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# Final presentation on antimatter

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Antimatter

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### Final presentation on antimatter

1. 1. PRESENTED BYANURAG DWIVEDI
2. 2.  Antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter. Antimatter is composed of antiparticles , i.e., particles with identical mass and spin as those of ordinary particles, but with opposite charge and magnetic properties For Eg.- a positron (also called "antielectron") and an antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom in the same way that an electron and a proton form a normal matter hydrogen atom.
3. 3.  The term antimatter was first used by Arthur Schuster in 1898. The modern theory of antimatter begins in 1928 by Paul Dirac. Antielectron is discovered by Dr. Carl D. Anderson in 1932. Antielectron is also called as Positron. Antihydrogen produced in 1999. Opposite of the proton is the antiproton (negative charge). Opposite of the neutron is the antineutron.
4. 4.  The Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 . The Dirac equation in the form originally proposed by Dirac is: where , m is the rest mass of the electron, c is the speed of light, p is the momentum operator, x and t are the space and time coordinates, ħ = h/2π is the reduced Planck constant, also known as Diracs constant.
5. 5.  One way to denote an antiparticle is by adding a bar over the particles symbol. Antiproton is denoted by p . Antielectron is denoted by e+ . Antiparticles are created everywhere in the universe where high-energy particle collisions take place. Antimatter may similarly be produced in regions like the center of the Milky Way and other galaxies, where very energetic celestial events occur.
6. 6.  The baryon asymmetry problem is an imbalance in baryonic matter and antibaryonic matter in the universe. There are thee possible explanations……. Violation of CP symmetry Such a violation could allow matter to be produced more commonly than antimatter in conditions immediately after the Big Bang.
7. 7.  Random distributon of matter and antimatter after big bang Another possibility is that antimatter dominated regions exist within the universe, but outside our observable universe
8. 8.  There are several theories about how antimatter gravitationally interacts with normal matter : Normal gravity Antigravity Gravivector & Graviscalar
9. 9.  Particles of most atoms are accelerated to very high speeds  The particles are aimed and allowed to impact on a target (tungsten)  The kinetic energy caused by acceleration is converted into gamma radiation, positrons andAbove: A large collider at the EuropeanOrganization for Nuclear Research (CERN) antiprotons
10. 10.  Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. the antihydrogen atom is made up of a positron and antiproton. When antihydrogen atoms come into contact with ordinary matter, they quickly annihilate each other and produce energy in the form of gamma rays and high-energy particles called pions.
11. 11.  Antiprotons can be controlled in magnetic fields . One method for antiproton storage is the Penning Trap. Super cold, vacuumed, electromagnetic bottle in which charged particles of antimatter can be suspended . Capacity = 1 x 1010 antiprotons/week . Developers believe that 1 x 1020 antiprotons must be stored.
12. 12. Antimatter is the costliest material to make in this world.In 2006, Gerald Smith estimated 250 million dollars could produce 10 milligrams of positrons (equivalent to \$25 billion per gram); and in 1999 NASA gave a figure of \$62.5 trillion per gram of antihydrogen.According to CERN, it has cost a few hundred million Swiss Francs to produce about 1 billionth of a gram
13. 13.  MEDICAL : Antimatter-matter reactions have practical applications in medical imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET). It is used heavily in clinical oncology (medical imaging of tumors and the search for metastases). PET is also an important research tool to map normal human brain and heart function.
14. 14.  PET is a valuable technique for some diseases and disorders, because it is possible to target the radio-chemicals used for particular bodily functions – 1 : Oncology 2 : neurology 3 : cardiology 4 : atherosclerosis 5 : Neuropsychology / Cognitive neuroscience 6 : Pharmacology
15. 15.  Matter comes in contact with antimatter. They annihilate each other . This annihilation creates very large amounts of energy. Energy Produced = 9 x 1016 J/Kg This energy has the highest energy density of all known propellants. Ten billion times more energy then hydrogen/oxygen 300 times the fusion reaction at suns core. Isn’t that dangerous? 1 gm of antimatter + 1 gm matter  2=1.8 1014J 2mc (A days output for a large power station) But to make that gram you need – many days output from a large power station
16. 16.  An antimatter weapon is a hypothetical device using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. Antimatter weapons do not currently exist due to the cost of production and the limited technology available to produce and contain antimatter in sufficient quantities for it to be a useful weapon. If we could assemble all the antimatter weve ever made at CERN and annihilate it with matter, we would have enough energy to light a single electric light bulb for a few minutes."
17. 17.  www.courses.ae.utexas.edu/ www.wiki.answers.com/ http://www.physorg.com/ http://cern.web.cern.ch/antimatter/ www.synergistictech.com/