Ethanol as a transportation fuelPresentation Transcript
Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel
What is ethanol ?????.... The Fermentation of sugar crops (sugarcane, wheat, sorghum, maize, etc), starch, cornstalks, vegetable leftover and fruits after distillation is known as ETHANOL. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, has the chemical formula C2H5OH. Ethanol has been used as a fuel for internal combustion engine
Properties of a ethanol Ethanol is a flammable & colourless liquid. Boiling point of a ethanol is 78.4 C Melting point of a ethanol is -114.3 C Density of a ethanol is .79 gm/cm3 Ethanol has a high octane number Chemical composition of a ethanol is 52% carbon 13% hydrogen 35% oxygen
Ethanol Production Process
Advantages of ethanol fuel Higher flame speed Higher heats of vaporization Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel that contains 35% oxygen which reduces nitrogen oxides emissions from combustion A renewable source of energy extracted from plants. The fuel is eco-friendly and saves the environment from the hazards of other fossil fuels. The discharge of benzene and butadiene that cause cancer is also decreased by 50 per cent. All petrol engines can utilize the mixtures of ethanol and needs no alterations. These blends also decrease the emission of hydrocarbons that deplete the ozone layer.
Disadvantages of Ethanol Fuel Ethanol has a lower density as compare to gasoline. It is very difficult to use ethanol fuel in cold weather. Low flame luminosity Corrosiveness Miscibility with water
What are ethanol's characteristics as a motor fuel? Ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline. That means that about one-third more ethanol is required to travel the same distance as on gasoline. Ethanol fuel has high octane rating and therefore it is considered efficient in terms of performance. The combination of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol is really helpful in starting engine in cold weather
What are ethanol's characteristics as a motor fuel? Ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline. That means that about one-third more ethanol is required to travel the same distance as on gasoline. But other ethanol fuel characteristics, including a high octane rating, result in increased engine efficiency and performance.
Contd…… The 15 percent gasoline used to formulate E85 is to assure cold weather engine starting and to enhance flame luminosity in case of fire. In low-percentage blends with gasoline, ethanol results in increased vapor pressure, which can be adjusted for in the fuel formulation process and/or controlled with on-board vehicle systems. All gasoline vehicles in use in the U.S. today can accept gasoline blended with up to 10 percent ethanol (sometimes called gasohol). Flexible Fuel Vehicles (VVFs) are cars and trucks that can use any level of ethanol up to 85 percent. They're built with special fuel system components designed to be compatible with higher ethanol concentrations.
Characteristics of Ethanol The energy content of ethanol is lower than the gasoline. This is the reason why one third of extra ethanol is required to travel the same distance as with the gasoline. However there are many reasons for its use. Ethanol fuel has high octane rating and therefore it is considered efficient in terms of performance. The combination of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol is really helpful in starting engine in cold weather. It is also used to increase the luminosity of flame when ethanol is used as a fire. Flexible fuel vehicles are vehicles which can use any type of ethanol fuel. These cars and trucks are designed to utilize the high performance ethanol fuel. Ethanol is produced form corn, animal food and other bye products. It is produced by the fermentation of corn and other bye products. The process of ethanol production is similar to the process of producing alcohol. The production of ethanol is a new phenomenon hence it is considered as an expensive way of making fuel as compared to the petroleum products. However this fuel source is an environment friendly way of traveling. Ethanol is an emerging market for the car makers. Last but not least the energy content of ethanol is much higher than the energy needed to produce it.
How and where is ethanol produced? Today's expanding fuel ethanol industry in the United States uses mostly corn as its basic ingredient. It is processed via fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol, animal feed, and other by-products. Midwestern states, including Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota and Nebraska are the largest ethanol-producing states; however, there is some ethanol production in 20 states. California in 2004 had two small ethanol producers, Parallel Products in Rancho Cucamonga and Golden Cheese in Corona, both of which make ethanol from food and beverage industry residuals. Several new, larger projects are underway to produce ethanol from corn. Brazil is the world's top ethanol producer, using sugar cane as the feedstock. Vehicles in that country have been using 100 percent ethanol for decades.
Ethanol Fuel Advantages Ethanol is a better fuel than petrol. Here are some of its advantages. A renewable source of energy extracted from plants. The production or the combustion of ethanol does not emit green house gases or poisonous pollutants. Thus it is not like the fossil fuels. Gives high level of octane at less cost and serves as a best substitute to hazardous additives like MTBE. All petrol engines can utilize the mixtures of ethanol and needs no alterations. These blends also decrease the emission of hydrocarbons that deplete the ozone layer. The fuel is eco-friendly and saves the environment from the hazards of other fossil fuels. According to USA EPA, more than any other oxygenate the oxygen content of ethanol decreases the level of carbon monoxide by 25 to 30 per cent. The emission of Particulate Matter and sulfur dioxide is also reduced by ethanol. The discharge of benzene and butadiene that cause cancer is also decreased by 50 per cent. Unlike biodiesel, there is no need to have a corporation. Ethanol can be made even in your backyard. Those who want to save the environment are busy in producing ethanol in their backyards; guidelines of the procedure are easily available.
ethanol's environmental characteristics? Produced renewably from agricultural crops or from recycled wastes and residues, ethanol used as motor fuel offers a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation sources. With respect to other motor vehicle emissions, differences between ethanol and gasoline are becoming less significant as new motor vehicles are produced with extremely low emission levels on all fuels. California's replacement of MTBE with ethanol was based on a determination that ethanol presents less of a pollution risk to drinking water sources.
What are the economics of ethanol compared to gasoline? The cost of producing ethanol remains significantly higher than the cost of producing fuels from petroleum. The federal government, since 1978, has given tax incentives intended to make ethanol competitive with gasoline in the motor fuel marketplace. Continued progress with both conventional and advanced ethanol production technologies could someday result in ethanol production costs competitive with petroleum fuels.
The use of Ethanol in Cars Ethanol is used alone or along with gasoline concentrations to improve the working of the engine. Ethanol has been adopted due to its fuel efficiency and reliability. Ethanol has become an important pat of all fuel gas. Almost more than 95% gasoline supplied in the United States today contains 6% ethanol. Thus the compatibility of ethanol to be used with natural gas has made it invincible. The growing need for fuel due to the increase in number of cars has not only created problems for suppliers and users but also for car manufactures in the form of lower profits. Thus manufacturers switch to the alternative technologies like ethanol engines. Hence many types of ethanol like E85 containing 85% ethanol and 15% natural gas is a growing market today. E85 is an essential fuel component of flexible fuel vehicles. E85 is produced in mid Western Europe especially where there is abundance of corn crop. Crops like corn are also used in the making of E diesel.
The Benefit of Ethanol on Economy The automotive industry can be an important industry of any country. However this energy is facing crisis since the fuel prices are soaring worldwide. Hence the need for fuel alternatives which can also become an attractive market for more and new investment is also required. Moreover it is considered a vital issue to look for alternative fuel sources to ensure national security. The scarcity of oil reserves and pollution created by the diesel and oil also enhances the need for the bio fuels. The bio fuels are produced form the crops like corn, sugarcane and used vegetable oil. This fuel can be used along with the small percentage of gasoline to support car engines. The ethanol car engines are really environment friendly. In order to reduce the burden of foreign oil from economy it is important that we switch to ethanol cars. This would also generate a lot of new job opportunities because it is a new sector and the increased number of users can increase the size of industry.
Ethanol is also used in the making beer. It has very good performance as a motor fuel with less emission of pollutants. It is a substitute to gasoline. With its high octane level it has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in gasoline. Engines get ‘knock’ while using those fuels that burn too quickly. The chances of engine knocking decrease with the increased number of octane which slows down the fuel burning. Without any harmful additives, the octane number of the mixture of ethanol and gasoline goes up by three points..
Ethanol can also be distilled from petroleum oil. The mixture of 85 per cent gasoline and 15 per cent ethanol is widely available and is used directly in gasoline engine. The burning of this mixture is cleaner thus causing least pollution. Ethanol on producing from the renewable bio source can also decrease the use of fossil fuels.