatant inequality still exists cific needs. Thus its greatest merit may be the way In these interventions it uses artistic and humaniza-despite a series of victories that have extended individual it strives to bring about the cultural inclusion of the tion-related activities to awaken people’s capacity forrights. Everyone living in poverty or precarious condi- poor and underprivileged while respecting each and reflection, to help them experience situations far re-tions suffers relative but perceptible loss of citizenship. every individual. moved from the stress of day-to-day life in a hospital,This is like being deprived of memory, reason, voice. from pain and suffering, and from strictly professionalThe tutelage to which these people are subjected may This means that at the same time as it strives to trans- relationships, motivating them to turn their attentionbe intended to protect them but nevertheless weakens form an environment characterized by several lacks, it to the establishment of human dignity.their subjectivity. Hence the importance of a consis- recognizes and valorizes the identity, roots and socio-tently attentive stance on the part of professionals who cultural context of every single beneficiary. By valorizing the uniqueness of each patient throughwork in programs for the poor and underprivileged. art, it is possible to revitalize an exercise of imagina- The activities its projects bring into play are artistic as tion and freedom denied by a hospital culture in whichIt is vitally important to ensure that the silenced can well as educational, involving the visual and perform- super-specialization reigns supreme. Art, especially inspeak. The silenced are all those who are not heard ing arts, music and literature. Storytellers encourage this context, is a form of perception and human expres-even when they scream in pain and suffering. This of- reading, while enchanting and extending the cultural sion capable of bringing out the best in people whileten happens because their cries fall on deaf ears that are repertoire of all the participants. helping them see external reality differently. It fostersincapable of awakening to hear the voice of the other. different readings of the world, creates opportunitiesTreated like puppets whose strings can be manipulated Visits to exhibitions and museums, plays, musicals, for questioning, and can help humanize relationshipsarbitrarily, they are not seen as human beings but as lectures and so on are organized to broaden the so that everyone realizes that sickness does not deprivemere animated objects in the production process. It is participants’ mental horizons and enable them to ex- patients of their rights and that the patient is a personeveryone’s job to give them their voices back. perience new ways of seeing and thinking. rather than one more case to be resolved as quickly 2 I 3
as possible. In addition, a dialogue about art and art ated. Therefore it can also be understood as relating to demands have not lost their freshness even all theseappreciation can be established, potentially comple- any generous dream of social renewal. years later. For example: “All power to the imagina-menting the medical treatment provided. tion” and “Be realistic: demand the impossible”. In To call the people who work at Associação Arte Des- any event, a utopian is a realist who pursues the im-Illness is not just biology. Sometimes the most ex- pertar dreamers or utopians is not at all to accuse possible, because intuitively he knows there is no suchcruciating pain is that which even the most powerful them of having an ingenuous vision of the role of art. thing as the true or final solution. This is a goal thatsedatives cannot ease. Hospital patients are not al- It is not a matter of confusing the encouragement of cannot be achieved because mankind is always on theways treated as subjects with desires, apprehensions creative processes with some lunatic search for an im- move and constantly creating new needs. But the uto-and uncertainties. More often they are treated as pas- possible ideal or panacea. pian, the realist who dreams of the impossible, alsosive observers of their own lives. In these situations knows that conspiring is breathing together or playingthe stimulus of art can help construct a new mode of Art is obviously not a cure for all ills. What is more, music in unison, and that happiness is possible only ifexisting in the world that encompasses expressions we cannot forget the utilitarian and manipulative it is a collective project.of solicitude as a way of trying to relate to the sick vision of art adopted by totalitarian regimes in theperson as a complete human being. twentieth century. In totalitarianism, the law was in- Liberty, equality and fraternity have not yet been won, distinguishable from the will of the Führer (Nazism) but it is still vital to pursue them. Utopia has not beenSome words are used so often they become mean- or the “genial guide” of the world proletariat (Stalin- reached but at least it can be glimpsed from afar. And itingless, like jargon. This is a shame, since many such ism), identified with the will of party and state. The is incredibly beautiful.terms that have become empty represent the best of final goal was complete abolition of individual wills,mankind’s dreams. Liberty, equality and fraternity, for the end of the distinction between public and private Meanwhile, the grave and sober realists, eternally withexample, inaugurated the program of modernity and life. Like all forms of dogmatism, Nazism and Stalin- their feet on the ground, have lost the elegance theyhave not yet been achieved, but their realization re- ism were essentially manicheistic. Good and evil were thought they had and have become bureaucrats who hidemains a pressing need. very clear-cut. Nuances were not taken into con- behind their desks (real or metaphorical). Their apparent sideration. Neither criticism nor questioning were pragmatism is merely a means of disseminating cynicism.How often have those who try to organize activities tolerated in any form. Both regimes had lists of artistsin which caring about and for oneself entails caring who were to be politically and ideologically execrated. The grayer the sky becomes, the more important it is tofor others been treated as utopian dreamers? The The only art was the art approved by the regime. Of- have dreamers in the world. Fundamental change canso-called realists love to label utopian those who ficial artists were mere pamphleteers for an ideology arise only from passionate hearts and minds. After all,have not relinquished the possibility of dreaming established by the leaders. By banning debate of any only people who are imbued with passion are capableand implementing transformational projects. People kind, imposing rigid recipes to be followed by every- of changing their lives radically, giving up projects theywho claim to have their “feet on the ground” say we one, they imposed a repugnant tutelage on literary have planned for a long time, and risking all for theshould stick to whatever is possible. The problem is and artistic creation. new and unknown. Only they, the utopian dreamers,that their “possible” is too little. The apologists of a can truly awaken us from slumber. For all these reasons,rationalized society driven by consumption and the The goals of Associação Arte Despertar have nothing they are more and more indispensable.most selfish form of individualism renounce the life to do with all this. I would even go so far as to say thatdrives and see themselves as modern. They are neither in various ways the people who work there are the heirs Common sense says you are useful only if you createmore nor less than conservatives. to several generations of generous idealists. wealth, prestige and power. If we remain imprisoned by this meaning of the world alone, the activities of Asso-It is worth recalling that the word utopia means literally In the turbulent year of 1968, Paris was taken over ciação Arte Despertar have no utility. But if we translate“nowhere” or “a place that does not exist”. But the fact by dreamers who filled the streets and squares of the utility into whatever can benefit human beings, the “use- that it does not exist does not mean it cannot be cre- city with their desire-laden slogans. Some of their less” men and women who work there are indispensable.
There are no guarantees of a happy ending. Nor will 1 for the human being. The idea of caring for our fel-there ever be. But it is worth betting on human reason- lows has always been part of human history in oneableness, on the possibility of joint elaboration of an THE NOTION OF SOCIAL form or another, but how this idea is elaboratedethical responsibility that aims to make a personal and changes from age to age, as does how we conceive ofcommunitarian world with less suffering and hence RESPONSIBILITY FROM EARLY society, the theater for these concerns.more happiness. Initiatives like Associação Arte Des- MODERNITY TO THE CONTEXTpertar may not have enough strength to change the For a long time a concern with the well-being ofcourse of history. But if they can at least help more IN WHICH ASSOCIAÇÃO ARTE other people, especially the vulnerable, went hand-and more people to realize the fundamental impor- in-hand with a static vision of society. To stay withintance of seeing the Other, that in itself is significant DESPERTAR EMERGED the confines of western civilization, we might takeand deserves to be celebrated. as an example the typical medieval attitude toward Rui Luis Rodrigues what are called social problems today. Lacking a gen-So let me repeat my invitation to read this book with uine understanding of the real causes of poverty, thecare. I hope it helps more people find out about the medieval mind had no alternative but to consider itwork of these dreamers and realize it is still possible A SLOW AWAKENING an expression of God’s will – divine grace was be-to make some utopias come true. May this reality in- lieved to save the poor through poverty, just as thespire new dreams, fresh utopias. And may this sharing Human beings constantly reinvent the way they live rich could be saved by giving alms. This perspec-of dreams enable each one of us readers to become together in society. In an always complex process, tive was more or less constant throughout the firstyet another companion in this venture. After all, who because it includes negotiating not only with the millennium of Christian civilization. By the sixteenthsaid the word accomplice applies only to people who concrete givens of reality but also with the mental century, however, Calvin was teaching his followersjoin others in performing malicious or illegal acts? As- structures and imaginary of each age, we humans seek that poverty was not the road to salvation, althoughsociação Arte Despertar, which is made up of a band of out ways of conferring meaning on the world around it continued to be an expression of divine sovereign-incorrigible idealists, is showing us exactly the reverse. us. Nothing could be more inadequate, therefore, ty. For Franciscan mysticism, on the other hand, the than to judge the actions and proceedings of another poor were the image of Christ. Poverty took on aWelcome to this adventure. age by our own values. When we think about social new theological and moral value, becoming a model responsibility, we find a perfect illustration of this fact. and a source of inspiration. The phrase “social responsibility” refers to the pur- To a large extent, conceiving of society as dynamic suit and valorization of human dignity, the mission is one of the salient features of modernity. The way of caring completely for other members of society people thought about the most vulnerable members and tending to people’s multiple dimensions. This is of society changed decisively in the sixteenth cen- achieved through an awareness that society as a whole tury: poverty in itself was no longer considered an is responsible for the solutions to social problems. evangelical virtue. The Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives (1492-1540) even suggested in his De subventione Eliminating inequality, humanizing social relations, pauperum (“Concerning Assistance for the Poor”, valorizing the individual and his or her autonomy – 1526) that Christ would not “recognize such peo- all these concerns are recent, typical of our own age, ple as poor, who are so foreign to his principles of and expressed in a vocabulary that would not have morality and prescription”, i.e. the customs and holi- made sense a hundred years ago. This does not mean, ness of the good life according to His teachings. In however, that other historical periods cared nothing Catholic as well as Protestant environments, severe 4 I 5
measures began to be taken to repress mendicancy in analyze things objectively in this manner. His recom- state (such as taxation, a monopoly of violence via aan attempt to rid society of what had long been con- mendations on the elimination of poverty, however, standing army, or the subordination of a broad arraysidered necessary to the practice of Christian piety. reflect a clear perception of its causes. He sees idle- of forums to a central authority). Roughly speaking, ness as one of the key roots of poverty, for example, this process was irreversibly established in the late six-This was a time, however, in which new ways of ad- and argues that laws imposed by the civil authorities teenth and early seventeenth century, after which itdressing issues relating to poverty were found. The are not sufficient to stamp it out. It may be neces- continued to develop until fully consolidated nation-great rural exodus that took place in the first two de- sary to train the poor to practice a trade or relocate states emerged in the nineteenth century.cades of the sixteenth century in the Low Countries them to areas where there is demand for their skills.and German territories led to the implementation of In reflecting on the benefits of combating poverty in On the other hand, European expansion to oth-measures designed to optimize poor relief. Vives’s this way, Vives also displays a refined understanding er continents, made possible by the technologicalbook is a product of this period, representing em- of social dynamics, intuitively sensing that one of the developments of the fifteenth century, graduallyblematically the solutions developed at the time. For positive results of poor relief will be to reduce the shaped a world economy characterized by the relationsVives, man becomes effectively human by learning: crime rate, for example. between center and periphery. As part of this process,thus Vives considers technical education and training the establishment of capitalism produced new mean-fundamental to the elimination of poverty. His book Human beings are more capable of bringing new tech- ings for the notion of the “market” during the coursedisplays a thorough familiarity with the textile indus- nology into being than changing the longstanding and of a long and complex history that unfolded in stagestry of his time and even remarks on the need for a deeply rooted conceptions that make up their men- (mercantile, industrial and financial capitalism) and wasbalance between the supply of labor and the manufac- tal universe. The slow transition from a static idea of punctuated by crises. It is worth noting, however, thatturer’s need for workers. society to a different, more dynamic conception, in all the great ideological clashes of the modern era re- which society responds to material causes and there- volved around these two magnitudes, from classicalBut Vives’s contribution proved decisive less for the fore is susceptible to change, is a good example of this economic liberalism with Adam Smith (for whom thepractical details of his program of poor relief than for complex process of transforming the imaginary. As state should be overshadowed by the “invisible hand”a contribution that would now be called ideological. far as social responsibility is concerned, the advent of of the market) to socialism with its objective of control-He showed how wrong was the traditional interpreta- modernity was a key turning-point in the construction ling and eliminating the market, which was eventuallytion of the words of Christ in Mark 14:7 (“For ye have of such conceptions. to lead to the withering away of the state.the poor with you always”, in the King James Version),in taking them to suggest resignation or acceptance, as In the nineteenth century, the triumph of liberalif poverty were a natural part of the social order. Vives FROM PHILANTHROPY TO ideology enshrined as a “fact” the ideological no-also disparaged the deeply entrenched habit of con- TRANSFORMING ACTION tion of an absolute separation between three distinctsidering the poor to be sacred objects, sancti pauperes, spheres: the political, the economic, and a spherewho by their poverty contributed to their own salva- The transition to the modern era also involved the considered socio-cultural in nature. It is not hard totion and that of other members of the social body. At emergence of two highly important factors in the see in this tripartite division the presence of the statethe same time, Vives was very humane toward those changes that gave rise to the perspective of social re- and market relations, augmented by another spherewho were really in need. sponsibility. They were the modern state and modern that was then emerging – that of civil society. The market relations. compartmentalization of academic disciplines thatWe can summarize Vives’s position by saying that became predominant in the late nineteenth centuryit represents an acknowledgment, albeit embryonic, The modern state came into being through political represented the officialization of this perspective, toof the complex nature of social relations. Poverty and administrative centralization, which entailed the the extent that it incorporated the idea that social, po-has real causes, grounded not in God’s will but in necessity of creating a bureaucratic apparatus capable litical and economic phenomena could be studied inconcrete social dynamics. Of course, Vives does not of absorbing the many functions taken over by the isolation from each other.
Both this compartmentalization and its matrix, gigantic proportions, and to the pressure for social gence of social movements on the periphery of thethe tripartite division, were sharply criticized by change fueled by socialists. Whereas in the United global economy, especially in the context of decolo-the social sciences throughout the twentieth cen- States the main motivation, at least as far as ideo- nization in Africa and Asia and insurgencies in Latintury. These spheres are not and have never been logical discourse was concerned, continued to be the America: all these factors forced a reconfigurationautonomous. From their inception, capitalist market revitalization of capitalism, in Europe social democ- of the terms of the debate, which had centered toorelations were interwoven with the political, while racy used the concept to foster income distribution simplistically on the roles of state and market.social life cannot be lived outside the economy or and go some way toward meeting demands for socialpolitical relations. What interests us here, however, change. It is important to note that the welfare state Whereas philanthropy had always been motivated byis to recognize the extent to which these magnitudes represented a significant change in the way social the urge to provide assistance to the poor and needy,– especially the state and the market – were crucial problems were addressed compared with the previ- the consciousness that emerged in the second half offor western society to understand itself and the key ous emphasis on philanthropy: its key innovation the twentieth century was moving closer to a recogni-role they have played in the development of thinking was the recognition of the state’s responsibility in tion of the need for action to bring about social change.about social responsibility. resolving these problems. It was not enough to mitigate the evils of inequality. What really mattered was to eliminate these problemsWhile industrial capitalism was in full flood, espe- The crisis of the welfare state is a complex phe- on several fronts. On the other hand, even the state’scially during the nineteenth century, social problems nomenon that is made even harder to analyze by actions to address structural issues was no longer con-were either ignored or treated via philanthropy, with ideological passions. Nevertheless, it can be argued sidered sufficient. Instead of being passive objects,some big capitalists coming to the fore in this regard that the financial crisis of the 1970s, combined with whether of philanthropic initiatives governed by capitalalongside institutions that had traditionally carried out the excessive weight of state bureaucratic structures, to a greater or lesser extent, or of the state in its effortsphilanthropic activities, such as the churches. The profoundly impaired the state’s ability to intervene to provide welfare for society, human beings should bestate was minimally involved, in accordance with lib- in a regulatory manner in the social sphere. To this active subjects and agents of change in a world that waseral ideology. The situation changed radically in the combination of factors must be added the colossal theirs by rights. This was the melting-pot from which1920s as a result of the global crisis of financial capital- differences between economic center and periphery the concept of the Third Sector emerged in the closingism. The social chaos triggered by this crisis had to be so characteristic of today’s global economy. In this decades of the twentieth century.addressed using the instruments of the state. The the- sense, it is legitimate to ask whether and to whatoretical foundations for state action had been laid not extent peripheral countries such as Brazil have ef-long before by the British economist John Maynard fectively experienced the welfare state. THE THIRD SECTOR: GENESIS OF A CONCEPTKeynes, for whom the functions of the state includ-ed the establishment of public policies for the social However, the second half of the twentieth cen- In the late twentieth century, the process of formationsphere. Indeed, their creation legitimated the state’s tury prepared the necessary conditions for some of the global economy, which the great navigationsdirect intervention in the economy. The logic pursued important changes in the way social problems were of the fifteenth century can be emblematically consid-by Keynes was that such policies, including the adop- addressed, especially in the idea of social responsi- ered to have begun, reached its apogee with absolutetion of measures to promote full employment and the bility. The dissemination of widely shared ideals of world domination by the west. At the same time, ourintroduction of a safety net (social security, a mini- social justice; developments in philosophy, such as societies became especially complex, to such an extentmum wage etc.), would stimulate consumption by the valorization of human freedom and autonomy; that it became difficult to explain the new social realityboosting the population’s purchasing power. the perception not only of the predatory nature in terms of the two typical magnitudes of the modern of capitalism, but above all of the damage done to era, state and market, or even in terms of the old tri-The doctrine of the welfare state, as it became known, nature and social relations by indiscriminate applica- partite structure advocated by liberalism. On the otherresponded both to capitalism’s specific need to over- tion of “instrumental reason”, i.e. reason understood hand, critical thought on the part of many western in-come a cyclical crisis, albeit one destined to reach merely as a means to technical progress; the emer- tellectuals appeared to be seeking an alternative route 6 I 7
quite different from the traditional answers offered low. However, there is practically a consensus that industry associations. These entities, which were alsoby liberal laissez-faire and the statist solutions proposed Habermas’s theory can be considered its wellspring, independent of government structures, began as or-both by socialism and the welfare state. especially in two crucial respects: the identification of gans of international cooperation that represented an a third sphere in society with a different logic from alternative opposition to dictatorial groups or sup-In the 1920s, 1930s and thereafter, a “critical theory both the market and the state; and the idea that con- porters of colonialist policies in the context of theof society” developed by the Frankfurt School, a temporary societies are too complex for solutions anti-colonial struggle of the 1960s. The great meritgroup of intellectuals who set out to reformulate based on the old polarizations. of these initial non-governmental organizations layMarxism with the help of contributions from other precisely in the fact that they offered civil society asocial sciences, played a key role in enabling west- For Habermas, state and market constitute a “system” way to begin thinking about the most pressing socialern thought to transcend the polarizations in which grounded in instrumental reason and characterized by problems and to address them without the traditionalit had become trapped (especially the polarizations the relations typical of capitalism, especially control of mediation of government, parties and unions.state/market and capital/labor). One of its merits the individual in accordance with the requirements ofwas to show how instrumental reason, the Enlight- capital. In opposition to the system is the “lifeworld”, These traditional forms of intervention to addressenment concept of reason applied to the technical the sphere of society and culture, grounded in lan- social problems were hypertrophied and incapablegoals of industrial civilization, had established a guage and characterized by the pursuit of consensus of permitting participation by broader segments offoothold even in orthodox Marxism. The negative among individuals through dialogue. The lifeworld is society in the transformation of reality. On the otherresults of this application of instrumental reason, a sphere of autonomy and is always struggling against hand, countless social actors were emerging, commit-such as utter disregard for the environment in in- colonization by the system. The fundamental political ted to humanitarian perspectives and imbued with adustrial societies and banalization of the human clash in contemporary societies is this confrontation strong awareness of the need to cement social rela-being culminating in totalitarianism, could there- between system and lifeworld, according to Haber- tions through solidarity. These actors, who camefore be found in all societies and not just those mas. At the same time, contemporary societies are so from different social segments, reflected in practicealigned with one of the ideological poles character- complex that they can no longer be explained by re- Habermas’s concept of the necessary autonomy of in-istic of the twentieth century. course to Marx’s historical materialism, with its notion dividuals and their ability to interact through dialogue. of a specific social group as speaking on behalf of all Joining forces in groups and organizations set up toHighly efficient and inspiring though it was in its the oppressed. The lifeworld is the world of interaction, give shape to their social concerns, these actors wereanalysis of a society dominated by technical reason, marked by a dialogue between individuals who are responsible for the emergence of the Third Sector.the Critical Theory exemplified by Max Horkheimer different in terms of the old idea of class but have be-and Theodor Adorno’s Dialectic of Enlightenment come autonomous and capable of opposing state and The term “Third Sector”, which originated in thenevertheless did not offer the prospect of a way out market through solidarity and shared values. Thus it is U.S., synthesizes the specific vision of society whosefrom the suffocating prison of a society that had a public sphere but one which seeks to transcend the formation we have been tracing. The “First Sector”reached its limits and was therefore verging on self- limits imposed by the polarization between the politi- refers to government and the public sector generally.destruction. This work of designing alternatives for cal and the economic, state and market. The “Second Sector” refers to the private sectorthe future was to be done later, by thinkers who can and for-profit activities. The Third Sector is a publicbe seen as the inheritors of Critical Theory. The Alongside the development of this theory, several or- sphere not to be confused either with government ormost relevant of these to an understanding of how ganizations that emerged in the years following world with the profitseeking that typically drives private en-the concept of a Third Sector emerged is undoubt- war two pursued objectives and forms of action, such terprise. For anthropologist Rubem César Fernandes,edly Jürgen Habermas. as the preservation and extension of human rights, the Third Sector can be considered a complex and cultural diffusion, the fight against hunger, and a con- unstable combination of opposition and complemen-Habermas did not formulate the concept of the Third cern with education, that did not match the typical tarity that operates in a public space independently ofSector. The origin of this concept is discussed be- configurations of political parties, labor unions and the state. Thus it stands between government and the
market, returning us to a triadic world that escapes most damaging precisely in assuming that social actors to survive without protectionist measures, wherebythe dichotomy between the public or state sphere can operate without the influence of class. The other the state sought to shield them from the competi-and the market or private sphere. The Third Sector main criticism is that the notion of a Third Sector is a tion typical of a globalized economy. These crises intherefore conceives of public life from the perspec- product of neoliberal ideology, and that in accordance turn had severely adverse social effects, such as antive of integration: public life is not limited to the state with that ideology it is an attack on the structures of the alarming rise in the rate of unemployment. Monetarysphere, and private actors do not necessarily have to state, which it is designed to demolish, while exempting stabilization had gradually been achieved since thebe bound to the particularistic interests of the market. the state from any responsibility for social problems middle of the decade, but in exchange the signs of and at the same time undermining social security and social destabilization were gathering apace.In this sense, it is possible to draw a parallel between other progressive benefits won by society as a whole bythe idea of public life that is central to the Third Sector converting them into mere services provided by private These were years of vigorous expansion by neolib-and the idea of vita activa advocated by civic human- enterprise instead of civic entitlements. eral ideology in ample segments of Brazilian society.ists in Italy in the early fifteenth century. They saw This ideology appeared to be corroborated by thepublic participation as the only way to avoid tyranny, These criticisms deserve consideration. The problem of bankruptcy of the state, asphyxiated as it was by athe worst of all the evils experienced by Italian neoliberalism and its role in the emergence of the Third bureaucratic apparatus that had grown to monstrouscity-states in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Sector will be discussed in a moment. The question proportions during the military dictatorship, which– hence their concern to address in their writings of whether the state is or should be responsible for put in place the shadow of a welfare state shored upnot just rulers and magistrates but all their fellow- addressing social problems is a serious one and can- by foreign loans. The situation was made worse bycitizens, in an effort to encourage ordinary people not be treated as mere ideological argumentation. systemic corruption. The results of this failure of theto take an interest in public affairs. But the writings However, an important point must be emphasized state were felt especially in the social sphere, includingof these humanists contained an idea of public life here: what the Third Sector effectively seeks to bring a sharp fall in the quality of essential public servicesthat was not confined to the state and the state ap- about is a new paradigm for public action, a paradigm (mainly health and education), a crisis in social securityparatus – indeed, these elements were not yet fully better suited to the complex organization of society in and pensions, a rise in violent crime, and the socialformed at that time. The social forces that enabled today’s world and less bound up with the structures effects of deficient infrastructure.the centralized state to emerge in the modern era created during the modern era. Most criticisms of theundeniably limited the idea of public life by identify- Third Sector still focus on those structures and ignore The emergence of a great many initiatives aligneding the public sphere with the state, in an ideological the multiplicity of actors that have now been included with the Third Sector during this period, alongsidemove of key importance in making the new type of in the dynamics of social phenomena. the growth of non-governmental organizationssocial and political system viable. This identification whose activities were sustained in one way or an-has more recently been contested, as more people other by private enterprise in accordance with theand groups become aware of the increasingly evi- THE CONTEXT IN WHICH ASSOCIAÇÃO concept that became known as “Corporate Socialdent hypertrophy of the state and of how much has ARTE DESPERTAR EMERGED Responsibility”, or CSR, gave many critics an op-been lost owing to this constraint on participation by portunity to conclude that the activities of the Thirdbroader strata of society in public life. When Associação Arte Despertar began operating, Sector were a result of straightforward application of in 1997, Brazil was at a particularly complex juncture neoliberalism. For these critics, neoliberalism soughtAmong the main criticisms addressed to the idea of in its history. The external context was that of glo- to restructure production so as to make employmentthe Third Sector, two are especially relevant. The first balization, as already mentioned, in which economic precarious and maximize profit. It also wanted to re-contests the very existence of a third social sphere with relations were making the borders between the na- form the state so as to exclude it from the treatmentautonomy from the state and capital. For these critics, tional and the transnational increasingly tenuous. In of social problems, given the high cost of state-spon-this is an ideological construct designed to discourage negative terms, this situation caused crises in seg- sored solutions to such problems. The Third Sector,effective political participation. They argue that it is ments of domestic manufacturing that were unable they argued, served to supply these needs in areas 8 I 9
abandoned by the state, through localized activities fundamental ingredient, insofar as it determines the to display signs of exhaustion in the first decade ofinvolving direct assistance or projects designed to subject’s involvement with the goals of the organiza- the twenty-first century. Some of its limitations hadawaken the social creativity of the needy. Ultimately tion. At the same time as it enhances the efficiency already been exposed by Habermas, for whom latethe Third Sector collaborated with the endeavor of of the work offered, this leveraging of individual tal- capitalism requires frequent state intervention intaking social responsibility from the shoulders of the ent prevents the people involved from developing order to improve the conditions for capital accumu-state and depoliticizing society, they concluded. the bureaucratic attitude so frequent in state initia- lation, despite its ideological preference for “small tives where the individual practically disappears into government”, which seems to mean no governmentIt must be said that although these criticisms may be a forest of rules, regulations and procedures. at all in many situations. The ideological nature of thevalid inasmuch as they point to potential risks of ideo- neoliberal paradigm (its being much more a legitimat-logical instrumentalization, they fail to reflect either the Networking through partnerships and alliances brings ing discourse than a practical reality) was evidencedreal intentions of the movements that belong to the more satisfactory results within reach, while avoid- by two major crises: the emergence of fundamentalistThird Sector or the democratic conception of society ing a waste of resources. Experience in recent years violence, exemplified above all by 9/11, which rein-that informs its perspective. Such intentions include has shown these organizations the importance of forced the state’s role in guaranteeing public safety,neither the dismantling of the state nor contributing developing “social” or “appropriate” technology, reversing the tendency to eliminate borders (andto its abandonment of responsibility for meeting the characterized by simplicity, low cost, ease of under- hence the national basis of the modern state) that hadneeds of the socially deprived, much less any desire to standing and the propensity to be disseminated, as predominated in the previous decade; and the 2008 fi-undermine the population’s entitlements or acquired crucial tools for achieving their goals. nancial crisis, which brought to mind the need for therights. On the contrary, the Third Sector aims to create state to focus periodically on economic reality.multiple forums for political participation and dissemi- Associação Arte Despertar came into being and com-nate initiatives that assemble autonomous, conscious pleted its first decade, therefore, in the context of The overall analysis set out above shows that the state,individuals in projects of a social nature so as to enable increasing valorization of dialogue among different a superb construct bequeathed to us by modernity,dialogue, interaction, and more comprehensive action social forces with the aim of humanizing relations cannot possibly be eliminated in the immediate future.by society to address its own problems. within society. The indiscriminate application of in- Nor is it feasible to do away with the supremacy of strumental reason led to a profound depreciation of capital in the ways proposed by orthodox Marxism.Such initiatives are born out of the growing aware- human beings, not only in capitalist societies but also However, today’s reality in no way reflects the struc-ness of social responsibility evident in multiple in societies that attempted to build socialism. With tures and system of the old liberalism. The situationsegments of society. Third Sector movements range the advent of the new millennium came a deepening is radically new and suggests a need for new mech-from institutions that have long been familiar with awareness of the need to react against this devalu- anisms of political intervention, new forms of civicphilanthropy and groups traditionally linked to hu- ation, reaffirm human dignity, and invest in ways participation, and a new approach to teaching andmanitarian militancy to business organizations that of helping people to become autonomous. Today it achieving citizenship.are increasingly concerned about the impossibil- can clearly be seen that the market economy mustity of continuing to operate solely with profit in be socially and environmentally domesticated: eco- In such a context, organizations like Associaçãomind. Their activities are developed on the basis of nomic values and the goals of political parties should Arte Despertar have a fundamental role to play –individual competencies. Their valorization of the be subordinated to the common interest, so as to a role that transcends the results obtained directlyindividual as a subject who can learn to see the social include not just unlimited respect for human beings, by their activities; a role that consists of their con-value of a personal talent or passion is highly benefi- but also respect for their hearth and home, the envi- tribution to the formation and autonomization ofcial. The work done by organizations like Associação ronment in which they live. individuals who, through initiatives like this, willArte Despertar would be truly impossible without discover their own way to exercise the oldest andthis ability to leverage the individual talent formed The temptation of oversimplified analysis is kept at most human of rights: the right to intervene posi-over time in each specific life story. Passion is also a bay by noting that the neoliberal paradigm began tively in the world we inhabit.
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE: A TIMELINE 10 I 11
Regulation of 16th CENTURY mendicancy; poor relief laws in several European cities Inception of modern Transition from industrial 19th CENTURY 16th & 17th CENTURIES Poverty as Juan Luis Vives, centralized and to financial capitalismFIRST MILLENNIUM OF CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION: expression of De subventione pauperum bureaucratic state God’s will (1526): acknowledges Triumph of liberalism social causes of poverty Modern state John Calvin: poverty consolidated in form of nation-states 15th CENTURY no longer seen as form Technological of salvation but still Franciscan mysticism: Emergence of socialist 12th CENTURY developments expresses God’s will poverty as model, thought and Discoveries form of salvation and source of inspiration Social problems treated Emergence of Industrial 18th CENTURY via philanthropy “world economy”, capitalism as preparation for modern concept of “market” Development of mercantile capitalism KEY WORLD & BRAZIL: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CONTEXT THIRD SECTOR IN BRAZIL ASSOCIAÇÃO ARTE DESPERTAR
20th CENTURY 1920s: major crisis in financial capitalism Doctrine of “welfare state” Situation following WWII: creation of United Nations and development of first NGOs Outbreak of Gulf War 1991 Frankfurt School: critique of instrumental reason, present in both capitalism and socialism Promulgation of new 1988 Collapse of Soviet Union Brazilian Constitution 1960s: decolonization and emergence of social movements on periphery of “world economy” Maastricht Treaty, also known as Treaty on 1970s: crisis of “welfare state” European Union (TEU) Fall of Berlin Wall 1989 Development of neoliberal ideology Idea of Third Sector emerges End of apartheid in 1993 USA: emergence of black civil rights movements and Reunification of Germany South Africa 1990 leadership of Martin Luther King Jr. 1980s-1990s: proliferation of NGOs and Third Sector Monetary stabilization in Brazil, combined with social Agenda 21 for 1992 initiatives crises and exhaustion of sustainable development Third Sector seen as space for dialogue to transform reality public services and environment 1982 launched at Earth Summit (Rio de Janeiro) Promulgation of Federal Public Utility Law (Law 91/35) Creation of Legião Brasileira de Assistência (LBA) Promulgation of Child & Creation of Mata Atlântica Adolescent Statute NGOs engage in struggle for redemocratization (Atlantic Rainforest) (ECA, Law 8069/90) NGO network Creation of Unified Health System (SUS) Brazilian Association of Establishment of Non-Governmentail Fundação Abrinq Organizations (ABONG) established Amcham launches National Council for ECO Awards for Children’s Rights (CONANDA) Promulgation of Organic Corporate Citizenship established by Law 8242/91 Social Assistance Law (LOAS, Law 8742/93) Promulgation of Federal Law on Incentives for Culture, Campaign Against known as “Rouanet Law” Hunger launched by (Law 8313/91) Herbert José de Souza, known as Betinho
Passage of National 1996 Education Guidelines & Foundations Law (LDB) President Fernando 1998 Real Plan begins Henrique Cardoso1994 monetary stabilization Report to UNESCO re-elected of the International Fernando Henrique Cardoso Commission on Education for elected President of Brazil the Twenty-First Century European Union exemplifies 1999 tendency to relativize national borders Kyoto protocol 1997 1995 Municipal Social Assistance Information Network for the Third Promulgation of Voluntary Promulgation of Law on Civil Councils established Sector (RITS) founded Service Law (Law 9608) Society Organizations of Public (Law 2469/96) Interest (Law 9790/99) Center for Social Entrepreneurship & Instituto Ethos founded Instituto Ayrton Senna Third Sector Administration (CEATS) established established Concept of Municipal Public Utility São Paulo Center for Voluntary Incorporation of Associação Certificate granted Arte Despertar created Arte Despertar Service (CVSP) established Registration with Municipal Associação Arte Despertar First project approved by Council for Children’s Rights begins activities Ministry of Culture (MinC) (CMDCA) via Rouanet Law Partnership with Centro Infantil Partnership begins with Incorporation of GIFE da Aldeia SOS Rio Bonito begins Partnership begins with Institute of Pediatric Oncology (Group of Institutes, with pilot project Einstein in Paraisópolis (IOP) - Support Group for Children Foundations and Community Program (PECP) with Cancer (GRAACC) Enterprises) Partnership with Heart Institute (InCor) at Hospital das Clínicas Website created Comunidade Solidária begins with pilot project program established Catholic Church establishes Children’s Pastoral
9/11/2001: attack on WTC in 2001 NY inaugurates preoccupation with Terror and signals weaknesses of neoliberal paradigm21st CENTURY - 2000 President George 2004 USA invades Afghanistan W. Bush re-elected USA and allies invade Iraq 2003 Second Intifada begins National Humanization Policy (PNH) established Growing environmental awareness Luiz Inácio Lula 2002 United Nations establishes da Silva elected 2005 Millennium Goals President of Brazil George W. Bush elected Euro adopted by President of USA 15 members of EU Ministry of Health Unified Social Assistance System launches National Proliferation of projects in (SUAS) established Hospital Care Humanization Third Sector due to monetary National Social Assistance PriceWaterhouseCoopers Program (PNHAH) stability and economic growth Launch of Zero Hunger Program, Policy (PNAS) established begins external auditing replacing Comunidade Solidária First project approved State Public Utility in public selection Launch of project approved Federal Public Utility Start of pro bono legal aid Certificate granted by Petrobras Zero under Rouanet Law to expand Certificate granted Registration with Municipal provided by De Goeye - Hunger Program activities by 40% Council for Social Assistance Advogados Associados law firm Registration with Partnership begins with (COMAS) Teacher training São Paulo State Council Institute of Orthopedics Production of art education projects begin for Social Assistance & Trauma at Hospital das Registration with National Council material begins Clínicas (IOT) and Institute for Social Assistance (CNAS) Partnership begins with Project approved by São Paulo of Infectology at Hospital Instituto Fonte retained as Projeto Viver in Jardim City Department of Culture Emílio Ribas Social Assistance Charity consultant on sustainability Colombo community (Mendonça Law) Certificate (CEBAS) granted Training project for Creation of slogan “Our art is student volunteers First project approved in awakening the best in human public selection by beings/in you” Corporate volunteering Petrobras Social Program project begins Partnership begins with Nossa Senhora de Lourdes Children’s Hospital
U.S. troops withdraw from Iraq 2010 Third Sector understood as viable locus for participation Global financial crisis reinforces by individuals in transformation 2008 perception that neoliberal of society paradigm is exhausted Dilma Rousseff elected Barack Obama elected President of Brazil New philanthropy in USA: President of USA2006 billions donated by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva re-elected 2007 2009 Growing awareness of need Promulgation of new Philanthropy Systematization of Tecnologia for sustainability in Law (Law 12101/09) Arte Despertar Third Sector projects Associação Arte Despertar Renewal of partnership completes first decade with Guarulhos City Department Implementation of social of Health Partnership begins with ICU activities at Santa Casa technology: Tecnologia CD recorded by children and youth Santa Casa Charity Hospital in Charity Hospital in São Paulo City Arte Despertar Implementation of Tecnologia in Paraisópolis community project São Paulo City Arte Despertar for health workers Partnership begins with Socio- Ministries of Culture and Health in Guarulhos Children’s Hospital Partnership begins with Educational Groups in Paraisópolis award Culture & Health Prize and Emergency Hospital Guarulhos City Department of community Partnership begins with São Paulo Implementation of Tecnologia Health, involving interaction State Cancer Institute (ICESP) Arte Despertar for health with five hospitals workers at Nossa Senhora de Partnership begins with First set of multimedia materials Lourdes Hospital Education Unit of Santa Casa for hospitals produced Charity Hospital in Diadema Start of nursing training First project approved by São activities at Nossa Senhora de Start of pro bono legal aid in Paulo State Department of Lourdes School intellectual property provided Culture’s Cultural Action Program by Gusmão & Labrunie law firm Partnership begins with São (ProAC) Lucas Hospital in Diadema First project approved by São Paulo City Fund for Children & Adolescents (FUMCAD)
process of specialization and division of labor, we can unable to adjust to the requirements of civilization2 say that both activities nevertheless involve unique ways and the kind of abstract thought constantly demandedTHE INDIVIDUAL AND THE of seeing and forms of expression that dispense neither by today’s lifestyle so full of symbolic operations. with beauty, on one hand, nor effort, on the other.ART OF SELF-CREATION Communication became increasingly necessary as theFelipe de Souza Tarábola In his seminal work Sociology as an Art Form, first pub- opportunity increased to “speak other languages”, to lished in 1976, American sociologist Robert A. Nisbet be different from other people in one’s own group.What strikes me is the fact that in our society, says imagination is the element responsible for this From a certain point in human history on, more op-art has become something which is related only to closeness of the links between science and art, spheres portunities began to crop up for people to divergeobjects and not to individuals, or to life. That art is of human life that are equally motivated by the desire from the group to which they belonged by construct-something which is specialized or which is done by to understand, and to interpret and communicate this ing personal values and worldviews that differed fromexperts who are artists. But couldn’t everyone’s life understanding to others. It is always assumed that sci- the group’s. Reflecting on this question of the coexis-become a work of art? Why should a lamp or a house be ence should be neutral, but many now believe neutrality tence between different lifestyles among members ofan art object, but not our life? is impossible to achieve in practice because scientists the same collectivity is important to sociology, which are also subjectively guided, at the very least, by the emerged as a science that set out to problematizeMichel Foucault 1 conditions prevailing in their own times and influenced the feeling that the constitutive events of the period by the problems of their societies, in some cases even known as modernity had caused a crisis. At that time, taking the values of the group to which they belong the aftermath of revolutions (the French RevolutionAt first glance is anything more different from our idea of as a compass. Similarly, art forms such as novels, po- and the industrial revolution, for example) and losswhat a scientist is than our image of an artist? Comparing ems, plays, music, paintings and so on are ways of of influence on the part of religious ethics over otherthe scientific method, based on logical reasoning and rig- casting light on reality, regardless of whatever language areas of collective life, which had begun functioningor in pursuit of truth, with an activity driven by creativity and medium they use. For example, can there be any autonomously, meant that family origins, gender andand the expression of feelings may seem somewhat bi- doubt that Machado de Assis is an inexhaustible source social status were no longer the key to a person’s iden-zarre. Indeed, it is – although once upon a time it wasn’t: of information and points of view on social reality in tity. The increased autonomy and mobility achieved byafter all, what about Leonardo da Vinci, who engaged as nineteenth-century Brazil? individuals in the modern era enable them to “play”intensely with art as with science? What about the impor- with collectively inherited influences.tance for his creations of his methodical research into the Thus science and art are both authorial forms ofdimensions and laws of proportion of the human body? communication and expression, both of which are The importance of specialized education and training necessary to mental and social subsistence. As Aristo- so that the skills needed by industrialized productionScience is often taught today using ready-made for- tle pointed out, “man is a political animal”, meaning could be acquired, alongside an increase in exchangesmulas, and even more frequently artistic creation is that human beings cannot develop their abilities to the between different groups made possible by urban life,superficially interpreted as an activity freely inspired by full unless they live collectively, which is possible only enabled other constitutive models to flourish andthe artist’s emotions. thanks to another human characteristic: language and broke the monopoly held by the standard for human logical reasoning. There is no shortage of examples in beings prevailing in traditional communities. The no-Looking beyond these stereotypes constructed since the literature, psychology and linguistics of people said to tion of an individual as a member of the species sonineteenth century and intensified by the continuous have been found in complete isolation from society, endowed with unique properties as to be irreplaceable without human contact, sometimes supposedly reared emerged only with modernity, when the dominance1 Michel Foucault. (1991) . ‘On the genealogy of ethics: An or cared for by animals, or simply surviving on their of the collectivity over the person was shaken to itsoverview of work in progress’. In Paul Rabinow (ed.), The Foucault own. These people had no chance to learn to speak roots and the “mold” from which everyone was (con)Reader. New York, Pantheon Books: p. 350. and in attempting to adapt to community life proved formed was shattered.
So it is worth asking whether our present way of life military dictatorship raised the curtain on a democracy This new model was geared to more democratic rela-is not based precisely on the difference between in- in which parties and politicians do not properly repre- tions, requiring active and aware social subjects whodividuals. After all, the specialization that requires sent constituencies, and campaigns are “spectacularized” could not only claim inclusion in a socio-political sys-distinct educational careers and makes mutual depen- to such an extent that celebrities feature more promi- tem but also demand the right to participate in definingdence unavoidable is largely favorable to the scientific nently than debates, often tedious for lack of distinction that system. Autonomy and identity lay at the core ofand technological development that contemporary between positions (all are in favor of education, better these demands. Besides the organization and formaliza-society values so highly. public health and a better life for retirees). tion of “minority” social movements, participation in collective life consisted largely of involvement in ThirdLoss of meaning by the old ways of thinking, feeling and The data that indicate young people’s rejection of Sector institutions. This was a period of consolidationacting since modern life began is due to the crisis (a term participation in collective life through membership of of non-governmental organizations in Brazil, and suchnot to be taken negatively here) of feudal values, beliefs, political parties, however, do not contradict the data movements or associations were able to fill the gaps lefthabits and customs. For fifteen centuries, human beings that show strong adhesion to new forms of collective by the state, which in the ten years in question priori-lived in feudal societies strongly influenced by religious participation: while collective action in the 1970s and tized management and regulation rather than welfare.dogmas and consisting of small communities that oc- 1980s was driven mainly by the desire for redemocra-cupied territories with their own specific values, laws, tization and for the implementation of a new political Organizations and networks are therefore establishedlanguages, currencies, armies, weights and measures, re- project for Brazil, especially via popular participation by those who believe they share similar identities. Thisflecting the rarity of commercial and moral exchanges organized by political parties, unions and religious “community of commons” – grouping together equalsamong fiefdoms. The desire for new things that fueled entities, in the 1990s it was motivated above all by while concomitantly separating them from the rest – isthe “creative destruction” said to be characteristic of the fight against discrimination, exclusion and seg- not considered suffocating for the individual. Memberscapitalist economies forced people to effect a constant mentation. From then until the mid-2000s, coinciding do not just “turn off and drop out” at the slightest hitch.succession of minor daily revolutions. with the first ten years of Associação Arte Despertar, Rationality and strategic actions transcend emotion and Brazilians gathered around common projects not nec- passion, leading these organizations to professionalizeThis world did not just establish a new sensibility, new essarily linked to demands for macrostructural change. their staff in many cases.values, and hitherto unimaginable political and economicsystems. It also engendered new forms of sociability and Growth of the so-called middle classes took place against In this context human life becomes an always openinteraction among open and plural individuals eager for a backdrop of democratization in public life and public process of constitution. Without projects for the fu-the ephemeral, fragmentary and transient. The invention causes, alongside financial stability and direct presiden- ture, without a desire to participate in the public sphere,of the individual, begun with the advent of modernity tial elections for the first time in over three decades, with increasingly individualistic interests, valorizing theand intensified during the nineteenth century, culminat- switching the focus for collective causes to the right to exposure of private life and intimacy (their own anded in the 1960s, when the belief in progress came to an have rights. Access to public services and formal equal- others’), many people today have no sense of historicalend, institutions were destabilized, and the importance ity before the state were guaranteed for already existing continuity. Past ways of life no longer inform life ingiven to individual uniqueness increased enormously rights, but the idea of citizenship was extended during the present, which changes ever more quickly; and the(owing to an accumulation of factors such as the Viet- this period in Brazil to enable groups and sectors pre- future is uncertain when it does not sound like a blastnam War debacle, international terrorism, economic viously denied any rights to organize behind demands from the apocalyptic trumpets (heralding global warm-crisis, shortages of raw materials, and fear of nuclear for the right to have their differences recognized. The ing, terrorist attacks, nuclear bombs, environmentalcatastrophe). The situation was aggravated by the end creation of the right to one’s own body, the right to disasters, new diseases etc., all added together to resultof the collective utopias represented by the societies that environmental protection and the right to decent in a feeling of imminent risk). The present is protected,had experimented with socialism. Together with the Ber- housing are examples of innovations that entailed the safeguarded, disguised, recycled; imprisoned thus inlin Wall, the belief in changing society via participation formal acquisition of a new legal framework, but more endless youth, individuals today are submitted to a con-in political movements also fell. In Brazil, the end of the importantly envisaged a new model of social relations. nection with life and with the world.
People choose whatever is easiest or momentarily individual, his or her ability to change during life’s 3enjoyable, easily relinquishing the ethics of duty, of course is also fundamentally important. Individualslong-term investment. In the world, but alienated are capable of reflecting on the process of their own AWAKENING WITH AND FOR ARTfrom it, submitted to an avalanche of data, images formation – this opens up an opportunity for personaland information produced in this Information Age, intervention in their own identity. Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzithey retain nothing; nothing is for keeps, and thereis no concern to memorize. The new keeps on com- This identity should be thought of as always unfin- In the modern period aesthetics has become aning. People are hedonistic, investing time, energy and ished, always under construction. It should be thought essentially philosophical discipline less concerned withmoney in an endeavor to “know themselves”, seek- of neither as uniform nor necessarily coherent. analyses of beauty and nature than with attempts toing their essence in yoga, psychoanalysis, meditation, answer or clarify a number of questions ... about theacupuncture or Zen therapies. Even religions that So in principle we are all more willing to take part in re- nature of the art object and the character of its creation,promise collective forms of salvation are in decline. flection on and construction of our own life courses, to the appreciation, interpretation and evaluation of art, andIndividual practice liberates the individual. be co-authors of our own biographies, than to partici- the relations of art to society, all of which can be examined pate in a project to transform collective reality thought at different levels of complexity.”In this context, people see themselves as so completely up by others and decided on out of our sight. To takeliberated from the fetters of collectivity that they can art in all its many hues and forms as an instrument Donald Crawford. 1even imagine and invent a new identity for themselves. for promoting full human development may also meanThe fact is that there has never been so much talk to conceive of self-fashioning, creation of oneself, asabout people’s lives; never has intimacy itself been so going one step further in achieving more responsible When Regina Vidigal Guarita invited me to help de-openly declared and publicized; never have there been freedom over one’s own life. This transcendence sign what was to become Associação Arte Despertar,so many biographies. “Blog yourself” is the order of would also make it possible to overstep the boundaries by reflecting on art and art education, Brazil was expe-the day. The fashion is to open yourself up, to tell all of an individual project and commit to a collective one. riencing a period of epistemological effervescence withwithout delay to your social network friends and to Understanding the influence of outside factors can be regard to the latter. The debate was triggered by Anaunknown followers of all your steps. the way to start multiplying the humanizing capacity to Mae Barbosa’s “Triangular Approach”, which I will ex- assume responsibility for the formation of those who plain in a moment.It is worth recalling that this situation – the existence are still to come, a chance to re-create the collectiveof free, rational individuals who desire maximum experience out of the re-creation of the individual. The challenge of building a theoretical foundation forself-satisfaction – is the result of a social process. If the actions of the future Associação Arte Despertarthe ego is no longer seen as passive, like plaster to be Transformational action can be awoken in people who was intensely discussed at many meetings. We startedmodeled by determinations given at its origin, this is are ethically committed to examine themselves with the with a number of questions:attributable to its capacity for reflecting, questioning responsibility of seeing themselves interacting with aitself, pondering itself and the world on the basis of collectivity lacking in solidarity and valorization of the 1. How do people relate to art?conditions that exist in everyday life. human in everyone. Art is a means for this continuous movement to put itself into perspective, as the first step 2. How do people learn art?Starting from the conception of an individual not just in reconstructing the ability to see the outside world andas a member of a certain species but also as an “in- the other. Without requirements regarding prior educa- 3. What is it important to teach in art?divisible” person (from the Latin individuus), we might tional attainment, the activities and experiences offeredsay that at least one thing is permanent despite all by Arte Despertar during its first decade have not onlythe changes that occur during a subject’s life: identity. broadened the cultural horizons of its beneficiaries, but 1 Donald Crawford. The Questions of Aesthetics. In: Tópicos Utópicos,Alongside the role of other instances in forming the resulted in the possibility of a new social positioning. Ana Mae Barbosa, p. 41 18 I 19
4. How can the content of art education and learning There is no predominant procedure or hierarchy inbe organized? these combinations or their content. On the con- trary, the key is the pertinence of each choice, always5. Will the work situations in art to be offered by Associa- emphasizing the coherence between objectives andção Arte Despertar constitute art education and learning? methods. In light of this, organicity and flexibility are also important in such an approach to art education.6. What is the specific focus for the organization’s activi-ties? Will it set out to influence the reality of art education? The methodology can perhaps best be grasped in pic- torial form, as shown in the figures.The theoretical and methodological components ofthe Triangular Approach to art education helped us In Figure 1, the construction of knowledge in art takesdevelop answers to these questions, thanks to the topi- place at the intersection of Making, Reading and Con-cality and pertinence of the research undertaken by Ana textualizing. It derives from the dynamic interaction of Figure 1. Construction of Knowledge in ArtMae Barbosa, who was then the director of Museum subjects who act on reality, which is in turn made up ofof Contemporary Art at the University of São Paulo. biological reality and sociocultural reality. In Ana MaeHer research was largely inspired by three art education Barbosa’s own words: “The crossing of aesthetic stan-movements: Mexico’s Open Air Schools (Escuelas al dards with values-based critical discernment should beAire Libre), Critical Studies in the U.K., and Discipline the dialectical principle that presides over the contentBased Art Education in the U.S. of the school art education curriculum, through the magic of making, the reading of this making and ofAccording to Ana Mae Barbosa, the construction of the making of popular and academically trained artists,knowledge in art takes place at the intersection of experi- and the contextualizing of these artists in their timeence with codification and information. In this context and space” (BARBOSA, 1994, p.34).research and comprehension of the questions involvingthe relations between art and public become an object Figure 2 represents in colors the three major formsof knowledge. Thus an art education program should of human thought that interact in bio/socio/cul-consider three basic activities to be executed in contact tural reality: ART (red), PHILOSOPHY (green) andwith art: “making art”, “reading artworks”, and “contex- SCIENCE (blue). The other colors produced by theirtualizing”, by which she means placing information and intersections represent the multiplicity of areas mobi-knowledge about art and art history “in dialogue” with lized in a single act of knowledge.other areas of human knowledge. This gives the follow-ing possible combinations or “sequences”: The points of light correspond to the moments at which Making Art, Reading Artworks and Contextu- SEQUENCE 1 READ MAKE CONTEXTUALIZE alizing Art/Knowledge about Art intersect as a result of the choices made by the subjects of artistic pro- SEQUENCE 2 MAKE READ CONTEXTUALIZE cesses. In the words of Deleuze and Guattari: “What Figure 2. Visual schema of dynamics of bio/socio/ SEQUENCE 3 CONTEXTUALIZE MAKE READ defines thought in its three great forms – art, science cultural reality SEQUENCE 4 READ CONTEXTUALIZE MAKE and philosophy – is always confronting chaos [...] SEQUENCE 5 CONTEXTUALIZE READ MAKE But philosophy wants to save the infinite by giving SEQUENCE 6 MAKE CONTEXTUALIZE READ it consistency [...] Science, on the other hand, relin-
quishes the infinite in order to gain reference. [...] Art These are the theoretical foundations that gave sustain- ART READwants to create the finite that restores the infinite [...]” ability to the activities of Associação Arte Despertar.(Deleuze e Guattari, 1992). PHILOSOPHY In the ensuing years, action and reflection on practiceFigure 3 attributes colors to the three main forms of gave its activities methodological consistency, from SCIENCEthought. Figure 4 represents in shapes the actions of which derives the quality that can be seen from thiswhich the construction of knowledge in art consists. publication commemorating its ten years of existence. Figure 3 Figure 4Figure 5 shows the two-way connections between The Triangular Approach has become the paradigmactions (Making, Reading, Contextualizing) and of contemporary art education, permitting a closeknowledge areas (Art, Science, Philosophy). interrelation between subjects and art while also actu- alizing its dynamics and sociocultural importance.Figure 6 shows the intersections between actions andknowledge areas in a given bio/socio/cultural reality. Therefore, in drawing up a balance sheet of the activi- ties developed by Associação Arte Despertar, we canThe visual approximations of the shapes shown in pose a number of questions that arise from its theo-Figure 7 enable us to see that any given knowledge retical and methodological choices:area is made up partly of collaboration by and inputs Figure 5 Figure 6from others, since the division of knowledge into • What understanding has Associação Arte Desper-distinct areas and disciplines, characteristic of the tar developed with regard to this approach to artsocial construction of knowledge in the west, no lon- education, and how has it been operationalized in theger corresponds to the understanding of reality and various activities performed since its inception?knowledge in the early 21st century. Figure 8 illustratesthe dynamics of actions and knowledge as they move • Is this understanding present in all artistic languages?apart, move together and merge. When they merge in acertain way, they become art and/or knowledge of art, • Have there been changes over time? If so, what hasfeeding back into the sociocultural dynamics of reality: changed? “Pertinent knowledge should confront complex- • Have there been difficulties? Successes? What kind? ity. Complexus means woven together, plaited. What solutions have been found? Figure 7 Complexity exists where different elements are inseparable components of a whole (such as the • What impact has this conception of the construction economic, political, sociological, psychological, of knowledge in art had on the constitutive process of affective, mythological) and where there is an inter- Associação Arte Despertar? dependent, interactive and inter-retroactive tissue between the object of knowledge and its context, between the parts and the whole, between the whole and its parts, and between the parts them- selves. Thus complexity is the union between unity and multiplicity” (MORIN, 2000, p.38). Figure 8 20 I 21
4 to ensure that it would be able to operate with mobil- - experiencing art does not require prior knowledge or ity and security. specific skills, but sensitivity, motivation and involve-A WORD ABOUT US ment, in which everyone is equally capable of doing A multidisciplinary team of specialized professionals whatever is proposed;Maria Angela de Souza Lima Rizzi developed the first projects to help children expressMaria Helena da Cruz Sponton themselves through art. - effective action based on the various different languag- es of art has to be committed to principles of ethics, The activities that came, over time, to constitute the solidarity, citizenship, respect, autonomy and dignity.ARTE DESPERTAR AND GOVERNANCE association’s own methodology were always imple-Experience is everything that passes through us or mented through partnerships. These values informed the very first activities under-touches us or happens to us, and in so doing forms and taken by the association, when it was run by a smalltransforms us. Thus only the subject of experience is The partners were institutions that shared the mission team, and continue to underpin its more complex andopen to his or her own transformation. and goals of Arte Despertar, as well as its ethical com- wide-ranging projects today, in its ongoing work to mitment to respect other people and welcome them with give meaning to life and project the future throughJorge Larrosa all their differences, making these core values part of the art and culture. participants’ day-to-day lives as much as the capacity for dialogue that is intrinsic to human nature.FIRST ACTIONS INSTITUTIONAL GOVERNANCE The association began with two activities – one in part-Ideas are rarely born ready-made and perfect. Arte nership with the Heart Institute (InCor) at Hospital das Setting up the association required the drafting of aDespertar is no exception. Much has changed since Clínicas in the city of São Paulo (HCFMUSP), and the statute stating its purpose and the principles under-its foundation. Challenges have arisen and been over- other at the SOS Children’s Village in Rio Bonito, São lying its activities, the establishment of a board andcome; many others lie ahead. The need to adapt to Paulo State. Both activities took place in August 1997. executive committee, and the creation of a system ofa wide range of situations and a permanent will to governance based on probity and impartiality.change are part of the association’s DNA. Six months later, on January 15, 1998, Associação Arte Despertar was legally established as a nonprofit organi- The people who participated in the association atNúcleo Arte Despertar, as it was called initially, was zation with the official mission of awakening individuals’ its inception were those who had contributed to itsset up to consolidate a different approach to art edu- potential through art and culture to take transformative creation in one way or another. They were recog-cation from the usual educational activities offered action. In focusing on art, education and culture as the nized by the statute as founder members. The statuteto children and families in situations of social vul- pillars of its activities, Arte Despertar also adopted and also created the categories of honorary membersnerability. The idea of focusing on inclusion was its set out to disseminate the following core values: and contributing members, and set out their rightsfounder’s. She had long talks with various consul- and obligations, which include complying with andtants, discussing concepts and deciding what areas to - addressing social problems is the responsibility of so- amending the statute, electing board members, dis-cover. She opted for fostering access to art, culture ciety in its entirety (social organizations, government, missing directors, auditing accounts, approvingand education, and plans for the first institutional private enterprise and the community in general) and financial statements and important property transac-initiatives were developed. of every individual in particular; tions, and winding up the association.While the Núcleo was thinking about what to do, - the development of skills and abilities makes individ- The association also established an advisory boardwork was going on to establish the association as a uals fitter to interact with their environment, enabling and a supervisory board made up of members wholegal entity and to prepare it for action. The aim was them to take action that drives positive change; volunteered to assume the responsibility of assuring
the effective pursuit of its social objectives and safe- which is to help people awaken to themselves and toguarding its moral and ethical integrity. the cultural universe in which they live and to which ART, EDUCATION they are entitled. To this end the association develops AND CULTURE: PREMISESSince then all board members have put their time, ex- social inclusion initiatives in non-formal and health-perience and competence at the association’s disposal related educational spaces. We recognize that art represents the cultural apotheosisto guarantee healthy governance and sustainability, of a society, but we reserve very little space for artworking to maintain its strategic vision, analyze re- education in cultural institutions. Why?ports, and develop solutions to legal, financial or DESIGNING A LOGOaccounting issues. Ana Mae Barbosa Designing a logo was a symbolically importantThe advisory board’s job is to steer the development part of the process of institutional creation, sinceof the association and advise it on the best way to it would synthesize the values and goals of Arte Time modifies people, society, the planet. Changepursue its policies and institutional mission. The su- Despertar. The first design consisted of a clearly de- is a vital part of human existence in today’s world.pervisory board oversees accounting, tax and financial fined organic cell above the name of the association, From an institutional perspective, however, certainaffairs, analyzing information and documents, and is- Associação Arte Despertar, printed in large, bold values have always been at the heart of everythingsuing technical or legal opinions. letters. This was later modified by removing the Arte Despertar does: ethics, solidarity, citizenship, word “Associação” to demonstrate consolidation of respect, autonomy and dignity. As a third-sectorGovernance activities consist mostly of meetings, some the institution, and by making the cell larger and organization, the association shares with all suchformal, as required by the statute, many ad hoc. Given bolder to emphasize the idea of organicity. The cell organizations the idea that social and culturalthe importance of these meetings to the running of the was also redrawn to suggest movement and symbol- development is the responsibility of the entireassociation, they are prepared by the administrative staff ize the institution’s development in terms of both community and of every individual, and is an in-and validated by the executive committee. continuity and change. strument of change. The association therefore seeks to integrate different social segments by building aThe day-to-day running of the association is dele- The pages that follow show how from the very first network of partners committed to social responsi-gated to the executive committee and administrative initiatives developed by a small team to today’s more bility in action.staff. The executive committee has three members, complex and ambitious projects the association hasa president and two directors. It is responsible for always been driven by its commitment to human In the association’s choices, art and culture play aplanning and implementing all operating and finan- development, enhancing the value of individuals key role in the process of building relationships withcial processes, interacting with the administrative through art and culture, and fostering access to cul- children and adults, and in working toward theirstaff and the other boards as necessary. The ad- tural goods. The progress achieved, challenges faced inclusion and the restructuring of society. Since itsministrative staff are led by a financial manager, a and obstacles overcome in a decade have helped build inception it has focused on fostering interactionproject manager and a product manager. There is the knowledge base described here. and on involving people in art-educational and cul-also one intern. tural processes that strengthen different forms of After ten years of activities it is time to draw up a humanization, social inclusion, reflection, commu-External audits of the association’s internal controls balance sheet of the work we have done, the trans- nication, expression, and knowledge construction.and processes have been conducted since 2004 to as- formations achieved in people and environments,sure credibility and transparency. our contributions to better interpersonal relation- Arte Despertar believes that contact with art de- ships, and how our activities have helped potential velops perception, imagination, memory, attention,From the start all governance activities have been de- and talent to flower in places where art has not tradi- intellect, judgment, thought and language, elementssigned to enable Arte Despertar to fulfill its purpose, tionally been present. of the process of self-knowledge, knowledge of 22 I 23
others, and knowledge of the environment. The ART IS TRANSFORMATION human development and increases cognitive potentialassociation seeks to combine the perceptible and in terms of conceiving and seeing the world in differ-the intelligible through interaction with the par- Art can raise man up from a fragmented state into ent ways that are closely linked to the interests of thoseticipants in its projects. Through respect for the that of a whole being. Art enables man to comprehend who learn to attribute meanings. This way of proposingpeople with whom they interact, and particularly reality, and not only helps him to bear it but increases experimentation with art can break through barriers offor what makes each one unique, its art educators his determination to make it more human and more exclusion, since art education is grounded not in talent orgradually discover their perceptual, mnemonic and worthy of mankind. Art is itself a social reality. Society a personal gift but in each person’s ability to experiment.cognitive potential, enabling them to experience needs the artist, that supreme magician, and it hasthe encounter with art as a fount of knowledge and a right to demand of him that he should be conscious The beneficiaries of Arte Despertar’s activities areself-fulfillment. of his social function. Even the most subjective of encouraged to take risks, to stick their necks out, to artists works on behalf of society. By the sheer fact of draw, paint, represent, touch, write and read. TheseIn the specific context in which the activities oc- describing feelings, relationships, and conditions that activities are not regarded as competitive, but as experi-cur, this approach, alongside the reflection and have not been described before, [he is] reaching out ences, personal or collective. This principle means thatinteraction it motivates, opens up a multiplicity of into a new collective full of differences and tension, all those involved see themselves as participants in andviewpoints, ways to express creativity and foster in- where the individual voice is not lost in a vast unison. creators of their own paths. Their discoveries are madeterpersonal exchange. possible by the art they experience, which is not incom- Ernst Fischer prehensible, elitist or distant from reality.Thus the association’s work in this field contributesto significant advances in social responsibility, pro- Art is the foundation for all the activities of Arte Des- Thus conceived, art takes into consideration differentmoting creation and dialogue and promoting richer pertar. Art plays an important role in people’s lives, ways of producing, comprehending and organizinghuman relationships through art and culture. especially in an unequally structured society. Access to social life. Culture in turn is seen as in permanent trans- art allows people to find creative solutions to everyday formation and expansion, and as a basis for action thatA key feature of its projects, and one that makes challenges, such as inclusion. fosters the construction of knowledge. In this sensethem unique, is that its team of art educators work there is no division between theory and practice, reasonin the communities and hospitals where art and cul- Nineteenth-century rationalism claimed that society and perception. The result is in an integrative approachture make a difference. Moreover, the interpersonal should place a high value on scientific and verbal lan- that values skills and enables those who create or ap-relationships facilitated by its activities foster learn- guage. As a result, for much of the twentieth century preciate to deal with complexity.ing by doing, discovering the talent of each person, the importance of visual literacy to an understandingexperimenting, and expressing sensibility through of other languages was ignored. However, at the start Art transcends immediatism, presenting itself as athe languages of art. of the twenty-first century the image stands out as the way of constructing knowledge. It develops per- characteristic language of the age, present in billboards, ception, imagination, memory, attention, intellect,The concepts and choices behind the activities television and computers. Thus to cope with everyday judgment, thought and language, elements that makeof Arte Despertar are grounded in premises that life it is important to be familiar with different languag- up the process of cognition. Through these facul-situate art as a creative activity which requires ex- es and interact with a wide variety of art works as a ties, according to Paulo Freire (1982), humanizationperimentation, appreciation and interpretation of mode of expression, a source of interpersonal experi- is configured as a finishing point, as the bearer ofthe codes through which human beings seek to ence, and a form of access to contemporary culture. capabilities that develop awareness and enable the in-communicate and attribute meanings to the world. dividual to act and think as an author.The organizing principles described below were de- Based on this recognition of the necessity of art and itsveloped by its art educators to orient its practices transformational capacity, Arte Despertar’s activities This approach to the languages of art as tools for con-along these lines. disseminate the idea that producing art contributes to struction, knowledge and expression is in tune with the
latest findings in the field of art education. By reflect- The practices of Arte Despertar are inspired by the various ways. For this reason, Moacir Gadotti (1979,ing on its own experience in the field, Arte Despertar work of four educators: Paulo Freire, Jean Piaget, Lev p. 107) characterizes Freire as a critical constructivist:contributes to the consolidation of a new pedagogy and Vygotsky, and Elliot Eisner.strengthens the conception of art as specific knowledge, You learn when you want to learn and you learn onlywhich it regards as a process of cognition grounded in Freire’s theory of popular education orients the prac- what is meaningful, say the constructivists. Pauloperceiving as a way of knowing, as theorized by Ru- tices of Arte Despertar, which sets out to transform Freire was also one of the creators of constructivism,dolf Arnheim (2002). Thus it enables subjects to reflect, reality by treating the individual as an active subject but of critical constructivism. Ever since his first ex-understand and acquire tools that make their own and protagonist of the teaching-learning process. By periments in the Northeast of Brazil in the 1960s, hetransformation possible. developing joint activities in different public spaces, sought to ground teaching-learning in interactive en- the association extends the opportunities for ex- vironments through the use of audiovisual resources.Arte Despertar’s activities are driven by its vision of the perience and forms communities of culture that Later he reinforced the use of new technology, espe-human being as a symbolic animal. We invent and cre- permanently recreate Freire’s legacy in workshops, cially video, television and the computer. But he didate symbols to interpret the world. We use our ability seminars, study groups and working groups. These not accept its uncritical use.to symbolize as part of our reason, but also in language, teaching-learning processes enable socially vulner-art, religion and myth, according to Ernst Cassirer able people to emancipate themselves. The high For Piaget (1974), the subject extracts knowledge(1994). Without all this, human life would be reduced value placed on everyday experience and on popular from action. He advocates innovative and activeto the satisfaction of biological necessities and practical knowledge and traditions opens up a perspective for education that motivates learners to make discov-interests, lacking projects of any kind. the recognition of individual creativity. eries and to see themselves as relevant partners in the teaching-learning process.Each individual combines perception, imagina- In The Importance of the Act of Reading (1982), Freire de-tion and a cultural and historical repertoire to read scribes how reading can stimulate and contribute to Vygotsky’s emphasis on the social nature of all men-the world and re-present it in a unique manner us- the study of lived daily life. In order for experience tal activity (1991) completes the social-interactionisting forms, colors, sounds, movements, rhythms and to become concrete as education, it is necessary for and constructivist approach adopted by Arte Des-scenes. These and other elements of art constitute the there to be dialogue, exchange and interaction. Sub- pertar. While in general there are more divergenceslanguages used by Arte Despertar to humanize peo- jects who dialogue think together and recreate reality, than convergences between Piaget and Vygotsky,ple’s environments, restore their self-esteem, educate as long as truth is the foundation for this joint activity. both understand knowledge as adaptation and in-them, and include them in society. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, however, Freire claims that dividual construction, and both see learning and “while to say the true word – which is work, which is development as self-regulated. While Piaget is inter- praxis – is to transform the world, saying that word is ested in the ways in which knowledge is constructed,ART IS CITIZENSHIP not the privilege of a few, but the right of everyone” so that his theory focuses on the mental construc- (2005, p. 90) [Continuum, NY/London, 2000, p. 88]. tion of the individual, Vygotsky highlights the waysThe movement from the world to the word and from the This perspective makes possible a dialectic between in which social and cultural factors influence theword to the world is always present. In this movement action and reflection that is essential for an education learner’s intellectual development.the spoken word flows from our reading of the world. that problematizes the real.However, we can go further and say that reading the Piaget underscores the biological aspects of theword is not merely preceded by reading the world, but In his formulation of the premises for the pedagogy educational process. The stages in which mentalby a certain form of writing it, or re-writing it, that is, of of freedom, Freire argues that technology is an instru- development unfolds are supported by biology andtransforming it by means of our conscious practice. ment for students to act on the object of study and identical for all individuals. Similarly, knowledge is ac- acquire a new worldview. Content is not passively as- quired through exchanges and interactions with thePaulo Freire similated, he says, but worked on and reworked in object. The individual reconstructs the object to ap- 24 I 25
propriate it and give it meaning, first through action beliefs, needs and values, moderated by individual- For this reason it is also important to consider theand then through representation. ity. For Freire, awareness of experience generates concept of multiculturality, introduced in Brazil by knowledge, whereas for Eisner experiencing the Ana Mae Barbosa (1998). Thanks to multiculturalism,For Vygotsky, on the other hand, culture is all-important. empirical world depends on the biological system, everyone can have access to the knowledge offeredMental development is always associated with culture on the senses, which it refines while broadening by art, as long as they are sensitive to different formsand its internalization by the individual. In culture, each the imagination. Thus the work done through art of culture and knowledge, and provided they developsubject symbolizes and creates significant elements that potentializes knowledge and heightens the subject’s the ability to integrate the diversities and singularitiesgive meaning to life. The close connection between the awareness of his or her context. This is why art is that are characteristic of social groups. In contempo-individual and culture means that art helps subjects orga- important: it stimulates tolerance of ambiguity and rary Brazilian society individuals frequently interactnize and construct the world, enabling them to reflect on explores multiple meanings. There is no such thing with others from different cultures and subcultures.social practice in the light of instruments created by the as right and wrong in art: everything is more less Although all are closely linked, they can be identifiedmind to interpret the world. adequate, more or less meaningful, more or less in- by ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, geo- ventive or therapeutic. graphic location, income, social class, occupation,Other concepts that are important to Arte Desper- education and religion. A multiculturalist attitude totar and come from Vygotsky are the real zone, i.e. art, however, will pay attention to art’s role in life forthe knowledge already possessed by participants, ART IS EDUCATION each group and try to understand that although ev-and the zone of proximal development, i.e. their eryone needs art, the concept of art itself may differpotential knowledge, which can be activated by edu- Only education that strengthens cultural diversity according to the values of different groups and thecational work with art and culture to enhance their can be understood as democratic. Multiculturalism role art plays in their lives.problem-solving capacity. is the common denominator of today’s movements to democratize education around the world. (...) A Whatever the situation, however, thought and feelingThe thought of Elliot Eisner (1987) also inspires the concern with cultural plurality, multiculturality and are always present. In the words of Fayga Ostrower actions of Arte Despertar. According to Eisner, peo- interculturality necessarily leads to respect for (1987, p.39), ple do four main things in the relationship with art: differences, avoiding pasteurization and homogeneity.“They look at art. They understand the place of art in “creating is an existential process. It does not deal culture over the ages. They make judgments about its Ana Mae Barbosa only with thoughts or only with emotions, but origi- qualities. They make art.” These activities are based nates in the depths of our being where emotion on the specifics of each art work and on details of A work of art has emotional and cognitive qualities permeates thought while the intellect structures and the relationship between the art work and the public. that contain information of a social and cultural na- organizes the emotions. Creative action shapes theThey may be mediated by actions capable of pointing ture. It cannot be understood without contextualizing world of feeling, making it legible and intelligible.” to new meanings for different participants, with the the socio-cultural knowledge that is being com- meanings being actualized or contextualized by indi- municated, for art always relates to specific values, Given the transformational power of art and its capac-vidual or collective motivations. psychological symptoms and worldviews that make ity to provide access to cultural experience, especially it concrete as a social fact. This perspective is pre- for socially vulnerable people and the hospitalized,In this sense, Eisner and Freire converge. While sented by Fayga Ostrower (1987), for whom it is Arte Despertar uses non-formal art education to ex-Eisner emphasizes imagination, Freire suggests possible to recognize that the conscious and sensi- tend the opportunities for collaboration to achievethe prevalence of dialogue to consolidate so- tive potential of each individual is always realized citizenship and enhance self-esteem.cial awareness. In both, education is mediated by inside cultural forms. Arte Despertar shares this ideathe world, formatted by culture, and influenced and therefore endeavors to retrieve the culture and Its practices always involve action, linking with theby languages. There is also the strong impact of history of the groups with which it interacts. realities represented, and reflection. Its methodology
universalizes the right to art and culture. It aims to through which it is possible to attribute meaning and uality and self-esteem are strengthened. Living derivesensure that every activity is an experience within the follow, research and document creative processes from perception and the experience of belonging, oflearning process and the personal development of individually or collectively. Using this language devel- feeling part of a collectivity, which develops bond-each participant. ops visual literacy, enabling the subject to decode and ing, cooperation, affection and complicity, as well as resignify the contexts in which it appears, as well as respect for differences. Participating develops respon- paving the way to personal experimentation, signifi- sibility, involvement and commitment. Learning to see,LANGUAGES OF ART: CULTURAL cation, enhanced self-esteem, and the opportunity to listen and touch develops sensitivity to different lan-DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE think about art and make critical judgments about the guages, which in turn paves the way to self-expression, subject’s own production and that of others. and to new and different forms of communicationThe starting-point for creation is reality, but it is also capable of attributing other meanings to thoughts,necessary to deploy prior experience and personal and Literary language explores the representational po- emotions and feelings.cultural history determined by time and space, and to tential of fiction, develops the habit of reading and theresort to various ways of giving new meaning to what pleasure of coming into contact with literary genres The creative process triggered by art educators andone sees, recalls and feels. Consumers of art follow the through storytelling, re-creation, and talking about the mediated by art fosters discoveries and the pursuit ofsame path in appreciating art, attributing meaning to material read. These activities stimulate active apprecia- personal trajectories, without comparisons or competi-what they see, hear or read based on their own universe. tion, in which the production of meaning with regard tiveness, which is vitally important for individuals toThis knowledge, organized through symbolic systems, to different human situations and social contexts, or in develop and mature, while refining their capacity to see.can be expressed in images, gestures, words, sounds response to personal difficulties, takes place through In all learning situations the intervention of specialists isand shapes that constitute the languages through which fantasy, enabling readers to experience and think about transformational because it provides a context in whichpeople interrogate the world around them. a wide variety of phenomena from the safety of the arm- participants can learn to construct meaning. chair. They are also designed to promote critical reading,The activities of Arte Despertar prioritize theatrical, whereby the subject actively interprets and infers fromvisual, literary and musical languages. Despite some the text, in what has been called authorial reading.overlaps, each of these languages has its own specifici- ARTISTIC AND CULTURALties and entails a theoretical approach that underpins a Activities involving musical language develop ap- SENSIBILITY: METHODOLOGICALparticular methodology. preciation, performance and composition with the aim of creating or extending repertoires, instilling ASPECTS AND RELEVANT ACTIVITIESTheatrical language focuses on reading, writing, ap- notions of discipline, balance, harmony and respect,preciation and reflection. These are group activities, enabling the expression of local culture, and develop- Individuals see the world not just with their eyes but withwhich make intense use of individual experience and ing a good ear and creative musical skills. every particle of their individuality. Each person’s wayknowledge but can promote the acquisition of new of seeing is closely associated with their personal history,collective understanding by exploring different kinds These languages determine Arte Despertar’s choices and with the culture, time and specific moment of theirof dramatic content. Cooperative practices motivated in terms of personnel, practice areas, methodologies lives. This is how Danilo Miranda (2006, p. 20) puts it:by the experience of doing theater foster collaboration, and partnerships. Making art is as important as ap-interdependence and reflection about values and at- preciating and understanding art, in terms of being, “(...) memories of playing in the park, soul musictitudes inherent in group work, as well as enhancing living, participating, and learning to see, hear, touch, sung in backyards, native sounds, memories ofself-esteem and self-knowledge. and express one’s feelings. intimacy (...) memories of small non-utilitarian, non-civilized things, all of them oral vestiges of aThe language of the visual arts develops the ability Aspects related to being are made explicit in meetings culture, as brief as life itself. Mário de Andrade be-to see, judge and interpret images from visual culture, with the group, in which everyone is equal and individ- lieved a people’s greatest treasure resides in these 26 I 27
less precious things that fade away with the voice ity is a kind of knowledge in which rational thought MEDIATORS OF ACTION – perishable, relational, ephemeral things, and, for is blended with sensory information. Arte Despertar this very reason, living things.” invites people in situations of social vulnerability or Human beings are inexorably inclined by nature to bond otherwise at risk, such as for health reasons, to make with others. We find in others an indispensable supportArte Despertar invests in interpersonal relationships better use of their senses. This is another important for our original incompleteness. We become what weand transformation of the environment. In addition to aspect of its methodology, involving the development are thanks to these contacts in our lives. We exist bystimulating individual expression, it develops creativity, of sensibility and the capacity of all participants in a coexisting, even against our will.especially the capacity to produce different solutions to given activity to recognize the sensations provided bythe same challenge. This is justified by its theoretical their senses via lived experience. Gimeno Sacristánpremises, materialized in art education and motiva-tional cultural activities taken to different spaces and The association’s art educators, who mediate these ac- Arte Despertar aims to bring about the interaction of artcommunities in specific projects, workshops and labs, tivities through art and culture, highlight the processes and people through the mediation of art educators work-training programs, courses, lectures, or visits to cul- of perception and awaken an interest in registering ing with children and adults. Its activities are designed totural institutions. These activities involve processes of identity and belonging. Thus in the interaction between provide significant experiences of self-knowledge andrepresentation or expression of the real world, favor- spectator and object, or between the producer and the knowledge of the world through art, transformed into aing intercommunication and sensibility. work, information is captured by the body and sensa- powerful ally in the construction of life projects. tions are assimilated before becoming reflection.Sensibility is understood as the capacity to capture The people responsible for Arte Despertar’s inter-and express feelings, but also as being responsible for This is why there is interaction among the participants ventions are professionals who are deeply familiarknowledge construction, since it can be the gateway in Arte Despertar’s activities, as different ways of see- with the content, capable of leading productiveto the creation of meaning during the mediation per- ing the world and experiencing emotions come into discussion, and well-equipped to guide processesformed by art and culture. contact with each other. In this context, becoming of discovery by the other participants. Their quali- aware of one’s own thoughts is exercising thinking as fications and experience also enable them to act asThe ability to handle feelings is acquired in response to a practice, and preparing the terrain for transforma- trainers in courses and workshops.the stimulus of individual experience, which may take tion. It is also a way of being sensitive, experiencingthe form of gestures, words, drawings, and even looking. the sensibility to think one’s own thoughts, and allow- Considering the nature of mediation, careful planning ing oneself to be affected by them. always precedes the start of an activity. To meet theAccording to Ana Mae Barbosa (2005 p. 99), sensibility is needs of participants and the context for the interven-a set of organic functions that seek intelligibility, pleasure However, sensibility is the capacity not just to per- tion, every team comprises a pedagogue, a psychologistand sensuality: “As a language that sharpens the senses, ceive but also to interpret sensations, extending the and art educators. The team prepare an action plan,art conveys meanings that cannot be conveyed by any conditions for reading. In this sense, all participants conduct research, produce proposals, draw on previ-other language, discursive or scientific.” Thus it is seen in the initiatives developed by Arte Despertar are si- ous experience, and define priorities, the languages ofas an instrument for seeking sensitive perception, which multaneously teachers and learners. Thus by creating art to be used and the modes of action that best suitenables people to feel and perceive the world. spaces for action and defining themes to be developed, the characteristics of the beneficiaries and venue. the mediators also experience the languages of art andArte Despertar encourages seeing from the standpoint culture, which are the vehicles for Arte Despertar’s As the first step toward practical engagement, theof another person, so that participants can develop activities, and all the people involved are able at one planning stage brings the mediators into contact withtheir imagination and understand its role in creating and the same time to learn and to teach, to propose the environment in which they will operate and thepersonal or cultural meaning. Sensibility perceives the and participate, to question and argue, to sensitize goals they intend to achieve. During a project theworld, but imagination creates it first. Thus sensibil- others and themselves by doing and making. team hold regular meetings to discuss what has been
done, also allowing themselves to be affected by their of their own work. There are also moments of ex- ner’s culture, imagine ways of acting, and insert itselfown thoughts about the experience. Thus sensibility change among all team members, when they discuss into the reality in which it will act, taking art and cul-opens up perspectives, enabling the mediators to per- action plans and the problems that arise therefrom, ture as a criterion for mediation.ceive, interpret sensations and put themselves in the and where they socialize their experiences and evalu-position of learners through reflection. In the words ations of the process. The activities of Arte Despertar derive from the con-of Alicia Fernandez (2001, p. 42), “only when you po- text, from analysis, and from reflection on immediatesition yourself as a teacher can you learn; only when In this sense, art educators are also mediators, fa- reality. Thus this stage aims to construct knowledgeyou position yourself as a learner can you teach”. To cilitators responsible for helping people become and is not passive but involves an exchange betweenproduce work that is intimately linked to sensibility it more aware of the value of their own repertoires partners, dialogue, and the cultural enrichment ofis necessary to be capable of surrendering to it, estab- and identities, creating situations that call for active each partner. The action that follows also tends to belishing a two-way process. This is what enriches the participation, fostering the addition of new aspects dynamic and transformational, deeply rooted as it is inmediation performed by Arte Despertar. to broaden the participants’ cultural horizons, and the culture of the venue. enabling the participants to recognize themselvesPeople change themselves by changing their ways of as knowledge producers.seeing. For Henri Bergson (1978), feelings are “gen- Communitieserators of ideas”. The relationship with “experience”makes the activities meaningful and therefore capable ACTION SPACES When Arte Despertar works in communities, withof changing the participants. Experience is the domain children and young people in situations of social vul-of interpretation and depends on how situations are So what if things are beyond reach? nerability or in projects to train youngsters and socialread. Jorge Larrosa (2001), a Catalan educator, says That’s no reason for not wanting them... educators, its activities focus on eminently art-education-only events that move the learner are transformed How sad the paths if it were not al and cultural values. The idea is to create opportunitiesinto experience and appropriated as meaningful. For the magical presence of the stars for interaction among the different groups, so as to fos- ter sensibility to and awareness of the languages of artBecause art educators are researchers who closely Mário Quintana by using the four pillars of education according to theobserve reality with a critical and creative eye, they report of the International Commission on Educationunderstand their social responsibility and invest in in- Access to cultural and artistic production is a universal for the Twenty-first Century, chaired by Jacques De-teraction, know how to construct knowledge, and take right. In traveling this road in search of art and culture, lors (UNESCO, 1999): learning to know, learning to do,reality into account in their planning, as well as perma- Arte Despertar works in hospitals and in communities learning to live together, and learning to be.nently evaluating their practice, changing it if need be. where there is no access to this type of production. Violence and social vulnerability are worsening inIn sum, they are committed to new pedagogic para- Its interventions are never imposed, never the result the contemporary world, and understanding the re-digms that entail a different approach to teaching and of decisions taken only by the association. On the lationship between them is a major challenge forlearning based on exchange and interaction, partner- contrary, following a general presentation of the proj- governments and civil society. Children from low-in-ship and collaboration. They are also investigators ect and acceptance of partnership, the art educators, come households are among the most affected groups,who set out to do in-depth research into the theory pedagogue and psychologist are chosen and, by mu- suffering from a lack of decent public services, poorand practice of art education and the languages of tual agreement with the partner, this team decide what living conditions, few opportunities for leisure, andart, its relations with culture, its peculiarities, codes, languages to use, how frequently to intervene, what scant prospects of social mobility. All these problemsmaterials, and forms of construction and expression. resources to deploy, and what activities to organize. in turn affect the forms of sociability they customarilyThe investigative dimension is enriched by individ- This first stage has a profound pedagogic meaning, adopt, their expectations for the future, and any life-ual research, training courses and critical analysis since it enables Arte Despertar to approach the part- course projects they may have. 28 I 29
In light of this situation, it is vitally important generated a substantial amount of learning and trans- and the end-result may be an exhibition of visual arts,to propose opportunities for sociability outside formed the social environment. The young people the production of a book of poems, the telling of aschool. Arte Despertar aims to break the vicious concerned became an example worth emulating for story about the place, or the recording of a music CD.circle of vulnerability by means of initiatives that the rest of the community and were sufficiently em-enable these children and young adults to be pro- powered to become monitors, guides and mentors totagonists of change, rejecting the uncertainty and those younger than themselves in activities designed Hospitalsinsecurity in which they live, helping them realize to enrich their artistic sensibility.their potential through art and culture, and seeking In the hospital environment, art is suggested as ato contribute to creative solutions to the problems Also in communities, activities were conducted to means of attenuating the difficulties of everyday life.they face in their day-to-day lives. train nursery teachers and enable them to use differ- Different activities are organized to enable the sub- ent languages with infants up to the age of six. One jects to express their unconscious images throughOur experience with community projects shows that workshop started with storytelling based on the local experience with art and culture, which is equivalentart is one of the possible ways to increase people’s culture. Although initially the activity focused on the to understanding art and culture as a means of self-contact with culture, boost their self-esteem and help infants, the nursery teachers became interested in re- expression, communication and creation in order tothem work on their life-course projects. searching and enriching the life stories of their fellow face suffering proactively and cope with the limita- community members as a result. tions imposed by sickness.The first project was a stimulating challenge. It gaverise to questions and required frequent changes to Among Arte Despertar’s commitments in interacting Recourse to the languages of the arts makes it possiblemeet the participants’ needs. Many lessons were with these communities is empowering their mem- to discover what is poetic and creative in each person,learned, strengthening the association’s convictions bers to expand social capital by introducing them to awakening abilities, potential and meanings that haveand preparing it for future activities with communi- art and culture so that they recognize their potential, often been forgotten or overshadowed by momentsties in the southern suburbs of São Paulo City. learn, and develop the habit of making productive of pain and individual distress. The organization of fa- use of the cultural amenities provided by the city. vorable environments, in conjunction with momentsYouth protagonism was intensified in projects involv- In this way the association’s activities promote in- of relaxation for all participants (patients, carers anding young people, by investing in activities designed clusion, foster access to leisure, entertainment and health workers), encourages some people to over-to help the participants make personal and collective cultural venues and facilities, and increase the op- come the passivity typical of hospital and become theplans for a change of course and appropriation of portunities for children and young people to enjoy subjects of their own lives.the results of research relating to the arts and culture, community life. It also invests in humanization, so-as well as attitudes, values and behaviors capable of cio-cultural insertion and knowledge diffusion. This The common sense view of hospitals is that life therepromoting well-being and education. A successful as- in turn suggests future projects because the lessons is fragmented and tedious, and that they tend to stiflesumption was made that the more consistently these learned encourage reflection on the potential for subjecthood. Investment in activities capable of coun-young people planned for the future, the more they change. The goal is to transform people accustomed teracting this view is important for the subjects whowould seek to perform better in their routine day-to- to the status quo into citizens eager to engage in ac- find themselves in hospital to be able to establishday activities, the broader and more critical would be tivities that change society for the better. positive relationships. The language of art fosters thetheir view of reality, and the more meaningful would expression of emotions, feelings and thoughts, resultingbe the suggestions provided regarding the acquisition Every meeting and every workshop, regardless of in humanization as the driving force for the construc-of specific knowledge, even in the workplace. where it takes place, can unleash the creativity of all tion of closer ties and trust between patients and health the participants, students and art educators alike. As workers, while lessening pain, promoting dialogue withA project involving former participants in Arte Des- a result, the meetings become meaningful, the partici- families and visitors, and mitigating the rigidity and hi-pertar’s visual art workshops was an experience that pants find out more about themselves and the world, erarchy typical of patient-doctor relationships.
The artistic and cultural intervention embodied in which they mutually offer and absorb knowledge develop learning to do; and by using art as a means toArte Despertar’s actions can create integrating and and compassion. This process, which has no begin- construct knowledge of the world, its history and itsstimulating situations, which serve as a gateway to new ning, middle or end, is constantly metamorphosing nature they encourage learning to know.discoveries, and new personal and collective life courses and thus requires careful planning, psychologicalfor all those involved, however desperate the situations and pedagogic guidance for the art educators, andthey may be facing as health workers, patients or carers. availability to socialize repertoires from their own ACTION METHODOLOGY personal experience.Play is a key ally in this transformation. According As the association carries out its activities, it con-to historian Johan Huizinga in Homo Ludens (2008), The work Arte Despertar does in hospitals attempts structs a methodology that derives from its concern toplay shares values with art. By bringing art and play to take art and culture to everyone indiscriminately, ensure that its practices reflect its theoretical choicestogether, Arte Despertar creates an area of escape, combining words, images and sounds. Its art educa- and can be replicated in different places.offering specific disinterested activities that allow tion activities stimulate the patient’s healthy, creativepeople to give expression to life, valorize identity, side, encouraging the expression of individuality and A key element in this methodology, whether activi-draw on their original culture, and create another expanding sensibility. Aesthetic experiences foster ties are conducted in communities or hospitals, is topossible world of wellness and sensibility. looking and thinking individually and collectively, en- observe what is going on in the surrounding area in riching ways of seeing, hearing and feeling the world. order to plan activities that make sense to the differ-In this situation, as noted by the English art critic In this context, art and culture act as mediating instru- ent subjects involved, while also remaining true to theHerbert Read (2001), art helps people escape chaos ments in the dialog between the participants and their theoretical foundations described above.and strengthens a movement of humanization or- external environment.dered by the rhythm of life. Art interrupts daily life This approach, whereby the starting-point for ev-through play, suspending distressful reality and re- Arte Despertar’s interventions are often met with erything the association does is the reality definedplacing it with a different world that is fascinating surprise, or even hostility, because of the strict rules by its partners, influences the content and languagesand enchanting. This aspect suggests a break with the of hospital life, and on occasion it has taken time of the art work used in the projects, and orients thestatus quo, and by accepting the proposal the group for the association’s proposition to be understood. planning of the actions and art-educational activitiesor individual resignifies the environment to escape The effects become visible as the activity proceeds, taken to different places and groups in therapeuticinto a sphere of autonomous activities normally con- however, and interaction between Arte Despertar or awareness-raising sessions, workshops, trainingserved in memory once they are over. and the health workers increases, even leading to courses, programs, lectures and presentations, or vis- collaboration and requests from health professionals its to cultural institutions.Besides the capacity to remove individuals from hospi- to help a particular patient.tal routine, the activities promoted by Arte Despertar Every single action or activity is planned, execut-also challenge them to share emotions by provoking The four pillars of education enunciated by the De- ed and evaluated by Arte Despertar’s team of artsensibility-broadening experiences. The art educators lors Commission report are also important to Arte educators, pedagogues and psychologists, with ad-stimulate the senses of all those involved, mining and Despertar’s hospital activities, albeit more generi- ministrative support.strengthening elements of their original cultural iden- cally: by strengthening the individual and fosteringtity, so that they can experience and perceive feelings self-esteem these activities are part of learning to be; The methodology of social intervention using thethat can become powerful allies to help them transcend by establishing a dialogue and transforming the en- languages of art developed by Arte Despertar is in-the limits imposed by the contingencies of hospital life. vironment through the introduction of personal spired by Ana Mae Barbosa’s Triangular Approach. objects, photographs and drawings they promote Starting with an art object or artistic act, it exploresThe bonding mediated by art enables the participants learning to live together; by exercising new ways of the historical context in which the object or act isto embark on a process of repertoire exchange, in seeing, touching, hearing and solving problems they produced and stimulates the making of art through 30 I 31
meaningful experiences, resignifying the place of art Communities Games and improvisation include the creation of soloin the life of each individual. or group mimes, make-believe play, and theatrical Projects conducted in communities consist of an edu- games that develop self-knowledge, group dynamics,In the sphere of making art, the practical activities cational option that starts with the needs and desires self-confidence and trust.developed, which may cover the visual arts, theater, of the community and sets out to foster an under-music and/or literature, are designed to foster a deeper standing of culture, develop artistic interventions to Once a theme and text have been chosen, the groupunderstanding of the art object or artistic act. Involve- help people think about and act on the surrounding create the scenes, explore and discover technical de-ment in the various stages of art production enables reality, and open up perspectives for planning the tails, and introduce elements of scenery and props,the participants to perceive them as the result of work future. Learning in these situations derives from the made by themselves or found to suit the space andrather than artistic genius. Production loses its aura capacity to think and judge developed by the partici- resources available, such as lighting, sound, tab orto reveal proximity with the creative individual, so pants, who become more autonomous, disciplined act curtain etc.that making art represents an encounter with desires, and creative as a result. What is learned is all the moreyearnings and stances toward the things of the world. meaningful, dynamic and interesting to the extent that In the case of continuous programs, many new par-This includes a significant amount of play, in which the it flows from research, investigation, collection and ticipants appear at the start of each year, so that somecapacity to recreate the wworld is infinite, especially recording of data, and the formulation and verifica- of what was done in the previous year may need towhen enriched by technical resources. tion of hypotheses that transform the learners into be changed: the art educators select activities based subjects of their own knowledge. on their knowledge of the interests and needs of eachReading or appreciating art presupposes interpre- group, and especially on their age. With the arrival oftation of the specific codes of music, theater, literature Theater workshops, for example, comprise three new participants, some of the older members of theand visual images, which are also ways of reading the main stages: games, rehearsal and performance. group volunteer to act as mentors and mediators inworld linked to the ability to see, judge and interpret Each of these in turn always includes warming up, socialization and icebreaker activities.the meanings of art and culture. games, and improvisation. The entire process aims to offer opportunities forContextualizing, which involves reflection and con- Theater workshops begin with games designed to pleasure and criteria for artistic quality and variety.structing a dialogue between knowledge of art as a promote knowledge, integration and respect among As already stressed, this fosters the development ofsocial and historical object and other areas of human the participants, awaken their attention and creativity, sensibility and intimacy with art, which in turn con-knowledge, focuses on understanding the different ma- and enable them to acquire basic theatrical skills in a tributes to the reinforcement of self-esteem and betterterials, means and supports used for expression, and on playful and dynamic manner. Rehearsing, the second interaction with the social and cultural environment.the subject’s creative capacity to question the things of stage, includes choosing or creating a play or scene,the world. In other words, a constant dialogue on the and preparing a performance. Performance is the In visual arts, whether or not the activities take placeimportance of art and the role it plays in the construction third and final stage, in which the audience comprises in specially equipped rooms, they aim to provide con-of knowledge can contribute to the formation of people other members of the same community and/or spe- tact with the language of art via the handling of differentbetter able to produce and consume cultural goods. cially invited spectators. materials, such as natural pigments researched by the groups, as well as gouache, acrylic, India ink, watercolor,Although the same principles underpin everything it In the workshop structure, the sequence of warming pencil, crayon, and clay. In using these materials, partici-does, the strategies and evaluation metrics used by up, games and improvisation enables the partici- pants discover or recognize themselves as producers andArte Despertar differ substantially depending on the pants to appropriate the language of theater gradually. constructors of meanings and stories in the group.site of the intervention, since they are determined by Warming up includes socializing, breaking the ice andthe type of participant and the context in which the lowering inhibition; all this fosters integration and Arte Despertar’s teams are presented with specificactivities are carried out. helps the participants prepare for the activity proper. challenges by each venue and community. Different
approaches are required, depending on whether the The storytelling sessions organized by Arte Des- Children and youngsters are in the majority in theserelationship is starting or continuing, whether the con- pertar are preceded by warm-ups and games to activities, so any art language used must be chosen fortent is new, whether the group and links with the art focus attention. Storytelling proper may or may its capacity to foster human development. The work-educators and activities are being constructed or main- not include the support of books or props. The shops therefore aim to contribute to the constructiontained, respect for the space and material, regularity of listeners’ attention is gripped by the unfolding of a group dynamic and help the participants bondattendance, and people’s commitment. At the end of story of adventures or suspense, in which they are with the art educators; to promote participation in andthe project, an exhibition is held for the community. invited to participate by questions about discover- involvement with the activity, through a commitment ies, examples offered by the lives of the characters, to regular attendance and responsibility for sticking toTo foster contact with literature, storytelling is also myths and archetypes, or internal issues (identity, what everyone has agreed on doing; to develop posi-a resource that Arte Despertar uses in its workshops self-esteem, concepts) and external issues (family, tive attitudes and values as a basis for relationshipsand that stands out for its playful character. Cho- community, society, friendship and relationships in between the participants and the environment; andsen on the basis of a theme, in accordance with the general) raised by the texts. to offer motivating artistic alternatives that insert thegroup’s age and interests, the stories told motivate the groups actively in their context and foster responsibleparticipants to read and stimulate their imagination. Storytelling sessions are usually planned to consist of attitudes toward retrieving, recording and resignifying three stages, absorption, reflection and communication, their own cultural history.Oral narration highlights the value of literature as an not necessarily in that order. Absorption entails creat-important part of mankind’s heritage, as well as stimu- ing conditions for people to listen to the story and enter Thus the workshops promote the development oflating memory, identity, imagination, and knowledge its imaginary universe. Reflection presents challenges such potential instruments of self-expression as:of local cultures, since even today it is a form of artistic to encourage comments on the plot, attribute meaning,expression for individuals, communities and peoples. and problematize relevant aspects of the story. Com- • An interest in the arts as a form of knowledge, inter- munication involves opportunities for the expression pretation and expression about oneself and the worldIn addition to physical and motor development due of thoughts and feelings about the story told through around one;to movement and use of the voice, storytelling can activities such as painting, drawing, modeling, writing,facilitate group integration via action in several ar- movement, dance, individually or in groups. • Creation of a special space for playful exchanging ofeas: intellectually, it awakens interest in reading information and culture;and stimulates the imagination; in communication, Strengthening the group’s history and identificationit contributes to the production of meaning and with its cultural roots is another way to contribute to • Expression of the group’s own experience, contentfosters dialogue and retelling; and it encourages the preservation of memory and the nation’s musical and themes;socio-cultural interaction by reinforcing social ties foundations. Arte Despertar’s music workshops fo-and forming communities of readers. The associa- cus on Afro-Brazilian contributions, regional and folk • Contact with and research into a range of differenttion’s activities also train storytellers to perceive and music, instrument making and body percussion. artistic methods or techniques to expand the partici-use the values of a text for the multiple possible pants’ repertoires and stimulate their creativity.approaches it offers, and for the affective memory Music is capable of developing competences thatembodied in personal experience. relate to knowledge of the local sound culture and au- tonomy to interact with it by creating or attributing HospitalsThe stories told are also key elements in the construc- new meanings to the knowledge acquired on the basistion of social knowledge about reality, and produce of individual or collective experience. The resulting In the hospital environment, the art educators’ in-values and concepts. Although they are grounded in experimentation helps the participants appreciate mu- volvement with patients begins after they discuss thefiction, they can investigate and problematize social sic critically and, in the case of workshops, perform latters’ clinical condition and specific needs with thereality, helping to intensify people’s ethical awareness. using alternative percussion instruments or in song. head nurse. 32 I 33
Activities in hospitals always involve pairs of art edu- admire their production and may feel frustrated if Arte Despertar also works directly with health pro-cators, preferably with different languages so as to they cannot finish learning to sing a song or listening fessionals to help them experience, appreciate andbroaden the participants’ expectations and knowledge. to a story, for example. contextualize art. The activities in question are char-They are planned with the assistance of pedagogues acterized by dynamics and sensibility that minimizeand psychologists, who play a crucial role in struc- The entire team take part in semiannual planning ses- stress and foster a new way of seeing the workplace.turing and strengthening links with partners and the sions to decide what themes to address, the objectives,participants themselves, and in all other dimensions content and strategies feasible in each venue, the Arte Despertar’s interventions in hospitals aim torequired for the activities to be successful. participants’ age groups and physical condition, and socialize different cultures with patients, family assessment metrics. The document is enriched with members and health professionals by retrieving andAlthough the art educators are the main initiators additional material relating to each art language. valuing cultural roots and extending artistic hori-of any given activity, when implementing what has zons and repertoires. Thus they help disseminatebeen planned they prioritize observation, listening Activities must be carefully tailored to each hospital hospital humanization, optimizing potentialitiesto the participants attentively and remaining silent space. ICUs, for example, are suitable for literary ac- and healthy aspects of the beneficiaries who engageas much as possible. This attitude enables them to tivities (storytelling, poetry, nursery rhymes, myths, with the association.see the group as well as its parts, the individuals, fables, folk tales etc.), musical activities (games, songs,and to notice essentials, producing knowledge from call and response, use of small instruments such aslived experience, in the words of Madalena Freire. maracas, shakers, jingles), and visual arts activities CONTENT OF MEDIATIONThese elements are inherent in the act of observing (using images for appreciation and exploration of theand construct forms of respect for other people’s context for what is presented). To operationalize the activities of Arte Despertar, apain or ways of sharing their joys and achievements. number of topics orient the mediators in their art-ed- In chemotherapy rooms, bedrooms, and isolation or ucational interventions, which are always tailored toObservation is permeated by questions such as: Who positive-pressure rooms (e.g. for bone marrow trans- the specific features of each venue or audience.are the participants? Where do they come from? What plantation patients), the procedures and activities arestories do they bring with them? What is their cultural very similar, as patients are usually bedridden or pre- Choices are made in such a way as to facilitate plan-heritage? Are they active participants? Are they alone vented by procedures from participating except in a ning implementation and make optimal use ofor accompanied by relatives or carers? Are they reluc- limited way. These patients require quieter, more in- interventions based on the theoretical premises de-tant to take part? Do they accept what is proposed? dividualized activities such as appreciating images, or scribed above.Do they keep quiet? Are they able to establish a dia- listening to music, poetry and stories with wordplay,logue with the others? The answers to these questions, rhythms, sounds. Art educators who work in this con-which are always part of the art educators’ routine, are text must pay close attention to patients’ responses, Communitiesuseful in an endeavor to produce an overview of the which determine whether and when to change, con-effects of art in healthcare venues. tinue or end an activity. Workshops address the following:Another feature of Arte Despertar’s work in hos- In outpatient clinics, which usually have people from • The language of the performing arts: theater,pitals is the need to conduct one-time sessions, differing backgrounds waiting to be seen, literary and movement, sensory, physical and spatial awareness,workshops or other activities of short duration, in musical languages are the most suitable, provided the imagination, physical games, verbal and non-verbalspaces that are often inappropriate for working with repertoire is compatible with the background of the communication, losing inhibitionsart and where respect for each patient’s rhythm is group. The same applies to hospital entrance lob-important. This aspect is especially relevant when bies and other venues with intense pedestrian traffic, • The language of the visual arts: exhibitions, drawing,working with children, who want others to see and which require carefully planned group activities. painting, printmaking, sculpture, plastic arts
• The language of literature: storytelling, conversation tongue twisters, remembering and creating stories, activities based on the different languages of the arts. circles, folk tales, poetry, remembering and creating myths, fables Permanent reflection on the activities conducted, stories, myths, fables alongside exploration of potentialities in each area • The language of the visual arts: techniques, materials, and their contributions to the association’s overall• The language of music: knowledge, learning and resources, artistic expression and production, results objectives, sharpens the teams’ capacity to perceive experimenting with percussion techniques and re- and effects, knowledge of phases, movements and and listen, leading to a continually enhanced meth- sources, listening, breathing and relaxation exercises, artists, painting, printmaking, photography, carton- odology of action. tempo and rhythm, spontaneous singing, instrument nage, cutouts making, singing games • Art and culture: popular culture, especially Brazilian, PEDAGOGIC SUPERVISION• Human development and social issues: citizenship, roots, identity, folklore, popular music and dance social inclusion, values, community problems, violent The professionals responsible for pedagogic su- crime, rights and duties, diversity, identity, alter- • General culture: appreciation and enjoyment of art pervision observe the teams to which they belong, ity, entrepreneurship, active participation, autonomy, works; cultural and visual literacy, cultural and ethnic providing guidance on how best to tailor activities relationships, behavior, attitude, ethics, social respon- diversity in Brazil, gender, cultural action in museums, to specific venues and groups so as to achieve the sibility, teamwork theaters, community centers etc., creative processes best possible interaction and strengthen relation- ships with partners. They also participate in planning,• Art and culture: popular culture, especially Brazilian, in activities designed to construct meanings, and in roots, identity, folklore, popular music and dance ACTIVITIES DESIGNED learning processes that lead to comprehension of the TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE concepts, values and other elements to be stimulated• General culture: art history, cultural and visual literacy, in such interaction. cultural and ethnic diversity in Brazil, gender, cultural You cannot become a carpenter without making action in museums, libraries, theaters, community cen- yourself sensitive to the signs of wood or a physician Observation of reality is the pedagogic supervisor’s ters etc., creative processes, aesthetic appreciation. without sensitivity to the signs of disease. starting-point for the experiences planned to create opportunities to help people prepare for better living. Gilles DeleuzeHospitals All educational situations are complex and perme- In a society of shared information and knowledge, ated by conflicts of values or perspectives, demandingWorkshops address the following: where opportunities for learning are no longer con- integrated and integrative work with clear goals or fined to formal education, it is impossible to neglect purposes and a space of professional autonomy. An• The language of music: musical universe, listening, the educational nature of initiatives not linked to important part of the pedagogic supervision function breathing and relaxation exercises, tempo and rhythm, school. They too may be capable of fostering the is therefore to produce critical links between the art spontaneous singing, instrument making, singing acquisition of abilities or skills in the sphere of so- educators and the context in which they operate, and games, sound sequences, musical recall based on the ciability, extending cultural repertoires, participation between theory and practice, investing in a process patient’s identity, knowledge of music history and in public life, fluency in communication and foreign that is at one and the same time formative, emanci- periods, listening to unfamiliar music to enrich the languages – in sum, of forming subjects who are com- patory, critical and committed, as noted above in the participants’ repertoire petent to interact with others. discussion of art educators as mediators of action.• The language of literature: conversation circles, Integrated teams assembled by articulating knowl- Thus the pedagogic supervisors are responsible storytelling, folk tales, poetry, nursery rhymes, edge areas that link theory to practice develop for organizing space, time and processes bearing in 34 I 35
mind that practice must correspond to the theoretical pants to realize their potential and limitations and to SUPPORT FOR ARTISTIC LANGUAGESpremises on which it is based, and must be constantly strengthen their interpersonal relationships.redirected in accordance with their commitment to Professionals in visual arts, music, theater and lit-social responsibility and critical thinking. Reading a venue through the eyes of psychology, they set erature provide Arte Despertar with support in out to understand the situations experienced and furnish terms of references, studies, research, content andIn light of these principles, the pedagogic supervisors data relating to the profile of the beneficiaries. They also repertoire. This support may be both technical andhold meetings with the rest of their teams to select, provide the art educators with guidance and counseling supervisory, and the professionals concerned meetorganize, critically analyze and observe the possibil- to help them interact with the beneficiaries and tailor regularly with the art educators for discussions,ity of reconstructing the values, knowledge, beliefs their activities to the demands of the situation. guidance and training.and habits appreciated by the beneficiaries of ArteDespertar’s activities. Together they all seek, based In hospitals, simple actions such as addressing pa- Stela Barbieri recalls: “We had meetings where weon previous experience, to involve the beneficiaries tients by name and knowing a sufficient amount about learned a great deal from each other. At the timein situations that broaden the horizons for their ex- them and about their socio-cultural background help Sônia Silva was an adviser for music, Ligia Cortezpectations and interests, offering other experiences, assure respect for the identity and personal history of for theater, Maria Helena da Cruz Sponton for art,cognitive advances and a chance to establish new rela- subjects who are obliged to relinquish their routines and myself for literature. Group discussions weretionships with the context. and social roles because of hospitalization. very powerful. Coordinated by Regina, it was a very vigorous group and the dialogue engaged deeplyBy problematizing and adding technical knowledge to The choice of vocabulary is also very important. with the work to be done. We discussed conceptualthe procedures for the activities planned by the teams, Using simple accessible language can be a sign to pa- issues that arose from practical experience and thethe pedagogic supervisors invest in the possibility of tients and their families that the team is motivated challenges presented in the various contexts of thepromoting learning processes in which action and ex- for interaction and vice-versa, so that all concerned places where we were working. In our efforts topression show what the subjects feel, think and know, feel less inhibited about exposing their fears, doubts make art happen we ran into many problems withso that they can enhance their perception of them- and questions. other institutions that had nothing to do with art butselves and the world. we had to resolve them in order not to destroy any In communities, psychological support can make chance of success in the delicate and sensitive pro- room for a discussion of issues such as domestic vio- cesses that unfolded in our work. I learned a greatPSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT lence, aggressiveness, and behavioral difficulties. deal from each person’s commitment to the work. I believe and hope I left my own mark thanks to myThe psychologists who work with Arte Desper- Activities geared to personal and social development enchantment with the cultural universe of the vari-tar’s teams contribute to aspects relating to the need to take what is present in daily life into account ous ethnic groups.”environment, to the art educators, and indirectly to and leverage bonding, trust and the commitment as-beneficiaries and socio-cultural contexts. sumed by all those involved. All these aspects are made viable by the psychologists. SPECIALIZED MEDIATIONThe psychologists act as facilitators and mediators ofthe teamwork done by the art educators, providing Another important contribution from the psycholo- The association’s art educators, working with thepsychosocial support in dealing with workplace issues gists is the flexibility to understand the characteristics, languages of visual art, literature, music and theater,and relationships with beneficiaries, such as hospital difficulties and potential of the specific group involved develop and participatively execute a methodologypatients, relatives and carers, as well as health workers, in a given project, while respecting the psychosocial that centers on the construction of knowledge aboutand in the community with children, adolescents and aspects for selection and adaptation of the content ac- art and elements of culture, via practice and reflec-youngsters. They create opportunities for all partici- cording to the necessities presented. tion. Interacting with pedagogic supervisors, they
use the methodological instruments characteristic characteristic of its institutional praxis, including ele- Systematizationof educational activities, such as planning, obser- ments that promote knowledge of the organizationvation, recording, reflection, and evaluation of the and its functioning. Aspects such as the environment, the beneficiaries, thepractices developed, in a continuous feedback loop social and cultural context and the specific needs ofthat enhances the effectiveness of what they do. Partnerships the community are priorities in all projects, from theHere it is worth highlighting the effort to combine planning stage until the final balance sheet. Research,the various languages, which strengthens the group Partnering can be understood as a sharing of respon- analysis, comprehension and evaluation of these itemsand the structural concepts of the languages of art sibilities to achieve a common goal. It involves mutual are systematically performed by the entire team, usingthat constitute daily practice, whether in hospitals or respect and the willingness to negotiate, which in turn the knowledge they possess in various areas.communities, broadening the horizons of the experi- entails an exchange of information and competencies,ence for all concerned. joint decision making, and mutual accountability. Arte Despertar’s activities are collective creations grounded in a conception of art education organizedAs mediators between art and the other participants, Arte Despertar’s activities are made possible by to transform the reality in which they take place. Tothe art educators have to perceive the latters’ needs partnerships with institutions that identify with its ob- this end it is made up of professionals with appropriateand take whatever steps may be required to assure a jectives and mission. There are several preconditions: qualifications and experience, and an administrativebalance, considering the conditions for interaction organization that serves the association’s objectives.and developing each discovery in greater depth so as • Availability of a physical space – since its inception asto attribute meaning to art while highlighting the val- a structured institution, Arte Despertar has opted to Its projects take into consideration the pedagogic criteriaue of each participant’s life history. This helps them be wherever its preferred beneficiaries are and to con- that favor learning and offer constant didactic and peda-deal with the present and plan the future. struct knowledge and innovative alternatives starting gogic assistance to the art educators, as well as meetings from the location of these people. Thus its activities to discuss matters of collective interest, exchange expe-The art educators also have to make an adequate se- always take place in hospitals or venues in the com- riences, study subjects that improve the quality of thelection of content based on the beneficiaries’ ages munities with which it interacts. work, and build links among the different languages ofand socio-cultural context, and taking the conditions art so as to foster the development of the project.at each venue into account. • A shared ethical commitment – as an institution with a methodology of its own and that makes a point of Each project involves carefully selected partners, high-In sum, as mediators the art educators promote finding the funds, materials and professionals needed ly qualified teams, and a shared plan of action. Theopportunities for the beneficiaries to appropriate for its activities, Arte Despertar always partners with project structure consists of an action plan, weeklyperceptions, individual interpretations, informa- organizations sensitive to the importance of acting to briefings, annual and semiannual planning, in-processtion, knowledge and relationships with the world, promote human dignity. evaluation, and semiannual and annual reports.enabling them to construct an articulate and mean-ingful whole in which knowledge made useful is • Agreement on the value of initiatives that introduce • Annual planninglinked to the dynamic flow of life. familiarity with art and culture to daily life and that The annual plan covers all the activities necessary for the consider art and culture essential to the promotion of development of projects during the year. Priorities are sensibility and citizenship. identified for each project and for relations with part-SYSTEMATIZATION OF PROJECTS, ner institutions and groups of beneficiaries, and for theROUTINES AND ASSESSMENT Before entering into an agreement, the partners discuss activities to be carried out, always with the aim of opti- the proposed activity, appraise the availability of re- mizing quality and efficiency of results. Detailed plansThe way Arte Despertar works with partners, and sources and disposition to achieve what is proposed, and are worked out collaboratively by the project team, ad-the systematic procedures and routines it adopts, are make sure that a suitable physical space is available. ministrative staff, pedagogues and psychologists. 36 I 37
• Semiannual planning Cultural activities are also part of the projects carried Evaluation The semiannual planning process involves the art out in communities, comprising musical and theatri- educators, pedagogic supervisors and psychologists cal performances, and/or art exhibitions, to share the • Records working as a team to discuss content and objectives, work done by the participants. The art educators observe everything that happens, and to organize and structure art-education activities document each stage of the work and record inter- and procedures for managing the deployment of the • Excursions views with the participants. They carry out a critical plan for each six-month period. Cultural excursions are designed to extend or deepen analysis of the activities, identifying strengths and the content treated during art education and cultural weaknesses in the planning and execution stages, andIt also involves the development of teamwork com- workshops. They are directly linked to the work pro- offering suggestions for possible solutions. Their re-petencies, a joint analysis of learning situations, and cess and aim to enrich and complement the activities ports are also instruments for communicating withreflection on the different professional practices that carried out during weekly sessions. the pedagogues and psychologists.will be put into effect. All excursions are carefully planned, with a clearly de- Other records consist of photographs that documentRoutines fined rationale and objectives, given that they are part significant moments during the activities and are used of the educational practice. Follow-up and evaluation for administrative and methodological reports.The basis for Arte Despertar’s projects is art edu- are equally important, to clarify the relevance of thecation, cultural excursions and actions, technical choice, extend the participants’ cultural repertoires, • In-process evaluationmeetings, and training activities. and provide input for other activities. The art education process is monitored and evalu-• Art-education activities Prior research is done to find out what’s on in the city’s ated on an ongoing basis so that planned activitiesThese use the languages of the visual arts, litera- cultural agenda, prioritizing Brazilian art and the cultural and strategies can be adapted if necessary. In-process ture and storytelling, theater and music. They are amenities open to the public. This widens the array of ex- evaluation also helps identify factors that facilitate ad- planned and conducted by art educators, when periences available, offering a broad artistic and cultural justments or changes as and when needed to assure necessary with the assistance of monitors, and repertoire and permitting interaction through culture. the continuity of a project. are designed to awaken the participants’ potential through art and culture. • Technical meetings • Assessment of results The technical meetings, consisting of an exchange ofProjects are developed in the areas of social inclusion, knowledge among team members, are an outstand- When a project is concluded, a comprehensivehospital humanization, and training for educators. ing opportunity for reflection and learning. They assessment is conducted to verify the results, deter-Thus each activity is specific and can unfold in dif- take place systematically and focus on operational mine whether the project achieved its goals, gaugeferent ways, given the differing natures of the various issues, organization, follow-up and evaluation of the what has been learned and what challenges have beenbeneficiary groups. However, all activities seek to activities carried out. met during the activities, and analyze the characteris-achieve the institutional mission and are organized in tics of the partner institution. The main aim of thisa systematic manner. • Training assessment is to pave the way for a more effective Training events designed to extend and enrich the rep- performance in future projects.• Cultural activities ertoire of the entire team are held three times a year, Specific activities conducted by the technical team to each time on a selected topic. They are fundamen- Reports present the methodology, publicize Arte Despertar tal for continuing education and training, recycling, and explain what it does to various groups whenever team cohesion, and appropriation of Arte Despertar’s • Semiannual reports pertinent to the association’s objectives. methodology and approach. Reports are produced every six months to summarize
the technical team’s records during the period, high- personnel, its art educators, pedagogues and psychol- material produced form the basis of a network. This islighting positive points and problems or aspects that ogists come into direct contact with the day-to-day the overriding objective required to assure disseminationrequire reformulation in order to optimize the activi- activities of these partner institutions, and with the of Arte Despertar’s methodology and its sustainability.ties and enable them to continue on a sounder basis in difficulties and requirements of the participants in itsthe next six-month period. They provide an opportu- projects, enabling the association to engage in a sig-nity for an assessment of the three areas that comprise nificant and lasting learning process.the pillars of Arte Despertar’s methodology – art edu-cation, pedagogy and psychology. This approach also enables the association to train multipliers, which is one of its objectives, to continueThe reports are analyzed at technical meetings to learning and to increase the number of beneficiaries.measure the institution’s success in attaining its ob- When professionals become multipliers, they realizejectives. These meetings are also attended by the the need for continuing education and training andadministrative staff. thus become partners in the learning process.• Annual reports Another means considered necessary to guaran-Annual reports complete the recording and assess- tee dissemination of the knowledge produced is the ment cycle, covering all the activities carried out by recording, systematization and publication of de-Arte Despertar in the year, and detailing quantitative scriptions of the main activities undertaken, in a and qualitative results, along with testimonials, inter- compilation entitled Art Education Support Material. views and photographic illustrations. This helps the professionals involved continue to strengthen their practice by consulting it and making adjustments whenever necessary.DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE The material has been organized on the basis ofFOR THE SUSTAINABILITY OF records and reports, as an initial step in the system- atization of Arte Despertar’s methodology. It includesARTE DESPERTAR videos and multimedia documents designed to extend the participants’ repertoires and disseminate the as-Because Associação Arte Despertar’s projects are sociation’s methodology.always born of a partnership, as discussed in the pre-vious section (“Systematization of projects, routines The language used in this material is simple, conciseand assessment”), the possibility of continuation is and objective, stressing the key points in the analysisinherent in their structure. and reflections that arise from practice. The structure of the Art Education Support Material makes it suitableThe partner institutions are where knowledge is de- for use in a wide variety of education and trainingveloped and constitute a permanent laboratory for venues and with various different audiences, therebyexperience and learning for the association. extending the institutional outreach.When Arte Despertar requests the use of spaces in The links with partner institutions, exchanges of knowl-hospitals and communities, and works with their edge, and socialization of the lessons learned and 38 I 39
5 Carlos Vicente Serrano Junior Maria Nadir Azevedo de Moraes Heart Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Escola HabitatTHE VIEW FROM OUTSIDE University of São Paulo School of Medicine (InCor – HCFMUSP) Maria Stela Fortes Barbieri Instituto Tomie OhtakeFor this chapter we asked a number of co-workers, Célia Yukiko Osatoassociates and partners to talk about their impressions Heart Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Patrick Charles Morin Jr.and views of Arte Despertar. University of São Paulo School of Medicine Morin Assessoria Empresarial Ltda (InCor – HCFMUSP)They have all been vitally important to the Associa- Rogério Magontion from the start, earning a place in the story by Dario Ferreira Guarita Filho Instituto Fontecontributing in structural, conceptual or administra- Guarita & Associadostive terms, supporting its activities, and participating Telma Sobolhin projects and programs. Dario Ferreira Guarita Neto Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein Amata Brasil SASome have used Second Sector knowledge and com- Teresa Guarita Grynbergpetencies to do so. Others, because of their activities, Enrique De Goeye Neto Estúdio Colíriohave enabled the Association to take its expertise to De Goeye Advogados Associadoscompanies and institutions that have then supported Valdir Ciminothe cause or opened their doors to receive the services Guilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves Associação Viva e Deixe Viverof Arte Despertar. União Vidigal Ltda William MalfattiThe interviews and testimonials are colloquial to make Heloisa Guarita Padilha Grupo Fleurythis a good read, and placed in chronological order to RGNutrihelp the reader follow Arte Despertar’s development. Wilze Laura BruscatoThey are intended to provide a view of the Associa- José Ferraz Ferreira Filho Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulotion “from outside”. J Ferraz Business DevelopmentINTERVIEWEES Lígia Maria Camargo Silva Cortez Escola Superior de Artes Célia Helena INTO THE WORLD OF WORKAna Marta Oliveira do NascimentoAssociação Santo Agostinho (ASA) Lúcio de Castro Andrade Filho Ana Marta Oliveira do Nascimento Grupo UltraAntonio Sérgio Petrilli Tell us a little about your life.Institute of Pediatric Oncology (IOP) – Support Marcos Kisil As a teenager I rarely opened my mouth. I was reserved.Group for Children with Cancer, Federal University Fundação Maria Cecília Souto Vidigal I hated the world and thought everyone was against me.of São Paulo (GRAACC/UNIFESP) I came across Arte Despertar when I was 14. Music Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzi helped me work on these issues of mine and I beganCarla Batista Alves School of Communication & Arts, University of São changing very subtly. This went on for a time. Then IUniversidade Mackenzie Paulo (ECA/USP) suddenly realized I’d become a different person.
When did you come across Arte Despertar? What like most of the girls in my community. That kind of life herself before she can teach someone else. I don’tdid you think about it? no longer attracts me. I’m very happy with the life I lead believe in “do as I say, don’t do as I do”. You haveI first came across it in 2000. I was in a phase when I now and with everything I’ve done so far. The project to set the people you teach an example. You’re oftendidn’t take anything seriously. I had no expectations for broadened my horizons and introduced me to a whole what they look up to. An educator’s work is highlythe future. I was still going to school because I had to, new world. I couldn’t have done that on my own. gratifying. The work I do now is with children. I trybut I didn’t really study. I heard about a music project to teach Brazilian culture through music. The meth-that was about to start in the Paraisópolis community What led you to become a volunteer with Arte odology I learned at Arte Despertar is part of myand invited a friend to go with me. She came along and Despertar? Are you an art educator now? professional life. I use music as an educational tool.we went to take a look. It wasn’t what we expected. I was invited to take the training course and for aAnyway, I went back next Saturday. I wanted to hear time I worked as an art educator in Arte Desper-the Spice Girls. Another band called Palavra Cantada tar’s project, but not any more. Before that, while Carla Batista Alveswas in the project. I found it weird but between classes I was a project beneficiary, we worked with severalI made friends and gradually got to like drumming. values, one of which was solidarity. I learned that Tell me a little about your life. learning can intensify your feeling of solidarity. In My name is Carla Batista Alves. I’m 23. I was bornWhat did the Association awaken in you? fact, I realized I could make a contribution myself. and brought up in the Paraisópolis community. I’mIt awakened my curiosity, love of music, interest in It’s gratifying to be a multiplier, to be able to pass studying language, literature and translation at Uni-Afro-Brazilian culture. I started to study the subject. I on what you’ve learned. I enjoyed the experience of versidade Mackenzie. I’m a grant-aided student there.got interested in maracatu. I became really interested in working with education so much that I took part in I’ve always loved to study but I never had the chancemusic, and I spent more and more time making it. As a a selection process for the Paraisópolis Community or expected to, until Arte Despertar came along andreward, I was invited to play in the band that art educa- Center. I remember the first rhythm I learned – it I leaped at the chance.tors Beth Beli and Adriana Aragão are members of. was bumba-meu-boi. It made such a strong impres- sion that I always started with it whenever a new When did you come across Arte Despertar?I wasn’t interested in anything before I joined the project began while I was an educator. In 2001. I wanted to learn to draw and Arte Des-project. The project helped me find out who I really pertar had an art project in the community calledam. I began to dream. I learned to see myself as a per- What’s the importance of this project in your opinion? “Awakening to Peace with Art”. I thought art wasson and to recognize my cultural identity. Today I’m It was fundamental in my basic life choices back then. about rules and aesthetics but I discovered it’s alsoproud to say I’m a black woman. Life has given me It was the gateway I needed to explore many possibili- subjective. There’s no recipe. It’s a way of express-the opportunity to transform my story, to be stronger, ties. I didn’t have much hope of personal development, ing yourself. I didn’t expect the project to become asand to go out looking for things I believe in. Today but the encounter with these art educators helped me important in my life as it did. I joined in to learn toI’m a go-getter. I have genuine desires and beliefs. I realize I had musical talent as well as teaching abilities. draw and I was fortunate to meet some brilliant andvalue Afro-Brazilian culture and identify with it. enlightened people, the art educators. They succeed- What’s it like to participate and work to help ed in awakening me to art. I’ve since participated inWhat improvements did you experience? other people? many art and music projects in the Paraisópolis com-I identified deeply with the art educators. I learned dis- Just like the project that awakened me, I also want munity organized by Arte Despertar.cipline and responsibility from them. They sowed in me that to happen to other people. I want to contributethe seed of believing, of positive thinking. If I hadn’t to their having the same opportunity as I had. I hope What improvements did you experience?joined Arte Despertar’s music project, my life would to make a difference to other people. The community I live in is seen as a violent placeprobably have been entirely different. I’ve tried to imag- where people have no chance to make progress.ine what it would be like. Maybe I wouldn’t even have What does it mean to you to be an art educator? However, I’m the living proof that it isn’t true. Youfinished high school. I’d already have at least two kids, An educator must first and foremost be true to can get ahead. All you need is the will. Of course, I 40 I 41
was very lucky to be part of a social project that has I’ve been very well tutored by professionals, people lack a compass for their lives. An art educator’s job isopened so many doors. Before that, when I was 15, who have left their mark on my life for ever. This has to teach art and also to help people enjoy art, but theI never left home alone for fear of violence. I didn’t influenced my character, and undoubtedly helped me very first step of all is to win the group’s trust. I findknow anything about the outside world. I’d never get my first job as an art educator. The supervising the work very enjoyable. I feel more of a citizen forbeen to a mall. I was insecure, frightened, I felt infe- educator once said to me during an activity, “There’s a making a difference to these people’s lives.rior. Now I’m a communicative person. I can express creative solution to everything,” and showed me howmyself well. I’m creative and I’ve developed mecha- important it is to observe and listen. That will stay withnisms and techniques to express feelings through me for ever. I learned to persevere and believe in myart. I like what I produce. I think I make interesting own ability. I learned from the art educators to explore INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURINGpieces. Before I had no life prospects. Today I have materials and understand the creative process, its pos-goals and work to achieve what I want. In future I sibilities and working techniques. I also had emotional When Arte Despertar began, the idea was to start as aplan to work in the arts. Although I never even used experiences that gave me the strength to seize the op- nucleus, a cell, a single unit. From this beginning it multi-to go out alone, now I’m thinking of going to France portunities that came up in my life. I believed in myself plied, becoming organic and mutating. Initially, althoughto improve my French. when no one else did – like when I applied for a grant the idea was clear-cut, no one knew how it would turn at the university, for example. out. Creating the logo, for example: it couldn’t be hard,How long were you in the project in Paraisópolis? it had to be malleable, rounded. And the colors: we wentNine years. During that period I participated as both Are you an art educator now? for the warmer colors, the colors of nature, earth andeducand and educator. Not any more. The project in Paraisópolis has ended. sun, because our work involved people, human beings. A But I was, and if Arte Despertar had continued its work logo is a graphical representation of an enterprise. It hasWhat’s the importance of this project in your there I would still be participating. The community is a to depict the DNA of that enterprise.opinion? violent place and Arte Despertar made a difference toArte Despertar has made a huge difference to my life. a lot of people. It’s a way of discovering yourself as an Another point about the colors is that we choseIn the project I learned to share learning and had many individual, your value as a member of society. ocher and orange, which are warm colors. Also, weexperiences. Participating in Arte Despertar has been chose a sans serif typeface to suggest the boldly in-very important for me. I am who I am because I’ve been What led you to become a volunteer with Arte novative, because it was a groundbreaking project.through these processes and had these experiences. Despertar? I had the opportunity to learn and change my life. I Teresa Guarita GrynbergHow did the Association awaken you? believe in learning through solidarity and multiplyingIt awakened me in the sense that I’m no longer con- knowledge. When I was invited to take the trainingtent with a mediocre life lacking in prospects. It course for educators in 2004, I was very happy be- To organize Arte Despertar we used the same con-taught me to believe in my abilities, that I can create cause it was an opportunity to pass on the cultural cepts and structures used by business organizations.as I want and as I prefer as long as it’s pertinent to baggage and the experience I’d acquired. Bylaws and governance differed somewhat from thewhat I plan. Before I was hidebound by rules and usual Third Sector approach. The Third Sector wasaesthetics. Now I see art as a way of expressing feel- Hat does it mean to you to be an art educator? only just getting off the ground at that time.ings. The materials are just the means to produce art. I never thought I had the capacity to be an educa-Aesthetics isn’t the most important thing. tor. It’s most rewarding to see your students making We brought in marketing professionals, lawyers, progress and realize you’re making a difference to their auditors, because we wanted to build a dynamic organi-How has this work influenced your life? lives. In these social projects, art educators don’t just zation along corporate lines rather than the traditionalParticipating in the projects in the Paraisópolis commu- educate, they often play the part of mother and father. charity. We have an elected board of governors fornity has enabled me to acquire professional experience. You’re dealing with people who are very deprived and strategic oversight and an executive committee.
Before we began implementing any projects, we society in the context of hospital humanization. The the partnership. For example, Arte Despertar is inbrought together well-known educators with experi- organization has a firm grasp of the challenges and touch with large corporations and people who believeence in the educational use of drama, storytelling, art the techniques it needs to introduce. It learns by doing. in its work. The partnerships it enters into have toand music. They met to discuss and draw up the orga- And in my view it’s been very successful in achieving be underpinned by contracts and agreements. Every-nization’s objectives and the pathways to achieve them. what it set out to do. So I’ve been very impressed and thing has to be transparent and properly documented. there’s no doubt in my mind that in future this NGO There are also employment-related issues. We guaran- Dario Ferreira Guarita Filho will bring very beneficial changes to Brazil. tee legal security in all these areas for Arte Despertar. This work is done by lawyers in our various practices Patrick Charles Morin Jr. according to the requirements concerned.It was very difficult to write the bylaws. To definethe corporate purpose, the mission, everything else Enrique De Goeye Netoyou need. Nowadays you call a law office and they I find being on the board of Arte Despertar verydo it for you. It wasn’t like that then, I believe. interesting, because it’s an organization that takes a highly professional approach to its projects. It Guilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves discusses goals and forms of action in a clear, me- METHODOLOGICAL STRUCTURING thodical fashion. It’s creative, and manages its projects with skillfully developed plans. When I was working as an art educator and teacher at theThe structure was steadily improved, in a process Museum of Contemporary Art (MAC/USP), the dreamof organic growth involving the people themselves With my experience in the business sector, I see Arte of Arte Despertar was beginning and the director of thebut also with help from many outsiders who con- Despertar just like any other organization, and working Museum was Ana Mae Barbosa, an eminent art educator.tributed knowledge, enhanced the team, and also with it is highly satisfactory since I can make comments Regina Guarita contacted Professor Barbosa through herhelped with fundraising. on plans and objectives that have been painstakingly sister, who belonged to the Association of Friends of the analyzed. In offering my opinions, I try to suggest alter- Museum. Regina was then planning to set up what was José Ferraz Ferreira Filho native approaches and encourage new proposals. to become Arte Despertar. Ana Mae asked me to talk to Regina and see how I could help. So that was our first Lúcio de Castro Andrade Filho contact. Back then the office was already on Rua Helena.Creating the Association’s slogan was an importantstep: “Our art is awakening the best in you”. Setting By this time Ana Mae had finished developing concep-up the advisory and supervisory boards at arm’s length When we began our partnership, we exchanged a vote tually the methodological formulation that came to befrom the founders and associates was also important. of confidence. We didn’t know if it would work out, if known as the Triangular Approach to Art Education. the results would be satisfactory, but we started work- This proposal was starting to be implemented and the Dario Ferreira Guarita Neto ing and addressing Arte Despertar’s requirements. first experiments were taking place to teach art in this Over the years the Association has grown and its ac- way. So that was what I brought to the conversation tivities have expanded. The partnership has become with Regina at Arte Despertar.I joined Arte Despertar’s board of governors and con- stronger, and both parties are satisfied with the results,tinue to follow its progress by overseeing its various which are gratifying. We’re proud of this partnership. My contribution to the process consisted of theseprojects. But what impresses me most about Arte Des- theoretical foundations. As art educators were takenpertar is that the leaders think big. I’ve been around My law firm, De Goeye Advogados Associados, on board, these theoretical foundations were discussedlong enough to realize that the organization is posi- chose Arte Despertar to provide pro bono legal aid. and put into practice in the form of projects led by thetioned today to have a very strong impact on Brazilian We donate many hours of work to this cause, hence professionals concerned. 42 I 43
The work they do is very serious, very carefully Another impressive dimension is the work they do Shortly after that we went to Paraisópolis. This wasthought through, very important. It involves a with art educators, inviting them to develop and lead a partnership agreement with the Einstein in thecombination of several elements. Arte Despertar projects. These professionals are trained on the job, Paraisópolis Community Program [run by Hospitalhas a mission, which is to help individuals develop given access to courses, lectures, project planning Israelita Albert Einstein]. It started very small, withthrough artistic activities. Over time, in all these meetings and so on. Initially this helped construct the children grouped by age, and although they wereyears of witnessing the activities, reading reports and the profile of Arte Despertar as well as the profiles very poor they had a family structure for support.watching performances of plays and music, I’ve seen of the professionals concerned. I’ve seen a lot ofwork done to a high level of quality and individuals people who have matured through their participa- Lígia Cortezwho have had real opportunities to develop person- tion in Arte Despertar and are now outstandingally and artistically. artists and art educators in a broader social sphere. So there has been a process of leadership building. I believe art is really a way to awaken people, a trans- Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzi formation that leads individuals to change their way of Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzi seeing, their worldview. Art works with people’s sensi- bilities and perceptions, enabling them to develop newOne thing I can say, first, is that it was a marvelous expe- ways of learning that can cast new light on their lives andrience to be invited to work with Arte Despertar. I don’t One of the first challenges was team building. We open up new perspectives. Regina has always workedremember very clearly how it happened, but I recall my began very small and then expanded. (...) My own with art as a means to learn from your own experience,first contact with Regina, which was through mutual involvement was always with the educators, both based on each participant’s personal development. Youfriends or something of that kind. I was very excited and those who worked in hospitals and those engaged should never take too big a step or go too fast. It’s oneimpressed by the soundness of the methodology and the in the communities, working with stories in the oral small step after another in a continuous constructionintense dedication, which was very heartwarming. tradition. We always tried to activate imagination and that involves participation by everyone. (...) imagery linked to cultural diversity, ethnic diversity,So the idea was for us to do something at the hospital. seasonal festivities, a universe in dialogue with the The storytelling universe can lead an individual to theirThis was the biggest challenge in the world – what culture of each person we met. The work involved a own story. Regina Machado, a great storyteller, likeswere we to do there? Also, it was going to work at dialogue among various cultures. I led some very in- to say that there is a vertical axis, which is the story,a place called Aldeia SOS (SOS Children’s Village), tense training workshops where we studied the stories, and a horizontal axis, which is your life, and the twowhich was just getting under way. Theater was one of looked at the art and listened to the music of a par- axes intersect. Through this intersection you can re-the possibilities. ticular ethnic group. The plan was to weave a broad tell your own story through the stories you tell. What tapestry, with various ways of seeing the same culture. matters most to the storyteller is being at the service Lígia Cortez of the story and the listener. This encounter has the Stela Barbieri power to transform people through art. The artwork is the point of contact. It’s through these interactionsThey’ve always worked with professionals, educa- that transformations can happen. A hospital patient,tors, people who have done teacher training. Arte The biggest challenge was approaching these children. for example, can see the world from a new angle. TheDespertar introduced play, games, as a way to learn The first contact was as a group, although we did talk light at the end of the tunnel is the artwork.and acquire culture for families as well as children. to each one individually. Then there came a momentEverything from music to the arts. (...) Wow! Visual when we started working with their mothers so they I think storytellers need to know themselves very wellarts, that was a fabulous idea! could understand and see what was going on, and and also need to be very familiar with the universe of grasp the value of it. It was a profound learning pro- stories, the cultural universe, everything around the Célia Yukiko Osato cess and a very tough reality to come to terms with. story, the context, the meanings, smells, tastes, the
weather, and so on. Stories are impregnated with all they’re paralyzed or disabled in one way or another, Despertar and other NGOs to make sure children’sthese things. All these layers of reading made pos- even temporarily, or debilitated, obliges these art right to care is respected. In the case of Arte Desper-sible by a culture are concentrated in them. Stories educators to find absolutely unique procedures for tar, art educators have a very serious task to perform.synthesize human complexity and spiritual yearning. addressing each situation. Sometimes the patient is They’re extremely objective about it. They actually there and then just not there the week after. You do teach the children we have here. So humanization Stela Barbieri never know who you will be working with when you helps time pass while they’re in hospital, attenuates arrive or how ready people are to work with you at the pain and the trauma. That’s fundamental. that moment. There are people who are undergo-We all have art inside us. It’s just a matter of letting it ing chemotherapy or hemodialysis or in the ICU or Antonio Sérgio Petrilliwell up to the surface. What’s more, I believe art is vi- in any number of different situations. Because of alltal. It isn’t a choice. It’s totally different when you work that, Arte Despertar’s team had to formulate princi-with something else, anything that isn’t art, that’s voca- ples and strategies for their work, not just in terms of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, a charitytional or leads to a job later on. When you work with how to proceed with specific people but also how to hospital in the city of São Paulo, also has a culturalart you’re forming the individual. It can be beneficial. organize the material used in these activities – what arm. This places a high value on culture through aIt can be therapeutic, positive, if other people listen. to take along, how to package it all, how to prepare. number of projects involving museums, for exam-It’s a form of metaphorical communication. (...) That’s All that was created by the Arte Despertar process. ple, among other things. In fact, we have a museumvery important so that we can get a lot of things off our inside the hospital. So the institution itself gives pri-chest — monsters, fears, difficulties — through art. Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzi ority to culture and art. This chimes perfectly withAnd it’s crucial that others see your work. You need to the goals of Arte Despertar, whose approach tohave performances, exhibitions, communication. thinking about art and the value of art is similar to The key thing is that the vast majority of the children our own. Bringing art in all its forms, even the sim- Lígia Cortez treated here at the hospital have never been exposed plest, to our patients means offering them a whole to this type of stimulus, and it’s easy to see how in- new experience that doesn’t just revolve around the terested they are by this introduction to culture. (...) corporeal. This is beneficial for everyone, of course,We would go to hospitals and communities, and I Healing is not enough. We want to heal and also to for the patients and the institution.would provide assistance based on the educators’ provide quality of life and social inclusion, meaningpractice. It was very interesting work. The educators they have a chance to find a job after they leave here, Wilze Laura Bruscatowere incessantly challenged to invest in the relation- or to study. If possible, they should leave here withship with each and every person present, to find a new skills and abilities, so they can continue theirway in, despite the pain or unhappiness those people lives positively, so this disease [cancer] doesn’t stop I think its role is fundamental. Let me take an area Ifelt, so as to gain access to their healthy, hopeful side, them from living their lives. (...) To me the key to feel comfortable talking about, which is humanization,creating an internal world of images and stories in humanization is that you treat others as you would especially in hospitals. This is incredibly rich in my view,which the narrative sequence could suspend reality like to be treated. How would I want a child of mine for two reasons. The first is medical. As you increasefor a moment and let other emotions in. to be treated while in hospital? So you have to ask the levels of specialization, subspecialties, technology what’s most important for this to happen. I think etc., you start finding it hard to know whether it’s the Stela Barbieri we’ve made a lot of progress. Once upon a time technology that produces the diagnosis, the treatment, people accepted whatever they were given. Chil- and governs relationships between patients and carers. dren weren’t taken seriously anyway. Our experience Patients often focus on the machine. The human mean-What I see is that this challenge of working with shows the opposite. Our watchword is solidarity. We ing of the relationship is lost. These changes that havea person who is in a vulnerable situation because try to partner with their families. We work with Arte been made so that new technology can help the pa- 44 I 45
tient have also optimized time for health workers. The awaken, they become capable of expressing them- people have no chance to exercise their citizenshipdownside is that they are now more remote from pa- selves through painting, playing music, singing and and participate in political decision making, whichtients. So the time they do spend with patients is strictly doing theater. It’s striking to see how much a child affects everyone’s lives. So my generation has alwaystechnical. There’s a whole other side to the patient’s can develop in a single year. been eager to retrieve these values. This processlife, family, work and so on, a lot of things that bring in of retrieving democracy started at the end of thedistress and worry. None of that is typically taken into I learned a lot. It’s a unique approach. There’s no military regime in 1985, and gathered momentumaccount. This is a major problem for the sector today. pressure, no preparation for primary school, no hard between then and 1988, when the new ConstitutionThen in comes Arte Despertar to help, using art as an and fast rules about the three Rs. It’s entirely dif- was promulgated. I was lucky enough to be part ofinstrument – not just an instrument of play or fun, but ferent. The whole point is to let the child flower. I the generation that fought for democracy and suc-one that helps recreate this world that the individual has learned a lot from Arte Despertar and that helped ceeded. In 1988, the year of the new Constitution, Ilost. It’s a chance the health system has refused to pro- me later in my work with other projects. went to the United States to do a PhD in businessvide. So Arte Despertar plays an extremely important administration. It was very interesting for me while Irole, first and foremost for the well-being of patients Maria Nadir Azevedo de Moraes was there to discover two personages I didn’t knowand their families, but also indirectly creating the con- in Brazil, possibly because they didn’t exist. One wasditions for the psychic components of illness not to what you could call the social entrepreneur, a per-affect the somatic components, because all illnesses are Methodology is key. No project can succeed without son who has ideas about how to change the statuspsychosomatic. If you can work with the individual’s it. For example, this Arte Despertar project couldn’t quo, change society, and typically doesn’t use moneyemotions, you can help prevent the emotions wors- be done if it didn’t have a structure. Our sponsorship to do so. The other is the philanthropist, who hasening the physical component. That’s why I see their was a benefit for the children and it had a method- money, has been good at making money, but isn’twork as incredibly rich. I’m taking the hospital angle ology that guaranteed the benefit. Even voluntary always involved in social issues. Putting these twobecause I’m familiar with that, and because it doesn’t activities require a methodology. personages together enables society to determinematter where the patients are, they can be in São Paulo, its own fortunes outside the government arena. I’dRio or Maceió. Arte Despertar is just the beginning: it’s Another important point is that this is new in the never seen that in Brazil, where all the decisions thatpractically obliged to disseminate its practices and expe- corporate environment. When you introduce a proj- affected society were made by government. I foundriences so they can be repeated by others. ect of this kind into a business organization, if it it in the U.S. and became fascinated by the idea. lacks consistency and fails the business will wait a Marcos Kisil long time to try anything similar again and you end I think there has been a lot of important progress up spoiling a good idea. in the past ten years. (...) Today you find strong de- termination among civil society organizations, whichI believe treatment doesn’t just require medication: William Malfatti are taking their mission seriously, professionalizing,emotion also counts for a great deal. Depressed peo- planning, using management models, informationple attract disease and take longer to get well again, technology, and emphasizing personnel recruitment.whereas happy people tend to make faster progress These are all tasks for a professionally run organiza-from a clinical standpoint. THE SETTING tion. Back when the Third Sector began, there was an feeling that everything was important. Organiza- Carlos Vicente Serrano Junior I was privileged to start working in this sector at a tions found it hard to focus, to work out their own particular time in Brazilian history. I belong to a gen- way forward, their vocation or trajectory. As a re- eration of university graduates who got involved in sult, they wasted energy, effort and money becauseChildren come along without any ideas about art, social issues when Brazil wasn’t a democracy. One of they didn’t have a clear idea of what they wanteddrama, music or literature. As they develop and the difficulties about not being a democracy is that to do. This has changed. Nowadays they set out to
define a mission, a role, a program; they work on that they are non-governmental. My baptism and I think we still have some unresolved issues. I’d saysuccess indicators and so on. All this is part of what growth in the Third Sector happened as I’ve told one unresolved issue is how the government shouldthese organizations do and didn’t exist ten years ago. you. That includes my thirty years of experience. treat civil society organizations. Brazil still doesn’tAnother point I want to stress is that these orga- have a legal framework, and the government needsnizations have started to see that the Third Sector Marcos Kisil to provide more incentives for Third Sector initia-needs partnerships. I believe there was a lot of pent- tives. It seems to me that the government continuesup energy when the Third Sector began – everyone to display a certain fear of directly supporting whatwanted to go out and do everything. The ones that There’s much more professionalism today, in my society can do for itself. This requires more work.succeeded had a strong brand. It was unusual for opinion. As a result, structures similar to those of Society needs to lobby for changes to public poli-them to build partnerships. Organizations wanted firms in the Second Sector have begun to emerge. cy on the issue of citizenship. A second concern istheir projects to be exclusively their own. That was governance and the leadership turnover these orga-only natural. What I’m saying is that at the time it The Third Sector has started to understand this as an nizations require. Many of these organizations werewas very important for individuals to establish a clear efficiency model and hence the evolution we’ve seen set up by people who are still running them. As aposition, to be unique. Now, however, people are in the last ten years. In addition, they invest their funds result, there isn’t a second generation ready to takemore aware of the need for partnerships right from a more effectively thanks to this professionalization. over. I’m talking generally here, pointing out that theprogram’s inception. The last point is that they used Third Sector isn’t good at producing new leaders. Ato call themselves NGOs because they didn’t want Heloisa Guarita Padilha third concern relates to the use of evaluation, whichto work with government, but now they’re aware of should be more frequent. We’re used to evaluatingthe role played by government, which is to dissemi- products in Brazil, but not processes, the processesnate their work to the general public. So there’s no The Third Sector fills the gaps left by the public sector. used to make something or do something, and welonger a clear distinction between what’s non-gov- Of course there are distortions, but mostly a lot of hard also don’t evaluate the impact of processes on theernmental and governmental. Now they know they work gets done. It’s all very serious. We’re in touch people who benefit. (...) So these are the three mainhave to work together for any participatory citizen- with other NGOs and others that do the same as us are points that still require more work.ship process to succeed. clearly very efficient. This isn’t just happening in Brazil, evidently, but here there’s such acute inequality that it’s Marcos KisilHere in Brazil I’ve been in the social sector since very fertile ground. People come to see us when they’rethe beginnings of redemocratization. I’ve been starting an NGO. So we’re a benchmark.involved with several movements since the Constit- Here at this institution, we have certainly changed.uent Assembly, and with the emergence of various José Ferraz Ferreira Filho In my view many healthcare institutions introducemovements, such as Instituto Ayrton Senna, Abrinq, humanization practices merely to comply with min-Ethos, Centro de Voluntariado de São Paulo, and isterial orders. That’s not the case here. We’ve hadacademic groups that do research on the Third There’s been a great deal of growth in the past few this from the cradle. It’s no accident that we’reSector. I’ve been privileged to be part of all these years, but without organization. The number of social called “Santa Casa de Misericórdia” [“Holy Housemovements and I’m one of those people who feel projects has increased, as well as the number of vol- of Mercy”]. We’ve always practiced humanized care.deeply grateful and convinced that the Third Sector unteers. I’ve been working in the field for 23 years and I believe Associação Arte Despertar, which is nowcan be a tremendous benefit to society. Personally I when I analyze what’s happening I can see this is a ten years old, thought of this first because the Min-don’t like the term Third Sector. I prefer civil society highly positive trend: we used to be considered people istry of Health started thinking about it at aroundorganizations, an expression with a very important who had nothing better to do, especially us women. the same time.positive connotation, relating to what they give tosociety, rather than a negative one relating to the fact Telma Sobolh Wilze Laura Bruscato 46 I 47
Humanization is constantly spreading. Today it’s an sionals. (...) So it’s valid for everyone. When we make For example, we realized that working in hospitalsinternational trend, linking social assistance and hu- this vision work for everyone, the future wins. was the most important and original aspect of whatmanization to find ways and means of including the we were doing. As a result, as soon as we began re-emotions in patient care. Valdir Cimino flecting on our experience we immediately made a point of producing a handbook, a manual on hospitalThis is going to get bigger all the time. Hospitals are humanization through art.aware of its importance and are already seeking waysto ensure humanization becomes a routine part of the SUCCESSES AND FAILURES Professionalism became a hallmark of the Associa-care they provide. tion and will continue to be its most salient feature, All this work was carried out very professionally. even though this means it reaches a smaller number Carlos Vicente Serrano Junior What I find striking is that Associação Arte Desper- of people. tar doesn’t use volunteers but professionals. I think that’s very important. In its relationships with partners, this profission-There’s no vision of a network, of the First, Second alization, the endeavor to achieve perfection andand Third Sectors embracing to produce indicators. José Ferraz Ferreira Filho to record and disseminate the lessons learned, allNGOs often see each other as competitors, because this has not always been properly understood by allwhen someone starts a new project they don’t check concerned. Many partners are business organiza-if there’s already a similar one so they could join The art educators were paid: that was one of the first tions and so they often ask us for more speed, moreforces. Everyone wants their own. things Regina said at the meeting. I found that really publicity for their sponsorship, larger numbers interesting and important, because it’s a job and more of beneficiaries.I also think visibility is lacking for many NGOs that than anything there has to be real bonding with theare really good, very correct, but don’t have the chance children. This was serious work, commitment to a Dario Ferreira Guarita Filhoto show others what they’re doing. The Third Sector goal, a mission to enable learning about art. I thinkstarted with a paradigm that needed to be broken when this changes everything. When you’re working withthe first organization called itself non-governmental. children and you have paid professionals you achieve Yes, changing, changing. That’s what Arte Desper-That “non” spoils everything. (...) You have to work continuity and a different sort of relationship from tar does. They’re always evaluating, always calling inwith government. You need support from government what you get with volunteers. consultants, groups of experts to discuss specific is-as well as support from private enterprise, because sues. I was able to take part in one of these processes.you’re trying to do what you do for everyone. Look at I used to say to the professionals, “Look, this is a seri- It’s very enriching.it from the investment standpoint: business organiza- ous commitment and you must take it seriously. Thetions cut back on social projects whenever there’s a children will have expectations. They’ve been aban- Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzicrisis, before they make cuts in marketing or training. doned so often and they need your commitment.”I would say a policy is already in place so that we have Lígia Cortez Look, I find it very hard to locate any flaws becauseto make it happen. That’s our challenge, bringing the structure is so well organized. (...) So it’s hard toabout that transformation. If we can empower our pa- make a suggestion or point to a flaw. But I’m an en-tients, provide information to them so they can take In these ten years the number of people who have thusiastic advocate of our project, so don’t expect mepreventive action to care for their health, if all these benefited from the activities of Arte Despertar could to be critical, even constructively.actions are in effect promoting that, then we expect have been far greater, but its constant pursuit of per-shorter waiting lists and more highly valued profes- fection has limited the universe. José Ferraz Ferreira Filho
I don’t work for Arte Despertar, but I get the im- patients if we don’t adopt them as an institution in our care that must be human, from saying “Good morn-pression it’s always building. They have one big relationships with health workers. So we have this dual ing” to all the medical procedures you use.strength: they’re always evolving, always engaged in perspective. Humanization is important for both pa-a process of construction. tients and their families, and for our own staff. Doctors Wilze Laura Bruscato and nurses are constantly dealing with pain, suffering, Teresa Guarita Grynberg death, and they also need to be cared for. It’s extremely important for the institution to adopt these practices. Arte Despertar provides emotional support to pa- tients through the work it does in humanization.Arte Despertar has experience in several fields. To- For patients, for example, the group relieves theirday all these successful attempts have matured, and suffering considerably when it interacts directly with Carlos Vicente Serrano JuniorI feel the Association is very balanced, with a solid them. Family members also take part when they aretrack record and a soundly built legacy. It’s tough that staying at the hospital as carers. So these are wayseverything still centers on Regina, but I think her style in which the tension created by the hospital can be Arte Despertar’s work in hospitals isn’t just for chil-of working is extremely important. mitigated. The patients experience this relief because dren. It’s for us professionals, too. Today was a day health workers who are involved in humanization I needed them, for example, because they give us a Lígia Cortez training and procedures are able to deal with patients break from the agitation that’s too stressful for staff, with greater lightness and cheerfulness. So the patients let alone for the children and families. The activities and their families benefit both ways. That’s what we they bring here can restore a degree of balance. (...)One of the best results is when children and their fam- expect and what has actually happened. Hospital humanization is just that. The art educatorsilies experience the hospital as something other than come into that hospital mechanism, that machinesuffering. Many keep coming back to visit the hospital Wilze Laura Bruscato driven by concern, decision making, painful proce-thanks to this discovery, this positive recollection of dures, and they make a break with all that machinery,hospitalization, as not just being about pain and suf- they provide relief, and that’s what humanization is,fering. There can also be fun, which is important for The children feel totally involved and begin to learn that’s Arte Despertar’s achievement.adults as well as children. that hospitals aren’t just places where you have nee- dles stuck in you and take medication and all that. (...) Célia Yukiko OsatoSome research even shows improvements in children’s So in our view what Arte Despertar does here withimmunity. They’re less unhappy or depressed, their us is extremely useful in helping us to provide hu-anxiety diminishes, they don’t feel so worried. How? manized care for children. (...) They become more I’ve always had an interest in community work. IThrough pleasure, the pleasure of listening to music and accepting and often succeed in receiving the treat- belief in human beings and that’s why I devote my-stories, singing, creating. All that affects the organism. ment they need, because adherence and compliance self to them. As a businessman I need well-trainedIt has a physiological impact. It improves immunity and get better, frequently improving survival. people, but human beings always have flaws or gaps.can even reduce the length of hospital stays. I’ve always loved helping to prepare and develop peo- Antonio Sérgio Petrilli ple and it’s moving to hear people testify to the way Célia Yukiko Osato something has improved their lives. I get exactly that emotion from Arte Despertar’s projects, where you Hospital humanization is actually a new way of can see the improvement in the lives of health work-Our Humanization Committee has discussed the practicing healthcare. Treatment and other healthcare- ers and patients.need for a two-sided approach. It’s no use asking our related actions must occur but they can be performedhealth workers to adopt humanization practices with in a humanized manner. So it’s the way you deliver the Lúcio de Castro Andrade Filho 48 I 49
Well, I’ll begin with what I left. I left an open door. That about what a favela is, what a community is. That’s the PARTNERINGwas nice – I left the organization and the project contin- biggest lesson of all.ued. That’s what demonstrated the project’s legitimacy. One of the first partners I found for the Einstein in theIt was the organization’s project, not mine. It was a good William Malfatti Paraisópolis Community Program was Arte Despertar.project; in fact, it’s still running today. And what did Arte I believe children can develop through art, developDespertar leave me? It taught me a different attitude to their personalities more fully, if they have a chance tothe Rouanet Law [which offers tax breaks in exchange The work done by Arte Despertar is wonderful: hat’s express themselves, to show what they think and feelfor cultural investment by business]. My prior experience off to them! It’s really effective and well-planned. about life. It’s been a very positive relationship fromhad involved using the law for major projects with scant They know where to go and what to do. The music the word go. I believe I’ve also developed by workingsocial impact. I confess I didn’t have much faith in Arte project in Paraisópolis is extremely impressive! with Arte Despertar.Despertar when it started. I was wrong. We succeeded.What I’m trying to say is that Arte Despertar taught me Maria Nadir Azevedo de Moraes Telma Sobolhto see that the amount of money you have isn’t the keyto whether you support a project or not. The experienceshowed me you can do a relevant project without loads Typically they’re a little timid. I don’t know if it’s a mis- My relationship with Arte Despertar was very inter-of money. Another lesson I learned was about the im- take. It’s a very conservative style. It’s a characteristic, esting because I’d just joined a corporation that waspact of a project of this kind on the community. I’d never with pros and cons. As far as the disposition to attract structuring its communication sector and strengtheningbeen into a favela [slum] before, when one day Regina people is concerned, you could say it’s a mistake. its brand nationwide. Just as we were putting our plansinvited me along. So I saw, for example, the incredible together, Arte Despertar came along with a proposal. Itoutreach of the Einstein in the Paraisópolis Commu- Guilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves included a project called “Weekends with Music” fornity Program, how it has transformed the community. the Paraisópolis community. The idea was to use Roua-The people who live in that area know they have a point net Law incentives. It would have a considerable socialof support for healthcare, education, schooling etc., and I think the first “round” as an institution was with a impact by giving children from the community some-that it’s a program designed to assure cultural develop- pharmaceutical company, and the first slip-up was also thing to do on Saturdays. Arte Despertar proposed toment in a cyclical manner. You can see the impact it has with that company, when they changed their CEO and run activities there so as to inspire the children to de-on the community. You can see the look of hope about sponsorships as well. So then we had to go out and get velop an interest in music. (...) The project was a hugethe future on people’s faces, the look of happiness, their another sponsor. surprise. (...) This was in 2000, and it’s still runningexpectations that things can only get better. And they today. We succeeded in implementing the project indemand that respect because they constitute a commu- Dario Ferreira Guarita Neto a well-organized form. It began with one group, thennity. You see those people developing, improving their along came others, they performed music for the kidsorganization, earning an honest livelihood. There’s a very and a lot of them liked it so much they became profes-mistaken idea about what a favela is, or a community as It’s very important for people to know about this work, sionals and are now making a living as musicians.we prefer to call it. The prejudice is that all the people about what’s happened in the past few years, about thewho live there are hopeless or feckless, dangerous even, numbers and so on, so that the Association can grow. William Malfattipeople without a job or a trade, drifters. That’s not it at We need to publicize what we’re doing as widely as pos-all. When you go in, what you see is that people grasp sible. We need to multiply our knowledge, take it to newall the opportunities they’re offered. Arte Despertar places we’ve never thought of going to. That could en- Arte Despertar was fundamental for our programmingawakened me to this. It enabled me to see the able us to expand our outreach via a multiplier model. in the Paraisópolis community. (...) However, whencommunity differently. That’s great, because I believe you consider Third Sector organizations in general, it’sthat kind of experience makes you think differently Heloisa Guarita Padilha important to realize that an NGO is not an organiza-
tion like any other. I believe only those with stability in When the first contact happened between Arte Des- leave the hospital feeling victorious to carry on withevery respect will survive, and that includes conveying a pertar and the institution, I was called in as chair of the rest of their lives as competent citizens.sense of credibility to the market. (...) We knew we had the Humanization Committee. And I can genuinelyto offer better conditions for partners to work with us, say it was a tender relationship that led to engage- Antonio Sérgio Petrilliboth physically and administratively. ment and marriage and is still working really well right now. We immediately identified with their values and Telma Sobolh vision. So we met on common ground and then we The partnership between De Goeye Advogados Asso- held a number of meetings for mutual introduction. ciados and Arte Despertar began some time ago. Its The Association showed us what they wanted to do starting-point was friendship. During a get-togetherWhile I was head of JP Morgan Brazil, the vision I had here. The committee obtained authorization from they told me about the work they were doing and itwas that our institution would support initiatives and our superiors. The people brought in by the Asso- sounded great to me. Very well organized and serious. Iprojects in which our employees could participate ac- ciation were very good and it presented us with a got interested in the cause and decided I should devotetively, so that they could have an experience I believe to timetable that was relatively easy to implement in our some time to pro bono legal work, a form of volun-be extremely important — realizing that we’re all part units. Directors of units were also asked to authorize teering in which you provide fully professional legalof society, that we have to help the people who need the activities. Since then we’ve met regularly, every services without charging any fees.help, and that helping people participate more in soci- month, with me and with a person representing theety isn’t just a matter of making donations. It’s making place where the Association carries out its activities. Enrique De Goeye Netoan effort to understand the challenges faced by the This has worked out very well.organizations that set out to create value in the socialsense, participating actively in that context, and mak- Wilze Laura Bruscato I find the projects very interesting and effective,ing sure their participation produces results. We also as evidenced by the results and by the acceptancehad another goal, which was to enable the employees of of partners and sponsors. The response of the or-the institution, in this case JP Morgan, to identify with Arte Despertar got going just as the debate about hos- ganizations that have opened their doors to Arteorganizations responsible for projects by sharing their pital humanization was starting. That’s over ten years Despertar’s activities and its beneficiaries shows howwork. Nothing could do that better than the kind of ago. Their proposal dates from that period, when there much it helps and is useful to human beings. Indeed,work Arte Despertar was then doing, especially hospital was very little of that kind of thing. (...) At the time we Arte Despertar has been working in some hospitalshumanization, to enable our employees to experience had a group here at Hospital das Clínicas that was sup- for years. That proves how effective its work is.directly what happens when people work together to posed to help patients with basic necessities. No oneimprove living conditions not just in hospitals but for was thinking more broadly about patient needs, espe- Lúcio de Castro Andrade Filhothe needy in general. This produced fantastic results at cially those of children.the organizational level. There was a lot of talk abouthow to organize the voluntary work done by employ- Célia Yukiko Osatoees over the weekend, in the evenings, the songs they SUSTAINABILITYsang, they drawings they produced, and all this cre-ated throughout the institution, JP Morgan, a sense of We hope the partnership with Arte Despertar contin- Things are a lot better now than they were ten yearspride that people were doing something that had an ues. We’re very interested in sharing this space here ago, in my view. The learning curve is a valuableimportant effect on the lives of other human beings, with a project that has been highly successful. I’d like reality. There are very good projects to look at. Iparticularly people who were sick. to take the opportunity to express thanks for all the also think business organizations are more aware hard work and collaboration. We’re trying to do com- that they need to get involved somehow. This is Patrick Charles Morin Jr. plementary things, healing children and helping them one of the best lessons learned. They’ve made sig- 50 I 51
nificant progress by starting to keep track of how keep going. The next step was to submit projects for appropriateness to your household or individualthese resources are used. And they’ve found ways approval of tax incentives under the Rouanet Law, budget, and its durability.of inserting people into these projects. It’s good for so that companies could deduct investment in sociala company’s brand, out there on the front line, and projects from their tax liabilities. Then came prod- Heloisa Guarita Padilhait’s good for the company’s self-esteem as well. (...) uct marketing. This is the best part. Arte DespertarBusinesses now consider these issues to be part of is actually an enterprise through which products aretheir corporate goals. sold, so you have a meeting of interests between If you put all your eggs in one basket, you can find your- the Third Sector and private enterprise. (...) This self in trouble: what will you do if a partner decides toThese resources were allocated to the community product interests me because I buy the product as a move out? So you often lose them, and the worst worriesand had a direct impact on the people there. So the business proposition. It’s business but at the same are when an agreement comes up for renewal. The suf-project wasn’t confined to promoting culture, which time it’s a non-profit. I think that’s the most impor- fering of finding yourself without funds happens everyis essentially what the Rouanet Law is for, but had a tant driver of sustainability for the Association. year, it’s normal. You build credibility once the investorsbroader social impact. see results and realize they’re participants, once they see Dario Ferreira Guarita Neto positive results from partnering with the organization.From then on we were invited to make presentationsabout our partnership and about details of the project. Valdir CiminoI had an opportunity to participate alongside Arte Des- When I make a donation to a hospital, for example,pertar in two presentations we made to introduce the the money is allocated to a specific use. We thoughtproject to other firms. People were surprised by this of ways to make this feasible for Arte Despertar. We They’re people who came from the business worldapproach to using the incentives offered by the law at set up a specific fund, part of which was to be for and brought into the organization a valuable networkthat time. It was a special moment. It was easy for you use by the Association, part of the income earned. It of contacts. Very significant support soon came outto join a project like that. I think this question of using was to be a fixed amount that didn’t depend on fluc- of that. However, although the support is very strong,tax breaks via that project serves as an example. It sets tuations in the fund’s returns. This worked well, with there are no guarantees they’ll stay around for long. Atan example that is still valid now, nine years later. It’s a two withdrawals per year. It’s an important source of that time the issue was how to make this sustainable.project that has validity in the present. It’s still a symbol. funding for Arte Despertar and we’re committed to How could the organization divide up the eggs and this allocation on an ongoing basis. baskets better, given that it had only one or two ma- William Malfatti jor sponsors. Most of the budget was centralized with First and foremost, the model has to be sustainable. one or two sources of funding. So that was a concern: It’s no use earning a big salary and wanting to donate you have this basket and if it should fall and breakThe biggest difficulty we faced was coming away three-quarters because it won’t work. It has to be re- all the eggs, sustainability would be a major problem.from several contacts with our hands empty. We also alistic in terms of your budget. So for the model to be That was when I was called in to take a look at thehad successes, but to some extent it was frustrating sustainable, a fixed amount has to be stipulated. In ad- problem. Sustainability is not simply a financial mat-to be doing such marvelous work and not being able dition, the fund can’t invest aggressively. In terms of ter. It involves a number of other issues that have toto find an investor. longevity it has to be moderate, which means aiming be combined if the organization is to be sustainable. for a reasonable return without too much risk. That José Ferraz Ferreira Filho way you guarantee a certain income and an agreed per- Rogério Magon centage is withdrawn for use by the Association.As far as sustainability is concerned, initially the idea This is why the structure has to be conservative. The It was a successful process of raising awareness inwas to find a sponsor so that Arte Despertar could amounts may be large or small. What matters is its preparation for decentralization, because Regina cen-
tralized everything and without her it didn’t work. All Third Sector organizations face the major chal- because if you strengthen the cause you strengthen allDuring the process it became clear that this was an lenge of sustainability, both financial and in terms of the NGOs that are working in that field.obstacle to sustainability. So it was important for the well-structured projects that can be multiplied. Arteevolution of Arte Despertar. Despertar, in my view, is aware of this challenge in Valdir Cimino both respects and is working on both financial and Guilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves project sustainability. One of the main obstacles or problems for many Third Sector organizations is Yes, I do have an idea of the importance of the legal work that they’re too narrowly focused on welfare. Arte we do for Arte Despertar. I also believe in the impor-This was a concern that I always expressed to Regina, Despertar doesn’t see itself like that. There’s no tance of this contribution to a better world. Any initiativebecause of course business organizations aim to boost limit to the work it can do. It’s focusing on train- that’s well organized , with transparency, technical qualitytheir corporate image when they support activities such ing and preparing intermediaries who will work with and honesty, helps make the world a better place. We inas these, which is legitimate. The secret is how you the final beneficiaries at the end of the chain. Most the professions have the capacity to contribute to effortsmake use of it. We’ve always been careful not to let the other NGOs work directly with the final beneficia- to improve the world and people’s lives. If we each im-marketing overshadow the activity. Marketing is a con- ries and that creates a need for a very large amount prove what we do, the world will also improve.sequence of the sheer dimensions of the project. We of human and financial resources, which it’s oftendidn’t want the project to be used as a springboard for difficult to develop. Arte Despertar, in contrast, Enrique De Goeye Netopublicity and marketing. The involvement was there, now has a much more interesting focus on interme-and the project was an example to other companies. It diaries, many of them in hospitals, such as doctors,had an impact on the community. Children went to the nurses and so on, helping them and training them My expectation is that it will indeed be a relevantcompany’s offices via the project to have their work in the context of hospital humanization and en- institution in the context of Brazilian society, that itrecognized. We extended the project and produced a couraging them to work with colleagues so that the will once day extend its reach out from São Paulo toCD. The children also recorded one in a studio. multiplier effect can happen. So I believe the model the rest of Brazil, and that it will continue transform- pursued by Arte Despertar is very interesting and ing society with the ideals and methods we’ve seen William Malfatti produces success without constantly requiring more in the past ten years. I don’t expect us ever to know resources, whether human or financial, because this precisely the value of what we do, but we are able toSo you began to see companies that managed to balance will happen almost naturally. ascertain that this type of initiative promotes verysocial, economic and environmental concerns, no longer important changes in the beneficiaries. So we expectjust to boost their image but because they simply had to Patrick Charles Morin Jr. this to become public policy within a few years.in order to survive. The companies that emerge now arein a new world where the customer’s demands prevail. Dario Ferreira Guarita NetoThis is a stage that requires consumers to change their I have the impression that this will be the watchwordhabits. A very difficult subject. Companies that don’t for the next stage in the development of Arte Despertar.have that balance will start losing competitiveness and I agree with what he said, but one of the challenges forcould even go out of business in some sectors. I believe José Ferraz Ferreira Filho the next ten years is to try to decentralize the leadershipthe organizations that have led from the front in this exercised by Regina. I would set that goal. It’s extreme-respect are the NGOs, which are now part of the debate ly important for the perpetuation of Arte Despertar,that’s going on throughout society in a very important We’re partners in the Conference on Humanization in alongside making all its work replicable. As for whenway. They have a great deal of strength and influence. Healthcare [www.vivahumanizacao.org.br]. This is the or to what extent this can be done, I don’t know. (...) main partnership. We exchange information and share Dario Ferreira Guarita Neto production of the event. We’ve embraced this cause Guilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves 52 I 53
A very present force – here’s the proof: you young enjoy freedom of expression and fewer things can go 6entrepreneurs who are now arriving at the top of on without society finding out. (...)your organizations, bringing with you a different cul- YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROWture from that of previous generations, who weren’t I don’t participate in the organization’s day-to-day ac-concerned about these issues, who had experienced tivities and I’m not familiar with the latest plans, but I Regina Vidigal Guaritadifferent economic conditions and didn’t have this also see it the way Guilherme does. It’s the challengekind of preoccupation. The new generation of busi- of leadership. You have to have succession planning. “Be the change you want to see in the world”ness leaders have this new culture, they’ve been You’ve had ten years with Regina in the driving seat.hearing about these issues since they were kids, it’s What kind of face will the organization have from now Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)already part of the culture. So this is progress and on, what will it be like in the years ahead? How doit’s emerging naturally. A second force that’s very you transition from being a pioneer to being a moreimportant is sustainability of the planet. Business mature organization, whose activities are still linked to What individuals are these who have invested timeorganizations are increasingly aware of the stark its groundbreaking principles, but with management and knowledge in Associação Arte Despertar duringfacts: we’re using up the planet’s resources so fast possibly shared among several people. I think that con- the past ten years? What motivated them to com-that there won’t be a planet for the next generation tinues to be a major challenge. mit to the mission of awakening people’s potentialunless we slow down and take a less predatory ap- through art and culture so that these beneficiariesproach. So this is a key driver, too. It starts with the Rogério Magon become subjects of transformative action?environment but is closely coupled to social issues.And the third force is society. Although you’re say- They are certainly part of a distinguished group of citi-ing it’s hard to change consumer habits, at least part zens who believe that only the positive transformationof society knows you shouldn’t buy products that of every individual can change society and the world.don’t have this or that seal or hallmark. It’s not a bigchange yet because the market hasn’t been regulatedin this way, but we’re already seeing a reasonable YESTERDAYawareness on society’s part about the companies thatbehave correctly. These three forces are contribut- At its inception Arte Despertar prioritized work withing to all this and driving it forward. And the fourth children from low-income families and in hospitals.force is the one you mentioned, the emergence of Adolescents, youngsters and adults were natural-the Third Sector and non-profits with the freedom ly the next groups to join the roll of beneficiaries.of expression and organization made possible by the Adults because they accompanied their children inrestoration of democracy in Brazil. That has hap- hospital; adolescents and youngsters because theypened since the new Constitution. Before 1988, a were interested in the work with art and culture of-handful of people who tried to set up an association fered in the communities.would have been arrested. The few of us having thistalk here would have been accused of being com- The association’s social practice required responsi-mies, lefties, before 1988. So that’s another really big bility, but persistence emerged as an indispensablechange. Society, organized or not, is watching. Is it element to achieve successful results.still incipient? Of course, it’s a new project, not yet20 years on the road. But the signs are there. There’s A lack of models for legal, financial and social man-less impunity than there was. Society and the media agement obliged the professionals involved in the
day-to-day running of projects to use a great deal of and were willing to transform their individual expe- The story of Arte Despertar told in this book hascreativity to develop effective strategies and solu- rience into collective experience. Commitment and been made possible by the hard work done by sotions of their own. teamwork by all concerned were crucial for the ven- many of the association’s members, executives, part- ture to succeed. ners, sponsors and professionals, all of whom areAt that time, Arte Despertar’s activities were limited responsible for the positive results achieved to date.to relatively small numbers of beneficiaries, but the In the early days, pilot projects facilitated understand- Thank you all very much indeed.participants were engaged, committed and observant ing and engagement on the part of the association’sof the transformational purpose of the projects. professionals. A variety of partners provided contact Regina Vidigal Guarita with projects that had similar aims, strengthening President the team’s competence and experience. Day-to-dayTODAY practice enabled them to amass a significant amount of knowledge, which has now been systematized asTen years on, the association’s commitment to soci- content for TAD. Evaluation methods and metricsety required rethinking in order to deal appropriately were created to assess the results.with new expectations and requirements, startingwith the concept of sustainability that had become Communication became a vital element, lendingthe supreme imperative for any third-sector organi- Arte Despertar visibility and credibility in publicizingzation to succeed over the long haul. its activities, reinforcing the participation and com- mitment of the professionals involved by enablingThe answer to the sustainability question was to them to share ideas and opinions, and contributingcreate a social technology resulting from the sys- to capacity building.tematization of a methodology constructed duringten years of work in hospitals and communities, andwhose characteristics reflect the profile of today’s TOMORROWsociety in terms of the feasibility of its dissemination,low cost, and easy understanding of its application. From now on, after years of practical experience with the overriding aim of promoting the individual,This technology, which we call Tecnologia Arte Arte Despertar plans to extend the scope of its ac-Despertar (TAD), has extended the association’s tivities to reach and strengthen those who most needcapabilities. In addition to serving as an element support in defending their rights, and to create a newof financial sustainability, since it is designed to be profile centering on active subjecthood and criticalself-contained so that it can be sold as a product or thinking about experience so as to promote socialservice, TAD is custom-built for use in disseminating development and citizenship.and implementing the methodology in hospitals tosupport Brazil’s National Humanization Policy, and To this end, the association will disseminate TADin poor communities for the training of educators. and implement it where opportunities arise to sup- port citizenship in this way, in healthcare institutions,To construct the new line of action, it was necessary educational environments and in the corporate world,to bring together professionals who already worked thereby fulfilling its role as a contributor to the cre-with Arte Despertar, agreed with the proposition, ation of a society with a more promising future. 54 I 55
OUR PARTNERS André Vicino de Lucca Daniela Helena BiancardiAssociação Arte Despertar extends heartfelt thanks to Andréa de Almeida Bossi Daniela Rodrigues Florall those who have believed in its cause and contributedto its growth by helping to make its projects successful. Andréa Mangabeira Faingezicht Débora Cristina de Melo Ramires Andrezza Medeiros Vieira da Silva Débora Kikuti da SilvaARTE DESPERTAR CO-WORKERS Angélica Costa Arechavala Denis Henrique da Silva DuarteAdriana Freires Aragão Anna Carolina Loiacono Denise Garcia dos Santos ChavesAdriana Maria Motta de Siqueira Bruno Almeida Silva Diana MatsumotoAlberto Duvivier Ortenblad Camila Bigio Grynszpan Edson Pereira de LunaAlcides de Lima Junior Camila Miccas Elisabeth BelisárioAlcita Maria Coelho de Lima Célia Gomes Chaves Estevão Silva da ConceiçãoAlessandra P. S. Peixoto Chake Erkizian Everaldo da Silva SantosAlex Rosato Claudia Viri de Oliveira Fabiane Cristina Matias SchwenkowAmanda dos Santos Agostini Cleide Beatriz Masini Barbosa Fabiane da Silva ReginaldoAmaury Costa Brito Clodoaldo Aparecido Alves Silva Fábio Nogueira de Matos MartinsAna Cristina Simões Parente Conceição Aparecida da Costa Fábio Vieira Rodrigues RosaAna Emília C. Ribeiro Cristiana Arantes Lanhoso Fernanda Efigenia RibeiroAna Luisa Lacombe Cristiana Lima Gabriel Fernanda Kelly da Silva BritoAna Maria Rodolpho Domingues Cristiane Alves Silva Fernando Nitsch Borges de AlmeidaAna Rosa A. Araújo Costa Cristiane Sayegh Gabriel JúniorAndré Pereira Lindenberg Daniel Coelho Matos Gabriela Villaboim de Carvalho Hess
Geraldo Maria Orlando Filho Leila Yuri Sugahara Maria Graziella GuaritaGraziela K. Kunsch Letícia de Cássia Cocciolito Maria Helena da Cruz SpontonHelena Domingos Lígia Cristina Dantas Maria Helena WebsterJoão Gomes da Silva Lígia Maria Camargo Silva Cortez Maria Stela Fortes BarbieriJoão Mauro Lígia Nóbrega Maria Tereza Estrabon FalabellaJoelma Correia de Andrade Lilian dos Santos Magnani Marília Pontone HellmeisterJosé Henrique Reis de Menezes Luciana Caldeira Viacava Marilisa Galvão Basso de OliveiraJoyce Helena Bisca Luciana de Sá Bertossi Marina QuinanJoyce Machado de Coimbra Luciane Toffoli Marllon Brando Feitosa ChavesJoyce Menasce Rosset Luís Roberto Soares dos Santos Marta Labriola SandlerJuliana Leis Balsalobre Maicira Maria Oliveira Trevisan Mauricio AnacletoJuliana Yogui Maíra Daniel Vaz Valente Milena de MarcoKarin Michaelis Oppenheim Márcia Cristina da Silva Murilo KrammerKarin Patrícia da Silva Marco Antonio da Silva Nadia Ferreira Esteves TademaKelly Aparecida da Silva Marco Antonio Ramos Borneu de Abreu Orlene Queila de OliveiraKelly Aparecida da Silva Jardim Marco Aurélio de Araújo Silva Paula GalassoLaura Dantas de Souza Pinto Maria Angela de Souza Lima Rizzi Priscila Basile de Moraes LemeLaura Finocchiaro Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzi Rafael GalliLéa Pintor de Arruda Oliveira Maria das Graças Saturnino de Lima Rafael Masini BarbosaLeila Garcia Maria Fernanda Cardoso Santos Regina Vidigal Guarita 56 I 57
Renata Flaiban Zanete Sonia de Almeida Sampaio Teixeira André SobralRenata Munhoz Martins Sonia Lazara Biroli de Medeiros Andreia da Silva SilveiraRenato Tocantins Sampaio Sonia Silva Anna Cecília Pinheiro Malta CamposRicardo Marques de Souza Tâmara David de Oliveira Sousa Antonio Augusto Abreu SampaioRita de Cássia Demarchi Tânia Marilis de Oliveira Piffer Antonio Carlos VidigalRoberta Delizoicov Telma Helena dos Santos Camila Vieira SantosRoberta Maia Sessa Frederico Tereza Simonsen de Ferraz Ferreira Carlos Alberto GramaniRoberta Paola Parente Thelma Lobel Carlos Vicente Serrano JuniorRodrigo Dionisio Urga Maíra Cardoso Celina Ida de A. S. CampelloRodrigo Y. Castro Vinícius Spinelli Peixinho Celso Clemente GiacomettiRosana Errico Viviane Xavier Marques Cristiano BiagiRosângela Almeida Dalva Funaro GasparianSamara Ferreira INDIVIDUAL PARTNERS Daniel Vianna SilveiraSandra Urizzi Lessa Alberto Malta de Souza Campos Dario Ferreira Guarita FilhoSilvana Abreu Aléssio Calil Mathias Dario Ferreira Guarita NetoSílvia Cristina Roque Mascarenhas Cruz Alexandre Grynberg Dinah Portugal GouveaSílvia Regina Monteiro Alexandre Negrão Dora Guarita LevySimone Moerdaui Alice Ferreira Edith GeribelloSolange Salva Alvaro Cesar Ferrari Eduardo Junqueira da Motta LuizSolange Zaborowsky Muszkat André Mesquita Eduardo Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves
Eleonora Pitombo José Roberto Opice Maria da Penha F. da CruzFabiana Fagundes José Romeu Ferraz Neto Maria Eugênia SaldanhaFabio Noto Josefa Rodrigues Maria Helena Ribeiro do ValleFernanda Niemeyer Laura Suarez Gomes Maria Lúcia FerliniFlora Romanzoni Lígia Souto Vidigal Maria Nadir Azevedo de MoraesGastão Augusto Bueno Vidigal Luciana Freitas Pupo Nogueira Maria Virginia LeardiGastão de Souza Mesquita Luciano Sapata Marília Fernanda Correia S. PedrosoGilberto Dantas Lucio de Castro Andrade Filho Marina Brant de CarvalhoGiordano Biagi Luis Eduardo da Costa Carvalho Marina Brito GonçalvesGisela Guarita Levy Luiz Eduardo Campello Filho Marina Mendes Bassalo MesquitaGiselle Cicotti Luiz Fonseca de Souza Meirelles Filho Maurício SouenGuilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves Luiz Martins Maurílio Biagi FilhoHeloisa Guarita Padilha Luiz Masagão Ribeiro Maurício Pompéia FragaHenrique Lacerda de Camargo Luiz Vicente Barros Mattos Jr. Ney Castro AlvesIbsen Augusto Ramenzoni Lygia Fonseca Vidigal Olívia Gonçalves MessaIrineu Ferman Manoel Carlos da Costa Santos Orlando Giácomo FilhoJoão C. Marchesan Filho Marcia Maria Abreu V. Pinheiro Patrícia de Queirós MattosoJosé Alberto Tozzi Marcos Lima de Freitas Patrick Charles Morin Jr.José Benedito Rodrigues Júnior Maria Beatriz Portugal Gouvea Paulo Augusto RamenzoniJosé Ferraz Ferreira Filho Maria Carolina Sapata Paulo Brasil Moraes F. Velloso 58 I 59
Paulo Brito Suzana C. Scuracchio Banco SudamerisPaulo de Tarso C. Opice Teresa Guarita Grynberg Bandeirante Energias do BrasilPaulo Fernando D. T. Pitombo Tereza Proença Banespa SAPaulo Guaspari Terezinha Gotti Biblioteca Anne FrankRaquel Carvalho Oliveira Vera Inês Marmo Masagão Ribeiro Biblioteca Hans Cristian AndersenReinaldo Marques Verônica Tutundjian Boehringer Ingelheim do Brasil Química e Farmacêutica LtdaRenata Camargo Nascimento Victor Artur Renault Brasmetal Waelzholz SA -Renata Cavalcanti Biselli Virgínia Garcia de Souza Indústria e ComércioRoberto A. Gomes Dantas Viviane Cohen Nascimento CBI Indústria e Comércio LtdaRoberto Jaime Engels Centro Cultural do Banco do Brasil (CCBB) CORPORATE PARTNERSRoberto Pereira de Almeida Filho Centro Cultural Herman Gmeiner Aldeias Infantis SOS de Rio Bonito/SPRobertson Emerenciano Centro Cultural Rebouças Associação Crescer SempreRosa Helena M. Pinheiro Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Educação, Associação Santo Agostinho (ASA) Cultura e Ação Comunitaria (CENPEC)Ruy Simões Pinto Jr. Associação Viva e Deixa Viver Centro de Voluntariado de São Paulo (CVSP)Sandra Alves Silva Associação Viver em Família Cia Agrícola Usina JacarezinhoSérgio Paula Souza Caiuby para um Futuro Melhor Cia Melhoramentos Norte do ParanáSheila Lyrio Banco ABC Brasil Coelho da Fonseca EmpreendimentosSimone Guaspari Banco Indusval Multstock ImobiliáriosSonia da Cunha Bueno Vidigal Banco Mercantil Finasa Colégio Santa CruzStefan Neuding Neto Banco Pecúnia SA Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná
Comunitas - Parcerias para o Valores Mobiliários SA Instituto Camargo CorrêaDesenvolvimento Solidário Gráfica Igupe Instituto Criar de Cinema e TVConselho Municipal da Criança e do Adolescente(CMDCA) Grupo de Apoio ao Adolescente e à Criança com Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia Câncer (GRAACC) do Hospital das Clínicas (IOT)Construções e Comércio Camargo Corrêa SA Grupo Ultra Instituto do Câncer do EstadoDe Goeye Advogados Associados de São Paulo (ICESP) Guarita AssociadosDeloitte Touche Tohmatsu Auditores Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas daIndependentes Gusmão & Labrunie Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor – HCFMUSP)Epanor Lecca SA Hedging-Griffo Asset. Management SC Ltda Instituto FonteEscola Estadual Maria Zilda Gamba Natel Hedging-Griffo Corretora de Valores SA Instituto Itaú CulturalEscola Habitat Hospital da Criança Nossa Senhora de Lourdes Instituto Minidi Pedroso de Arte e Educação SocialEspaço Cachuera Hospital e Maternidade São Lucas (Diadema/SP) (IMPAES)Estúdio 185 Hospital Geral de Guarulhos Instituto Tomie OhtakeEstúdio Colírio Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein Intercode TecnologiaFundação Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP) Hospital Maternidade Jesus José e Maria Irmandade da Santa Casa de (Guarulhos/SP) Misericórdia de São PauloFundação Bienal de São Paulo Hospital Municipal da Criança (Guarulhos/SP) Itaú Seguros SAFundação Faculdade de Medicina Hospital Municipal de Urgências (Guarulhos/SP) Jardim Botânico de São PauloFundação Julita Hospital Nossa Senhora de Lourdes Jardim das Esculturas/Parque da LuzFundo Municipal da Criança e do Adolescente(FUMCAD) Hospital Stella Maris (Guarulhos/SP) JP MorganGalo SA Instituto Alfa de Cultura Lecca SAGoldman Sachs do Brasil Corretora de Títulos e Instituto Arte na Escola Mahil Participações Ltda 60 I 61
Mapfre Seguros Olivieri & Signorelli Advocacia SESCMaringá SA - Cimento e Ferro Liga Oxiteno Nordeste SA Industria e SESI ComercioMarkiodonto Social Web Parque Alfredo VolpiMattos Filho Veiga Filho Marrey Jr. e Quiroga Stan Desenvolvimento ImobiliárioAdvogados Parque Burle Max Stan Empreendimentos e Participações LtdaMineração Buritirama AS Peróxidos do Brasil Ltda Teatro AlfaMinistério da Cultura Petrobras Petróleo Brasileiro SA Teatro Brasileiro de ComédiaMinistério da Saúde Petróleo Ipiranga Teatro BrincanteMosteiro São Geraldo Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo Teatro Célia HelenaMuseu da Casa Brasileira Pôr do Som Produções Artísticas Teatro FUNARTEMuseu da Imagem e do Som (MIS) Posto de Orientação Familiar (POF) Teatro Padre Bento (Guarulhos/SP)Museu da Língua Portuguesa Prefeitura Municipal de Guarulhos Teatro Santa CruzMuseu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de Prefeitura Municipal de São PauloSão Paulo (MAC/USP) The Key Organizações e PricewaterhouseCoopers Marcas CidadãsMuseu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP) Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis Theca Corretora SAMuseu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo (MAM) (PECP) Tiffany & CONovartis Biociências SA Projeto Arrastão Tostex Haddock LoboNovartis Saúde Animal Ltda RGNutri UBS Pactual Asset ManagementNovartis Seeds Ltda Secretaria da Saúde de Guarulhos UBS Pactual Corretora de MercadoriasNúcleo Educacional da Santa Secretaria de Cultura de GuarulhosCasa de Diadema União Brasileira de Vidros SA Secretaria de Estado daOdontoclínicas Cultura de São Paulo União Vidigal Participações Ltda
in social psychology from Fundação Escola de Socio- 6ABOUT THE AUTHORS logia e Política de São Paulo (FESPSP). Also holds YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW bachelor’s degrees in social sciences and philosophy0 from USP and journalism from FIAM/FAAM. He Regina Vidigal GuaritaINDISPENSABLE UTOPIANS is deputy director of Escola de Aplicação (teacher training) at the University of São Paulo’s School of Social entrepreneur, founder and president of Asso-Eduardo Montechi Valladares Education, where he is also a professor and researcher. ciação Arte Despertar.Master’s degree and PhD in social history from theUniversity of São Paulo (USP). Currently a post-doc 3student of history at the University of Campinas (Uni- AWAKENING WITH AND FOR ARTcamp). Also holds bachelor’s degrees in philosophyfrom USP and in history from the Catholic University Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizziof São Paulo (PUC-SP). Author of Anarquismo e An-ticlericalismo, published by Editora Imaginário (2000), Tenured professor at the University of São Paulo’sand co-author of Revoluções do Século XX, published by School of Communication & Arts, Department ofEditora Scipione (1995). Co-wrote and worked as his- Fine Arts, licenciate degree program, and graduate vi-tory consultant on the film Nós que aqui estamos por vós sual arts program.esperamos (dir. Marcelo Masagão, 1999). 41 A WORD ABOUT USTHE NOTION OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FROMEARLY MODERNITY TO THE CONTEXT IN WHICH Maria Angela de Souza Lima RizziASSOCIAÇÃO ARTE DESPERTAR EMERGED Graduated in education from the University of SãoRui Luis Rodrigues Paulo (USP) and has worked as an educator in social projects since 1990. Pedagogic supervisor (2000-07)Graduated in history from the University of São Paulo and currently pedagogue, Associação Arte Despertar.(USP) and is currently preparing a PhD in social his-tory at the same university. Maria Helena da Cruz Sponton2 Art educator and educational psychologist. VisitingTHE INDIVIDUAL AND THE ART OF SELF-CREATION professor at the University of São Paulo’s School of Public Health. Co-author of Educação Ambiental eFelipe de Souza Tarábola Sustentabilidade, published by Manole/USP. Human- ization consultant to the São Paulo State CancerEarned a master’s in sociology of education from the Institute (ICESP). Pedagogic supervisor (1997-2007)University of São Paulo (USP) and a graduate diploma and currently pedagogue, Associação Arte Despertar. 62 I 63
SPONSORS ORGANIZATION PICTURE RESEARCH Arte Despertar Helena Domingos Regina Vidigal GuaritaINDIVIDUAL SPONSORS EDITORIAL COORDINATIONAndré Victor Neuding Helena Domingos PHOTOGRAPHYCarlos Alberto Gramani Maria Helena Webster Guto Seixas Arte Despertar archivesCelso Clemente Giacometti AUTHORSDario Ferreira Guarita Filho Eduardo Montechi Valladares GRAPHIC DESIGN Felipe de Souza Tarábola Estúdio ColírioDario Ferreira Guarita Neto Maria Angela de Souza Lima RizziGastão Augusto de Bueno Vidigal DESKTOP PUBLISHING Maria Christina de Souza Lima Rizzi Estúdio ColírioGuilherme Vidigal Andrade Gonçalves Maria Helena da Cruz SpontonJosé Ferraz Ferreira Filho Regina Vidigal Guarita PROOFREADING Rui Luis Rodrigues Caroline FrancoLúcio de Castro Andrade FilhoLuiz Eduardo Campello Filho ASSISTANCE WITH CHAPTER 4 PRINTINGLuiz Fonseca de Souza Meirelles Filho (A WORD ABOUT US) GFK Maria Heloisa Corrêa Toledo FerrazLuiz Vicente Mattos Jr. ENGLISH TRANSLATIONNey Castro Alves INTERVIEWS FOR CHAPTER 5 Kevin M. B. Mundy (THE VIEW FROM OUTSIDE)Patrick Charles Morin Jr. Lucas de OliveiraSérgio Paula Souza Caiuby Oficina da Comunicação IntegradaTeresa Guarita Grynberg ARCHIVE RESEARCH Claudia Viri de OliveiraCORPORATE SPONSORS COPY EDITINGBoehringer Ingelheim do Brasil Gipe Projetos Educativos LtdaLecca FinanceiraLecca InvestimentosPeróxidos do BrasilMinistério da Cultura