Final presentation on antimatterPresentation Transcript
PRESENTED BYANURAG DWIVEDI
Antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter. Antimatter is composed of antiparticles , i.e., particles with identical mass and spin as those of ordinary particles, but with opposite charge and magnetic properties For Eg.- a positron (also called "antielectron") and an antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom in the same way that an electron and a proton form a normal matter hydrogen atom.
The term antimatter was first used by Arthur Schuster in 1898. The modern theory of antimatter begins in 1928 by Paul Dirac. Antielectron is discovered by Dr. Carl D. Anderson in 1932. Antielectron is also called as Positron. Antihydrogen produced in 1999. Opposite of the proton is the antiproton (negative charge). Opposite of the neutron is the antineutron.
The Dirac equation is a relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation formulated by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928 . The Dirac equation in the form originally proposed by Dirac is: where , m is the rest mass of the electron, c is the speed of light, p is the momentum operator, x and t are the space and time coordinates, ħ = h/2π is the reduced Planck constant, also known as Diracs constant.
One way to denote an antiparticle is by adding a bar over the particles symbol. Antiproton is denoted by p . Antielectron is denoted by e+ . Antiparticles are created everywhere in the universe where high-energy particle collisions take place. Antimatter may similarly be produced in regions like the center of the Milky Way and other galaxies, where very energetic celestial events occur.
The baryon asymmetry problem is an imbalance in baryonic matter and antibaryonic matter in the universe. There are thee possible explanations……. Violation of CP symmetry Such a violation could allow matter to be produced more commonly than antimatter in conditions immediately after the Big Bang.
Random distributon of matter and antimatter after big bang Another possibility is that antimatter dominated regions exist within the universe, but outside our observable universe
There are several theories about how antimatter gravitationally interacts with normal matter : Normal gravity Antigravity Gravivector & Graviscalar
Particles of most atoms are accelerated to very high speeds The particles are aimed and allowed to impact on a target (tungsten) The kinetic energy caused by acceleration is converted into gamma radiation, positrons andAbove: A large collider at the EuropeanOrganization for Nuclear Research (CERN) antiprotons
Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. the antihydrogen atom is made up of a positron and antiproton. When antihydrogen atoms come into contact with ordinary matter, they quickly annihilate each other and produce energy in the form of gamma rays and high-energy particles called pions.
Antiprotons can be controlled in magnetic fields . One method for antiproton storage is the Penning Trap. Super cold, vacuumed, electromagnetic bottle in which charged particles of antimatter can be suspended . Capacity = 1 x 1010 antiprotons/week . Developers believe that 1 x 1020 antiprotons must be stored.
Antimatter is the costliest material to make in this world.In 2006, Gerald Smith estimated 250 million dollars could produce 10 milligrams of positrons (equivalent to $25 billion per gram); and in 1999 NASA gave a figure of $62.5 trillion per gram of antihydrogen.According to CERN, it has cost a few hundred million Swiss Francs to produce about 1 billionth of a gram
MEDICAL : Antimatter-matter reactions have practical applications in medical imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET). It is used heavily in clinical oncology (medical imaging of tumors and the search for metastases). PET is also an important research tool to map normal human brain and heart function.
PET is a valuable technique for some diseases and disorders, because it is possible to target the radio-chemicals used for particular bodily functions – 1 : Oncology 2 : neurology 3 : cardiology 4 : atherosclerosis 5 : Neuropsychology / Cognitive neuroscience 6 : Pharmacology
Matter comes in contact with antimatter. They annihilate each other . This annihilation creates very large amounts of energy. Energy Produced = 9 x 1016 J/Kg This energy has the highest energy density of all known propellants. Ten billion times more energy then hydrogen/oxygen 300 times the fusion reaction at suns core. Isn’t that dangerous? 1 gm of antimatter + 1 gm matter 2=1.8 1014J 2mc (A days output for a large power station) But to make that gram you need – many days output from a large power station
An antimatter weapon is a hypothetical device using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. Antimatter weapons do not currently exist due to the cost of production and the limited technology available to produce and contain antimatter in sufficient quantities for it to be a useful weapon. If we could assemble all the antimatter weve ever made at CERN and annihilate it with matter, we would have enough energy to light a single electric light bulb for a few minutes."