Farmer inspired indigenous technology akp
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Farmer inspired indigenous technology akp

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Farmers of arid Rajasthan and south Gujarat in India are using raw cow milk for pre-sowing treatment for boosting germination and yield has been used to manage LCD of hot chilli/pepper integrating......

Farmers of arid Rajasthan and south Gujarat in India are using raw cow milk for pre-sowing treatment for boosting germination and yield has been used to manage LCD of hot chilli/pepper integrating Trichoderma.

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  • 1. Farmer-Inspired Participatory ApproachFarmer-Inspired Participatory Approachto Manage Leaf Curl Disease of Chillito Manage Leaf Curl Disease of Chilliunder Arid Farming Systemunder Arid Farming SystemARUN KUMARARUN KUMARCentral Arid Zone Research InstituteCentral Arid Zone Research InstituteJodhpurJodhpur
  • 2. •Rajasthan is the 6thlargest producer in India•Jodhpur region produces 42.7% red chilli on20,000 ha of land•Jodhpur district alone contributes 20% oftotal production of red chilli in the State•Popular chilli cvs: Mathania Red, Mehsana,Haripur-Raipur and MandoriaContinued..BACKDROPBACKDROP
  • 3. •Large and fleshy fruits, mild pungencyand brilliant red colour with rich spicyflavour•Susceptible to diseases like LCD and die-back or ripe fruit rotGreen Fruit Yield of chilliGreen Fruit Yield of chilliYearYear Fruit Yield (KgFruit Yield (Kg-ha-ha))Before 1990 6001991 - 2004 140
  • 4. SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS•Curling of upper leavesCurling of upper leaveswith shortened internodeswith shortened internodes• Severely infected plantsSeverely infected plantsproduce clusters ofproduce clusters ofreduced sized leaves withreduced sized leaves withfewer flowers and fruitsfewer flowers and fruits•Small sized fruits areSmall sized fruits areproduced with deformedproduced with deformedseedsseedsLCD of chilliLCD of chilliSmall sized fruits Clusters of reduced size leaves
  • 5. •Farmers extensively use a numberof insecticides to protect the cropfrom LCD•Use of pesticides has failed tominimize the losses.•Causes environmental pollution,resistance in insect vectors andhealth hazardsEXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICEEXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
  • 6. FARMER-LED APPROACHFARMER-LED APPROACHCategory Our Role Farmers’ RoleFarmer-inspiredImpressed byan IK throughHoney Bee,and decided tovalidate itsscientific basisfor valueaddition andeco-friendlinessInvolved in on-farmtrials to providevalue addition tothe innovation
  • 7. USE OF MILKUSE OF MILK IN PLANT DISEASEIN PLANT DISEASEMANAGEMENTMANAGEMENTIndigenous ancient tool against plantdiseasesAmino acids viz. proline, isoleucein andphenyl alanine in milk induce resistanceagainst plant diseasesPhenolic anti-microbials are also presentPotassium phosphate contentstrengthens host immune system againstdiseases
  • 8. TREATMENT (T 1)Treated chilli seeds with RCM (1:1)for 24 hrs↓Dried in shade↓Treated these seeds withTrichoderma viride ( @ 6g-kgseed)↓Nursery soil treated with T. viride(@ 10gm2) after mixing with FYM↓Seed sowing in nursery↓45 DAS roots of plant saplingswere dipped in RCM (15% or 1:6)for 20 min. before transplanting↓20 DASRCM (15%) sprayed on thetransplanted plantsFARMER’S PRACTICE(T 2)Most of these practicesare chemical sprays withor without seed treatment
  • 9. Treatment LCD Incidence(%)Protection over FP(%)T 1. Seed Treat. withRCM and T. viride)+ RCMroot dip + nursery soiltreat. of T. viride and RCMsprays on transplantedplants19.4 48.4T 2. Farmer’s Practice 37.6 ---On-farm management of LCD(Pooled data of 2002-04)
  • 10. AVERAGE YIELD PARAMETERS OF CHILLI IN TWOAVERAGE YIELD PARAMETERS OF CHILLI IN TWOTREATMENTSTREATMENTSTreatment* Plantheight(cm)Rootlength(cm)No. offruitsplant-1(g)Fruit size(cm)Fruit wt.plant-1(g)Yieldplot-1Kg-1  LengthLength WidthWidthT 1T 1 66.3 20.2 66.4 10.4 4.5 306.2 3.32#T 2T 2 57.5 13.9 40.1 9.2 3.9 219.4 2.72**T1T1.. Seed treatment with RCM (50% dilution with water for 24 h)and Trichoderma viride (0.6%) with soil treatment with T. viride (10g m-2) mixed with FYMT2. Farmer’s Practice # more than 0.5 kg ha-1increase
  • 11. Trichoderma in nursery soil grows withdeveloping root system of the treated plant andprotects the roots from infection
  • 12. ON-FARM LCD MANAGEMENT IN CHILLITreatmentFarmer’s Practice
  • 13. RCMRCM InducedInduced Biochemical ChangesBiochemical Changes ininLeavesLeavesTreatmentEnzyme(∆ OD minute 1‑mg 1‑protein)SolubleProteins(mg g 1‑dryleaf wt.)PPO PRO CatalaseT0.0037 0.6718 0.000 118.7C0.0020 0.3458 0.0079 90.2
  • 14. Milk in plant disease managementCrop Pathogen Treatment: Spray of Ref.ZucchinisquashSphaerotheca fuligineaRaw cow milk Bettiol,1999(Cucurbitapepo)Yellowmosaicvirus(ZYMV)Raw cow milk (20,30%) + Bougainvilleaspectabilis leafextract (5, 10%)Ribeiroet al.,2001Cucumber Oidium sp. -Do- Ribeiroet al.,2001Contd..…Contd..…
  • 15. Milk in plant disease managementCrop Pathogen Treatment: Spray of Ref.Rice Tungro andstunt virusSeed germination andsoaking in milk mixedwith water and sownimmediatelyWinter,1997Rye(Secalecereale)UstilagooccultaSeed treatment of milkpowder and mustardflourBorgen et al,2001.
  • 16. RELEVANT AMINO ACIDS (%)inCOW MILKAmino Acid Cow milkTryptophan 0.09Leucine 0.60Isoleucine 0.34Total AA 0.51
  • 17. BIO-CONTROL AGENTSBIO-CONTROL AGENTS•Bio-control agents have emerged as a newmethod of managing plant diseases.•Different botanicals (Plant spp.), animalproducts and other materials such as ash, cowurine and dung, fish meal and milk etc.•Rhizobacteria (PGPR), leaf proteins, proline andTrichoderma spp. reduce diseases in many plantspecies manipulating host plants physical andbiochemical properties
  • 18. Particulars Farmers’ Practice(T 2)Raw Cow’s Milk + T.viride treatment (T1)CostSeed 375.00 (1.49)* 375.00 (1.52)FYM 1990.74 (7.92) 1990.74 (8.06)Fertilizer 1226.85 (4.88) 1171.71 (4.74)Pesticides 1157.41 (4.61) 281.48 (1.14)Irrigation 14814.26 (58.97) 14880.26 (60.26)Machinery 2078.70 (8.27) 2078.70 (8.42)Labour 3481.48 (13.86) 3916.08 (15.86)Total 25124.44 (100.00) 24693.97 (100.00)ReturnProduction (q ha-1) 110 138 (25.45)Production (Rs. ha-1) 33000 41400Unit cost of production (Rs. q-1) 228.40 178.94Net return (Rs. ha-1) 7875.56 16706.03B-C ratio 1.31 1.68Cost and return from chilli crop ( Rs. ha –1)*Figures within parentheses are percentages to the total
  • 19. WE LOVE MILKWE LOVE MILKInspired farmersInspired farmers