Management of Chilli Leaf Curl Virus Using Elicitors
ELICITATION OF RESISTANCE BY RAW COW MILK AND TRICHODERMA VIRIDE IN CHILLI AGAINST LEAF CURL DISEASE Arun Kumar and P. C. MaliCentral Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003, India Email: email@example.com
CHILLI-THE CROP Chilli or hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an effective medicine for various types of pains in humans Herpes zoster-related pain, diabetic neuropathy, post- mastectomy pain, headaches, osteoarthritis, and the post-surgical pains in case of cancers The crop is widely cultivated as vegetable and spice crop in the irrigated belt of arid and semi-arid areas
BACKDROP Rajasthan is the 6th largest producer in India Jodhpur region produces 42.7% red chilli on 20,000 ha of land Jodhpur district alone contributes 20% of total production of red chilli in the State
Popular chilli cvs. Mathania Red, Mehsana, Haripur-Raipur and Mandoria Large and fleshy fruits, mild pungency and brilliant red colour with rich spicy flavour Susceptible to fungal and viral diseases along with nematode
Leaf Curl Disease of chilli SYMPTOMS • Curling of upper leaves with shortened internodes • Severely infected plants produce clusters of reduced sized leaves with fewer flowers and fruits • Small sized fruits are produced with deformed seeds Small sized fruits Clusters of reduced size leaves
Green Fruit Yield of Chilli Year Fruit Yield (kg ha ) -1Before 1990 600 1991-2008 140
EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Farmers extensively use a number of insecticides to protect the crop from LCD Use of pesticides has failed to minimize the losses Causes environmental pollution, resistance in insect vectors and health hazards
BIO-CONTROL AGENTS• Bio-control agents have emerged as a new method of managing plant diseases• Different botanicals (Plant spp.), animal products and other materials such as ash, cow urine and dung, fish meal and milk etc.• Rhizobacteria (PGPR), leaf proteins, proline and Trichoderma spp. reduce diseases in many plant species manipulating host plants physical and biochemical properties
USE OF MILK IN PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT Indigenous ancient tool against plant diseases Amino acids viz. proline, isoleucein and phenyl alanine in milk induce resistance against plant diseases Phenolic anti-microbials are also present Potassium phosphate content strengthens host immune system against diseases
Amino Acid Content of Raw Cow’s Milk * Amino Acid In RCM Amino Acid In RCM (mg-100 ml.) (mg-100 ml.) Glutamic acid 731 Tyrosine 172 Isoleucine 165 Threonine 146 Lysine 268 Methionine 86 Phenylalanine 171 Histidine 84Hydroxyproline 330 Glycine 66 Aspartic acid 261 Tryptophan 23 Valine 202 Cystine 21 Serine 197 Arginine 18 Leucine 326 Alanine 110* Payne-Botha, S. and Bigwood, E. J. (1959). Amino-acid content of raw and heat sterilized cow’s milk British J. Nutrition 13: 385-389.
AMINO ACIDS AND PLANT DISEASE PROTECTION Certain amino acids demonstrated to act as inducers of plant resistance against biotic or abiotic stresses in many host-pathogen systems Besides inducing resistance these amino acids also enhance growth of plants and act as osmo-protectants
TREATMENT (T 1) FARMER’S PRACTICETreated chilli seeds with RCM (1:1) (Control) for 24 hrs ↓ Dried in shade Most of these practices ↓ are chemical sprays with Treated these seeds withTrichoderma viride ( @ 6g-kg seed) or without chemical seed ↓ treatment Nursery soil treated with T. viride (@ 10g2) after mixing with FYM ↓ Seed sowing in nursery ↓ 45 DAS roots of plant saplings were dipped in RCM (15% or 1:6) for 20 min. before transplanting ↓ 20 DAS RCM (15%) sprayed on the transplanted plants
Trichoderma in nursery soil grows withdeveloping root system of the treated plant and protects the roots from infection
On-farm Management of LCD (Pooled data of 2000-’04) Treatment* Incidence Protection over (%) FP (control) T-1 19.4 48.4 FP (Control) 37.6 ---*T-1: Seed treatment with RCM (1:1) for 24 hrs and T. viride(0.6%). Root dip for 10 min. in RCM (15%). Application of T.viride (10 g-m2) with FYM, and RCM (15%) spray 20 days aftertransplantation in field.FP: Variety of practices that vary from farmer to farmer. Mostof these are non-organic, without any seed treatment.
Average Yield Parameters of ChilliTreat Plant Root No. of Fruit size Fruit wt. Yieldment* height length fruits (cm) plant-1 plot-1 (cm) (cm) plant-1 (g) Kg-1 (g) Length WidthT 1 66.3 20.2 66.4 10.4 4.5 306.2 3.32#T 2 57.5 13.9 40.1 9.2 3.9 219.4 2.72 *T1. Seed treatment with RCM (50% dilution with water for 24 h) and Trichoderma viride (0.6%) with soil treatment with T. viride (10g m-2 ) mixed with FYM T2. Farmer’s Practice # more than 0.5 kg ha-1 increase
ON-FARM LCD MANAGEMENT IN CHILLI Farmer’s PracticeTreatment
Elicitation of Defense Related Enzymes by Amino AcidsScavenging enzymes –peroxidases(POX) and phenolic generators -phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)are induced in response to bothbiotic and abiotic stresses(Schneider and Ullrich, 1994; vanLoon, 1997)
RCM and T. viride Induced Biochemical Changes in Leaves of ChilliTreat Enzyme Solublement Proteins (mg g‑ 1 dry leaf wt.) PPO POX PAL (∆ OD (∆ OD (Mole t minute‑ 1 mg‑ 1 minute‑ 1 mg‑ 1 cinnamic protein) protein) acid mg protein-1 h-1) 0.0037 0.6718 0.7091 118.7 T 0.0020 0.3458 0.7744 90.2 C
INDUCED RESISTANCE New strategy for managing plant diseases Elicitors are characteristically non- specific Induced general resistance is effective against a range of pathogens Previously susceptible plant becomes resistant after application of an inducer
Contd… Elicitors enhance resistance response to extrinsic stimulus without altering the genome Only metabolic changes in plants help in defending against infections Environment friendly
SYNTHESIS Induced biochemical and molecular mechanisms of defense responses are generally correlated with enzymatic responses in plants Peroxidase (POX) is a useful marker of plant development, physiology, infection and stress POX contributes to resistance by oxidation of phenolic compounds in chilli POX is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin that limits the extent of pathogen spread PAL is critical precursor of a cascade of defense reactions leading to ISR
Cost and return from chilli crop ( Rs. ha –1) Particulars Farmers’ Practice Raw Cow’s Milk + T. (T 2) viride treatment (T1) CostSeed 375.00 (1.49)* 375.00 (1.52)FYM 1990.74 (7.92) 1990.74 (8.06)Fertilizer 1226.85 (4.88) 1171.71 (4.74)Pesticides 1157.41 (4.61) 281.48 (1.14)Irrigation 14814.26 (58.97) 14880.26 (60.26)Machinery 2078.70 (8.27) 2078.70 (8.42)Labour 3481.48 (13.86) 3916.08 (15.86)Total 25124.44 (100.00) 24693.97 (100.00) ReturnProduction (q ha-1) 110 138 (25.45)Production (Rs. ha-1) 33000 41400Unit cost of production (Rs. q-1) 228.40 178.94Net return (Rs. ha-1) 7875.56 16706.03B-C ratio 1.31 1.68 *Figures within parentheses are percentages to the total
LCD of Hot BCAs and Results Conclusion RCM and T. viride induced resistance Pepper Induced Resistance • RCM (1:1 & 1:6) protected •RCM &T.v chilli from LCD • Metabolites treated • Susceptible increased in seeds and plant turns treated plants T.v applied resistant by against Chilli LCD • Defense nursery soil inducerChiLCuV related with RCM application enzymesinduced sprays of • Milk and T. showeddisease posing viride have 15%dilution increased capable ofhazards in primed activityincreasing the defense stimulatingproduction responses IR in chilli
Towards Green Pesticides SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION THE PLEDGE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY PROTECTION
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