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Imagine a world were we would have total control over thestructure of matter…..arranging it in any form conceivable, aworld without energy limitations, without hunger and wheredefects and malfunctions in our own body could be easilycorrected.
Technical definitionNanotechnology (sometimes shortenedto "nanotech") is the study ofmanipulating matter on an atomic andmolecular scale.Generally, nanotechnology deals withdeveloping materials, devices, or otherstructures possessing at least onedimension sized from 1 to 100nanometers.
Nanotechnology is manufacturing withatoms.-William Powell Nanotechnology will let us build computers that are incredibly powerful. Well have more power in the volume of a sugar cube than exists in the entire world today. -Ralph Merkle
As we all know..every thing is made up ofatoms..nanotechnology creates things bymanipulating the structure of the atom!
Throughout history, variations in the arrangement ofatoms have distinguished the cheap from the cherished…. The diseased from the healthy.Arranged one way, atoms make up soil, air, and waterarranged another, they make up ripe strawberries.Arranged one way, they make up homes and fresh air;arranged another, they make up ash and smoke.Eric Drexler— Engines of Creation, p. 3, 1983
Although nanotechnology is a relativelyrecent development in scientific research, thedevelopment of its central conceptshappened over a longer period of time. Theemergence of nanotechnology in the 1980swas caused by the convergence ofexperimental advances such as the inventionof the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981and the discovery of fullerenes in 1985
These applications that I am about tostate are just the small tip of a vasticeberg
Today I am going to cover the following applications ofnanotechnology 1. Nanotechnology in medicines 2. Nanotechnology in Textiles 3. Nanotechnology in Space
One application of nanotechnology in medicinecurrently being developed involves employingnanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light or othersubstances to specific types of cells (such as cancercells). Particles are engineered so that they areattracted to diseased cells, which allows directtreatment of those cells. This technique reducesdamage to healthy cells in the body and allows forearlier detection of disease.
As we all know chemotherapy used for treating cancer hasnumerous disadvantages!But what if we could design something that could get under the skinand kill the tumor cells?Many researchers attach ethylene glycol molecules to nanoparticlesthat deliver therapeutic drugs to cancer tumors. The ethylene glycolmolecules stop white blood cells from recognizing the nanoparticlesas foreign materials, allowing them to circulate in the blood streamlong enough to attach to cancer tumors. However researchers at theUniversity of California, San Diego believe that they can increase thetime nanoparticles can circulate in the blood stream.
If you hate getting shots, youll be glad to hearthat oral administration of drugs that currentlyare delivered by injection may be possible inmany cases. The drug is encapsulated in ananoparticles which helps it pass through thestomach to deliver the drug into thebloodstream. There are efforts underway todevelop oral administration of several differentdrugs using a variety of nanoparticles.
Nanoparticles, when activated by x- rays, that generate electrons that cause the destruction of cancer cells to which theyhave attached themselves. This is intended tobe used in place radiation therapy with much less damage to healthy tissue.
Waterproof clothesHave you ever been to a party all excited and dolled up justto encounter an embarrassing accident with the waiterthat soiled your entire evening?Well..you need not worry..because nanotechnology is athere at your rescue!Scientists have invented a water-proof cloth that does notallow even an atom of water to stay on the cloth!So that water that was supposed to ruin your eveningglides smoothly off your dress…leaving you flawless!
Do you dread those hours spent in ironing or those visitsto the laundry man?Introducing the wrinkle free cloth!
To impart wrinkle resistance to fabric, resin is commonly used inconventional methods. However, thereare limitations to applying resin, including a decrease in the tensile strengthof fiber, abrasionresistance, water absorbency and dye ability, as well as breathability.Besides wrinkle-free clothing wearers are at risk for a skin condition calledcontact dermatitis, which can cause itchy skin, rashes and blisters, and itposes serious health implications for people who work with the chemical infactories. To overcome the limitations ofusing resin, some researchers employed nano-titanium dioxide [31, 32] andnano-silica  to improvethe wrinkle resistance of cotton and silk respectively.
Nanotechnology may hold the key to making space flightmore practical. Advancements in nonmaterial makelightweight solar sails and a cable for the space elevatorpossible. By significantly reducing the amount of rocket fuelrequired, these advances could lower the cost of reachingorbit and traveling in space. In addition, new materialscombined with nanosensors and nanorobots could improvethe performance of spaceships, spacesuits, and theequipment used to explore planets and moons, makingnanotechnology an important part of the ‘final frontier.’
Gone are the days of hugespaceships that cost afortune!
Carbon nanotubes are the perfect choice for such an elevator’scable, since nanotechnology is able to create carbon-basedmaterial that is light in weight yet strong enough to withstandthe forces it would face in space.A space elevator would make all kinds of pioneering effortspossible by dramatically reducing the cost of sending things intoorbit.This becomes painfully obvious when one considers that 95% ofa space shuttle’s takeoff weight is entirely devoted to fuelstorage.
Other applications of nanotechnology are-1. Pharmacy2. Electrical3. Food industry4. Agriculture5. Environment preservation6. Cosmetics7. Optics8. Sports9. Robotics And the list could go on…..!