GENETIC ENGINEERING
• By A.Arputha Selvaraj
-major tool is recombinant DNA.
-Recombinant- DNA joined to other
unrelated foreign DNA.
-also called gene splicing.
-tiny...
Organisms altered by genetic
engineering.
-genetic material changed by other than
random natural breeding.
-gene transfer-...
Transgenic OrganismsTransgenic Organisms
-GMO- genetically modified organism.
-GMO free food-product in which no transgeni...
Genetic Engineering
-genetic material can be shared across
scientific kingdoms.
-bacteria engineered-produce human
protein...
Agriculture
-food processors affected by
genetic engineering.
-shelf-life, storage, food-
handling;extended and simplified...
AgricultureAgriculture
-plants transformed-insect,disease,-plants transformed-insect,disease,
and herbicide resistant.and ...
Health and Medicine
-affecting health care & medical
industry.
-alternating growth w/hormones-
replacing organs are common...
Pharmaceutical Products
-Pharmacology-preparation, use, and affect
of drugs
-tied to health and medicine
-potential produc...
Pharmaceutical Products
-bacteria engineered to produce
hormone.
-fermentation known as
bioprocessing.
Industry and Environment
-more efficient use of scarce minerals
-greater efficiency in mining.
-major concern-waste manage...
Genetic Engineering
-gene splicing, gene cloning, molecular
cloning
-process cutting a gene out of a DNA
strand and insert...
Endonucleases
-type of enzyme in DNA strand.
-produced nucleic acid strand breaks
interior of nucleic acid strand.
-restri...
Cloning Vectors
-carrier for DNA during the recombinant
DNA process.
-plasmid-piece of free-floating DNA in the
cytoplasm ...
Promoter gene- A sequence of bases in a
nucleic acid strand, that serves as a
signal to start transcription.
Chromosomal D...
Ligation- uniting attaching two DNA
fragments.
Recipient cell- is the cell that is
reviewing the ‘new’ DNA.
Donor cell- is...
• Transformation- process of introducing free
DNA into bacteria
Competent cell- a cell that is capable of taking
up DNA.
E...
Conjugation- the contact of bacteria that
involves the exchange of DNA with a
mating tube.
Transformed cell- cell with new...
Totipotent- means that an organism has
the ability to grow from a single cell
-especially important with plants, also
call...
• Agro bacterium tumefacians is a bacterium
that causes a disease known as crown gall
in plants.
• Infects plants by trans...
Ballistic Gene Transfer- the use of tiny DNA-
coated projectiles as carriers. It is important
to transport DNA through the...
Callus- a mass of undifferentiated
plant cells.
By making a callus the number of
transformed cells is increased
Due to early cell differentiation, genetic
transformation in animals must occur in the
early embryo stage following the un...
The process of creating transgenetic animals
involves three major steps:
1. Obtaining embryos
2. Microinjectioing embryos
...
Thanks
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GENETIC ENGINEERING

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

  1. 1. GENETIC ENGINEERING • By A.Arputha Selvaraj
  2. 2. -major tool is recombinant DNA. -Recombinant- DNA joined to other unrelated foreign DNA. -also called gene splicing. -tiny segments of a gene are taken out and replaced.
  3. 3. Organisms altered by genetic engineering. -genetic material changed by other than random natural breeding. -gene transfer-moving a gene from one organism to another. -these require skill and knowledge to be carried out properly
  4. 4. Transgenic OrganismsTransgenic Organisms -GMO- genetically modified organism. -GMO free food-product in which no transgenic materials were used in its manufacture, such as soybeans used in making oils. -GEO-genetically enhanced organism
  5. 5. Genetic Engineering -genetic material can be shared across scientific kingdoms. -bacteria engineered-produce human proteins -potential is virtually endless.
  6. 6. Agriculture -food processors affected by genetic engineering. -shelf-life, storage, food- handling;extended and simplified. -help resist spoilage.
  7. 7. AgricultureAgriculture -plants transformed-insect,disease,-plants transformed-insect,disease, and herbicide resistant.and herbicide resistant. -animals treated engineered-animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk,hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat.leaner meat.
  8. 8. Health and Medicine -affecting health care & medical industry. -alternating growth w/hormones- replacing organs are common. -materials maybe rejected by organism unless hormones are offered.
  9. 9. Pharmaceutical Products -Pharmacology-preparation, use, and affect of drugs -tied to health and medicine -potential production of drugs is great. -hormone production-natural in endocrine system of mammalian body.
  10. 10. Pharmaceutical Products -bacteria engineered to produce hormone. -fermentation known as bioprocessing.
  11. 11. Industry and Environment -more efficient use of scarce minerals -greater efficiency in mining. -major concern-waste management. -biodegrade a number of waste products- sewage and petroleum products.
  12. 12. Genetic Engineering -gene splicing, gene cloning, molecular cloning -process cutting a gene out of a DNA strand and inserting the gene into another DNA strand.
  13. 13. Endonucleases -type of enzyme in DNA strand. -produced nucleic acid strand breaks interior of nucleic acid strand. -restriction endonucleases-enzyme produced by bacteria that is used in recombinant DNA. -cuts open bacterial plasmid. -gene construct engineered to plasmid with ligasees. Plasmids back to bacterium.
  14. 14. Cloning Vectors -carrier for DNA during the recombinant DNA process. -plasmid-piece of free-floating DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria. -double-stranded, circular molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome.
  15. 15. Promoter gene- A sequence of bases in a nucleic acid strand, that serves as a signal to start transcription. Chromosomal DNA construct- The gene of interest. Antibiotic resistant gene- Are used as a marker system for transformed cells.
  16. 16. Ligation- uniting attaching two DNA fragments. Recipient cell- is the cell that is reviewing the ‘new’ DNA. Donor cell- is the cell that provides the new DNA fragment for the recipient cell Virto- done in glass
  17. 17. • Transformation- process of introducing free DNA into bacteria Competent cell- a cell that is capable of taking up DNA. Electroporation- The use of an electric shock to momentarily open or disrupt cell walls.
  18. 18. Conjugation- the contact of bacteria that involves the exchange of DNA with a mating tube. Transformed cell- cell with new DNA Marker gene- a gene that identifies which organisms have been successfully transformed
  19. 19. Totipotent- means that an organism has the ability to grow from a single cell -especially important with plants, also called regeneration.
  20. 20. • Agro bacterium tumefacians is a bacterium that causes a disease known as crown gall in plants. • Infects plants by transferring its genetic material into plant cell. • Agrobacterium transformation is the most common technique for genetically engineered plants
  21. 21. Ballistic Gene Transfer- the use of tiny DNA- coated projectiles as carriers. It is important to transport DNA through the walls of intended recipient cells. Projectiles are often known as micro projectiles Ballaistic transformation is done by using a ‘gene gun’ the gene gun has been useful in creating agricultural crops. Ballistic Gene Transfer- the use of tiny DNA- coated projectiles as carriers. It is important to transport DNA through the walls of intended recipient cells. Projectiles are often known as micro projectiles Ballaistic transformation is done by using a ‘gene gun’ the gene gun has been useful in creating agricultural crops.
  22. 22. Callus- a mass of undifferentiated plant cells. By making a callus the number of transformed cells is increased
  23. 23. Due to early cell differentiation, genetic transformation in animals must occur in the early embryo stage following the union of sex cells This is accomplished by using microinjection, to randomly inject DNA into the fertilized call Microinjection- is the injection of materials directly into cells using a small glass pipette.
  24. 24. The process of creating transgenetic animals involves three major steps: 1. Obtaining embryos 2. Microinjectioing embryos 3. Culturing and transferring zygotes Transgenetic integration- is expressed by the animal of that desired trait.
  25. 25. Thanks

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