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Work on asthma

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  • 1. Name: cyko shgu Topic : Asthma Submited to: chemist Asthma
  • 2. Overview
    • Asthma – What is it?
    • Classification of asthma
    • Symptoms of asthma
    • Causes
    • What substances trigger asthma?
    • Can asthma be cured?
    • What YOU can do if you have asthma
  • 3. Asthma – What is It?
    • Asthma is a chronic lung disease that obstructs airflow
    • The obstruction is reversible
    • It involves difficulty in breathing due to
      • Inflammation (swelling)
      • Mucus in the airways
      • Tightening of muscles around the airways
  • 4.  
  • 5. Classification
    • Asthma is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms:
      • Brittle asthma
      • Asthma attack
      • Status asthmaticus
      • Exercise induced
      • Occupational
  • 6.
      • Brittle asthma
    • Brittle asthma is a term used to describe two types of asthma, distinguishable by recurrent, severe attacks.
    • Type 1 brittle asthma refers to disease with wide peak flow variability, despite intense medication.
    • Type 2 brittle asthma describes background well-controlled asthma, with sudden severe exacerbations.
  • 7.
      • Asthma attack
    • An acute asthma exacerbation is commonly referred to as an  asthma attack .
    • The classic symptoms are shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness.
    • While these are the primary symptoms of asthma, some people present primarily with coughing, and in severe cases, air motion may be significantly impaired such that no wheezing is heard.
  • 8.
      • Asthma attack
    • Signs which occur during an asthma attack include the use of accessory muscles of respiration.
    • there may be a paradoxical pulse ( a pulse that is weaker during inhalation and stronger during exhalation ), and over-inflation of the chest.
    •   Blue color of the skin and nails may occur from lack of oxygen.
  • 9. Status asthmaticus
    • Status asthmaticus is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments of bronchodilators and steroids. 
    • Nonselective beta blockers (such as Timolol) have caused fatal status asthmaticus.
  • 10. Exercise induced
    • Here appears to be a relatively high incidence of asthma in sports such as  cycling, mountain biking, and long-distance running, and a relatively lower incidence in weightlifting and diving.
    • It is unclear how much of these disparities are from the effects of training in the sport.
  • 11. Occupational
    • Asthma as a result of (or worsened by) workplace exposures is a commonly reported occupational respiratory disease.
    • Animal proteins, enzymes, flour, natural rubber latex, and certain reactive chemicals are commonly associated with work-related asthma.
    • When recognized, these hazards can be mitigated, dropping the risk of disease.
  • 12. Symptoms
  • 13. Symptoms of asthma
    • Common symptoms of asthma include:
    • Coughing
    • Wheezing, a whistling sound
    • Shortness of breath
    • Chest tightness
    • Sneezing & runny nose
    • Itchy and inflamed eyes
  • 14. Symptoms of asthma
    • Symptoms are often worse at night or in the early morning, or in response to exercise or cold air.
    • Some people with asthma only rarely experience symptoms, usually in response to triggers, whereas other may have marked persistent airflow obstruction.
  • 15.
    • Causes
  • 16. Causes ( Environmental factors)
    • Asthma is mainly caused by environmental factors.
    • Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk of asthma-like symptoms, wheezing, and respiratory infections during childhood.
  • 17. Causes ( Environmental factors)
    • Low air quality, from traffic pollution or high ozone levels , has been repeatedly associated with increased asthma  morbidity.
    • Recent studies show a relationship between exposure to air pollutants (e.g. from traffic) and childhood asthma.
  • 18. Causes ( Environmental factors)
    • The occurrence of the disease and exacerbation of childhood asthma are affected by outdoor air pollutants.
  • 19. Causes ( Genetic factors)
    • Over 100 genes have been associated with asthma.
    •  
    • But studies indicates that all these genes are not associated with asthma under every condition
    • Some genetic variants may only cause asthma when they are combined with specific environmental exposures, and otherwise may not be risk factors for asthma
  • 20. What substances trigger asthma? Type of Substance Examples Air pollutants, including dusts, smoke, mists & fumes Diesel exhaust; tobacco smoke ; mineral, rock, coal, & wood dusts; gases; fumes & vapors from aerosol agents , chemicals, cleaning materials, solvents, paints, welding & from heating & cooling metals quickly Pollens, mites & molds Trees, flowers, weeds, hay, plants Animal dander Birds, cats, dogs Medications Aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs Foods Egg, wheat, nuts
  • 21. Can asthma be cured?
    • Asthma can be controlled ( but not cured ) by:
      • Avoiding triggers or reducing exposure to triggers
      • Using medication to control symptoms
    • Medications - generally two types are used
      • Controller or long-term drugs
        • Taken to prevent excess production of mucus & to reduce the inflammation and constriction of airway muscles
      • Rescue or quick-relief drugs
        • Taken to relax muscles around the airways to improve breathing
  • 22. Poorly controlled asthma leads to:
    • Increased visits to
      • Doctor, Urgent Care Clinic or Hospital
    • Hospitalizations
    • Limitations in daily activities
    • Lower quality of life
  • 23. What YOU can do if you have asthma?
    • Identify and minimize contact with your asthma trigger(s)
    • Understand and take asthma medications as prescribed
    • Recognize early signs that your asthma is getting worse
  • 24. Enjoy life