Background and Context Globalization has brought information revolution. Internet and mobile technology has brought different dialects and variations. Language of youth.
Statement of Purpose “The impact, the use of internet and SMS language has on the youth of Pakistan”
Scope of Study linguistic use in case of SMS and Emails among the youth of Pakistan. We used personal interviews and questionnaires to get information from youth. Research process remained confined to the Lahore.
Literature review Salia Tagliamonte and Derek Denis (2008) article “LINGUISTIC RUIN? LOL! INSTANT MESSAGING AND TEEN LANGUAGE” David crystal (2008) article “Txting frNd or foe?” Guy merchant (2001) article “Teenagers in Cyber Space” David crystal (2005) article “The Scope of Internet Linguistic” Muhammad Shaban Rafi(2002) in the article “SMS Text Analysis: Language, Gender and Current Practices”
Literature review Abdullah , Mardziah Hayati(2003) article “The Impact of electronic communication on Writing”. David crystal (1998) “Interpreting Inter”. Wood, Plester, Bowyer (2008) “Texting and Literacy” . Anupam khatpalia “The effects of Text messaging”
Overview of literature review Mixing of variants by formal and informal ways cannot be categorized as ruin. Increasing literacy level. Creating innovation in language. Use of abbreviations are not started by youth but many authors used abbreviations in past. Make youth more confident and comfortable. Better atmosphere. Increase writing skills.
Popular Means of Communication E-mail Second to the telephone in terms of the world-wide users Allows users to send pictures and files as attachments According to CNN, more than 36 billion E-mails are sent each day around the world• Instant Message (IM) — a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people using shared clients — approximately 12 billion instant messages are sent each day — popular among large organization Short Message Service (SMS) The text communication service component of phone, web or mobile communication systems The Pakistani send 106 billion SMS/ text messages a year Each SMS has the ability to carry 160 characters and the latest mobiles can send up to 20 SMS messages each time.
Reasons for Popularity Inexpensive Convenient Reliable “Cool”
Language Styles of Youth Two styles of Communication i. Formal — Associated with corporate world ii. In-Formal — Associated with the youth — High use of Slangs, jargons, Clichés and shorthand words Vs
Distinction b/w Formal and In-Formal Style Tone, vocabulary, syntax and contractions Structure & organized Abbreviations Formal: “It has been noticed” Informal: “I have noticed” ContractionsComics & Text messages gonna, wanna, aint, woulda, coulda, shouldaEnglish newspapers & itll, wouldve, couldve, mightve, thatllInformal ReportsFormal business or project wont, cant, dont, doesntreports & proposals
SMS and Internet Language among youth of Pakistan Characteristics Roman Urdu (Urdu Written using English Alphabets) According to Gillani Research Foundation, Roman Urdu is the most used language for sending text messages in Pakistan Roman Urdu 37 % Urdu 15% English 17% Do not use Electronic 29% Medium No response 2%
Roman Urdu: Cont’d… Code Mixing Examples: Ma class k liye late ho rha hoon. Try kerna to must hai Kya kr rhay ho? Are you mad?• Complete Disregard of grammatical Rules• Examples Kya hoing? Where jaaing? Kya likhing?
Roman Urdu: Cont’d… Google Transliteration A software that converts the text of one writing system into another in a systematic way It currently supports 23 languages
Compressions and Shorthand terms The four main reasons I. It looks beautiful II. It is convenient III. It saves time IV. It is a common trend Three types of shorthand Terms in In-formal Language I. Words without vowels II. The initials of words III. Acronyms
Examples Words Without Vowels “Whn” or “Wn” for When “Wht” or “Wt” for What “L8” for Late “Gr8” for Great• Acronyms — “LSE” for London School of Economics — “T.V” for Television — “PC” for Personal Computer
Examples: Cont’d… Initials “BRB” for Be right back “LOL” for laughing out loud “WTH” for What the Heck “BTW” for By the way “XOXO” for Kisses and Hugs “TTYL” for Talk to you later “OMW” for On my way
Compressions andShorthand terms: Cont’d… Skipping of words that are felt unnecessary Example: “Mom eating” instead of Mom is eating “Drinking” instead of “I’m drinking” “Driving” instead of “I’m driving my car”• Adverse Effects
Emoticons and Symbols David Crystal and Muhammad Shaban Rafi A representation of the body language, which would otherwise be missing from a non-face-to-face communication These Emoticons have the ability to change the meaning of a sentence just as the gestures; body language, eye contact and so forth have the ability to change the meaning of the verbal communication Examples: If a person is Happy :) If a person is sad :( If a person is angry :@ If a person is confused :S
The difference in the Internet and SMS Language of Girls and Boys Difference in Males and Females Internet and SMS language Punctuation Number of words used per message Complexity Lexical Dense words Clauses• According to “Waqt” Newspaper — SMS language has a more adverse and bad influence upon the women than the men
Reasons of the Novice Internet and SMS Language Role of Media Television Commercials “Kyunke Dawlance Reliable hai” “Talk Shawk” “Pepsi, Dil mangay more”• Bollywood Movies “God tussi great ho” “Jab we met” “Love aaj kal” Pakistani Songs Billie Jean(Atif Aslam) Mahiya (Annie) Bounce Billo (Imran khan)
Reasons of the Novice Internet and SMS Language: Cont’d… English as the “Lingua Franca” of the world English as a language of Elites and Upper-class• Modern Gadgets of Communication The need to build a whole new infrastructure for the promotion of Urdu
Impact of Western Cultureon Communication Styles: Culture means the values, traditions, norms, customs, arts, history, folklore, and institutions that a group of people, who are unified by race, ethnicity, language, nationality, or religion, share. Pakistan follows a Muslim Culture. Language is termed as the identity of any nation. The national language of Pakistan is “Urdu” but the language that is mostly used in offices of Pakistan is “English.” Adapting English language was the first step when Western Culture started influencing our culture.
Cont… When any culture start influencing other culture then the living styles and patterns of the later culture start changing. We try to adapt western habits, for example we are now more towards the western food, western style of clothing, we like to build our houses like the west, so in a nutshell we try to copy all the things that the western culture possess. Similarly it applies on the communication styles. Because of the impact of Western culture we try to speak in a way in which the people of west speak. Our elite some way or the other communicate in English in their society.
Cont… Many of us now want our children to read, write and speak English more frequently than our native, national language “Urdu”. Many slangs and clichés have also made their place in our communication styles. The usage of this language in our Email and SMS language is due to the impact of the Western culture.
Interview Findings Miss. Memoona Anwar instructing subjects related to language at the Kinnaird Collage for Women, Lahore and Lahore School of Economics said “Though the language originated by western countries but in Pakistan’s case the blame cannot be shifted totally on the west as it is just one thing which they originated and we learnt it from them, which was transferred to us with the transfer of technology.”
Cont.. Mr. Imtiaz Shah said that “Western culture has affected our lives our habits, our way of perceiving and doing things and also the communication styles both verbal and non-verbal”. The survey also showed that most of the respondents agreed that Western culture had an impact on the communication styles of youth.
SMS and Email Language and effects on Youth: “The Email and SMS language that is being used by youth these days does not decrease the literacy level both it has rather increased the literacy level, innovation and creativity”. (DAVID Crystal) SMS and Email language has become a lingua Franca for Youth. It has increased the literacy level of the youth living in the rural areas of Pakistan. Youth communicate now much faster and easily with one another than it used to be before.
Interview Findings but it is a new formEmail and SMS language is not destroying the traditional rules of language of language which is more creative and innovative.language is not a static term rather then it is a moving phenomenon and it keeps on changing with time.It is a language of youth and it has increased the literacy level because it is now understood by each and every person so it has enhanced the reading and writing skills of Youth. (Imtiaz Shah)
Cont… According to Ms. Mehmoona Email and SMS language has evolved as one the major form of communication among youth of country, has its own impacts both formally and informally. This language is un-doubtfully proving support verbally and adding more to the verbal repertories of language users and even in case of Pakistan it has enhanced the verbal skills of both literate and illiterate people somehow by proving them knowledge of words and language resulting in development of their verbal skills, but when it comes to writing language.
Cont…. Slang words use and short hand words, it is none other than a time saving, money saving strategy, where youth today tries to adopt a shortcut and a condensed way to communicate. This is also the attitude of youth towards their lives and towards their formal communication which is not good.
Analysis of Data: Language Style in Email and SMS Language Series1 30 11 9a. Formal Style b. In-Formal Style c. Both/ Mixed
Using Jargons and Slangs in SMS &Emails a. Yes b. No 0% 100%
Impact of Western Culture Series1 39 6 3 2a. Agree b. Tend to agree c. Tend to disagree d. Disagree
How often use Email and SMS Series1 43 5 2 0a. Never b. Seldom c. Occasionally d. Frequently
Why people use short hand writings Series1 33 15 2 0a. It looks beautiful b. It is convenient c. It saves time d. It is a common trend
Impact of Pakistani Culturea. Agree b. Tend to agree c. Tend to disagree d. Disagree 10% 8% 52% 30%
Smiles and Emoticons make communication more expressive Series1 27 21 2 0a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Disagree d. Strongly disagree
AGE Series1 48 2 0 0a. 10-15 b. 16-24 c. 25-30 d. 31 and above
Education levela. Matriculation/ O-level b. Intermediate / A- level c. Undergraduate d. Graduate 2% 20% 16% 62%
Conclusion Email and SMS can help in creating bridge. According to linguistic expert’s emails and SMS helps to bring new and interesting way of writing. Awareness should be created between the Students, Teachers and Parents. Seminars SMS and Email language should be treated as a separate subject