Health Care and Illness: Physical and Mental Let’s change topics to…
Prevalence – the number of cases of an illness that exist at any particular time.
Incidence – the number of new cases of an illness that occur during a particular period of time.
Epidemiology – the study of factors that affect the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of illnesses.
Life expectancy – the average number of years a person can expect to live.
Chronic diseases are the major cause of death in the U.S.
Infectious diseases cause more deaths worldwide than heart disease and cancer combined.
The health problems you are likely to face vary according your sex, age, and/or racial/ethnic origin.
Expectation of Life at Birth
Leading Causes of Death, by Sex and Race or Ethnicity
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
A disease in which a viral infection causes the immune system to stop functioning, inevitably resulting in death.
There is no cure for AIDS.
Spread through sex with someone infected with AIDS and sharing drug needles and syringes with an infected person.
More than half of all AIDS victims reside in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Worldwide, 40 million people are infected with the AIDS virus; 63% of them in Africa.
Since the first reported case in 1981, more than 25 million people have died of AIDS.
Total number of cases in U.S. by 2004 was 908,905. Of those:
35.1% non-Hispanic whites; 42.9% non-Hispanic blacks; 20.2% Hispanic; 1% Asian American; 0.4% American Indian.
Please watch the second video http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/aids/view/?utm_campaign=viewpage&utm_medium=grid&utm_source=grid
Major Infectious Diseases in the World Source: Platt 1996:12-13.
Types of Mental Illness
Psychosis – the individual fails to distinguish between internal and external stimuli.
Neurosis – anxiety that impairs functioning.
Psychosomatic disorder – impairment in physiological functioning that results from the individual’s emotional state.
Schizophrenia – psychosis that involves a thinking disorder, particular hallucinations and fantasies.
Manic-depressive reaction – involves fluctuation between emotional extremes.
Health Care, Illness, & the Quality of Life
Stress and Suffering
Some illnesses carry a social stigma.
Iatrogenic – caused by the physician in the course of his or her treatment of the patient.
a movement to change the setting of treatment of mental disorders form hospitals to the community through rapid discharge of patients.
Social Structural Factors
Certain roles are considered stress inducing.
Women have higher rates of morbidity.
Multiple roles are associated with better health.
The Family Context of Illness
Married people of both sexes have lower rates of mental illness than the unmarried.
For children, both physical and mental health are related to the quality of the relationship between the parents and the child.
Family disruption is stressful for children and typically leads to higher rates of physical and emotional problems.
Social Structural Factors— Continued
The Industrial Economy
In an industrial world, people move around the globe in great numbers and exposure to different diseases is increased.
Fluctuations in the state of the economy.
The Politics of Illness
Maldistribution of health care.
Rising insurance costs.
Funding for research.
Stem cell research.
Social Structural Factors— Continued
The Stratification of Illness
The different patterns of illness and variations in health care among the socioeconomic strata.
People in the lower strata have more physical health problems and more days of restricted activity due to illness.
People in the lower strata are less knowledgeable about and less likely to use health care services, are less knowledgeable and less likely to engage in good health practices, and are less likely to have basic preventive health measures and health insurance.
Changing Structure: The Future Shock Thesis
Social Psychological Factors
Negative attitudes toward one’s work can increase the risk of illness.
A particular personality type, identified by a cluster of attitudes and values, has an increased probability of coronary heart disease.
The sick person’s attitudes about his or her illness and prospects for recovery.
Myths About Mental Illness
A person who has been mentally ill can never be normal.
Persons with mental illness are unpredictable.
Mentally ill people are dangerous.
Anyone who has had shock treatment must be in a rally bad way.
When you learn that a person has been mentally ill, you have learned the most important think about his or her personality.
A former mental patient will make a second-rate employee.
If you have any questions… Please let me know! We will review these issues and discuss the institutions of politics and economy as they relate to social problems next time