Site Identification and Optimal Plant Design  for  Onshore and Offshore Wind Plants Arno J. Brand ECN Wind Energy
Outline <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul>
<ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li> Design drivers </li></ul><ul><li> Wind resource assessment </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li> Turbulence and stratification </li>...
<ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul><ul><l...
Design drivers <ul><li>Annual Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability and Vari...
Design drivers <ul><li>Annual Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability and Vari...
Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Desk top studies </li></ul><ul><li>Examine maps of mean wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>Insp...
Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Desk top studies </li></ul><ul><li>Examine maps of mean wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>Insp...
Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Desk top studies </li></ul><ul><li>Examine maps of mean wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>Insp...
Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Site calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term versus short-term </li></ul><ul><li>Measurem...
Topography and land/sea use Site identification Offshore Onshore Conditions Complex  Flat Forested
Turbulence and stratification Site characteristics Offshore Onshore Conditions Stable Unstable Stratification Low High  Me...
Recovery distances Site characteristics Long Short  Medium Recovery distances Offshore Onshore Conditions Stable Unstable ...
Optimal spacing Optimal plant design Long Short  Medium Recovery distances Offshore Onshore Conditions 7D  …  10D 6D  …  7...
Optimal hub height Optimal plant design Long Short  Medium Recovery distances 20 + D/2 D  2h + D/2  D Optimal hub height O...
Experience <ul><li>Row effect </li></ul><ul><li>Array effect </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbour effect </li></ul>Optimal plant de...
Experience – Row effect <ul><li>Second or third turbine suffers most </li></ul>Optimal plant design Turbine layout x x x x...
Experience – Array effect <ul><li>Large production variation when wind direction not constant </li></ul>Optimal plant desi...
Experience – Neighbour effect <ul><li>Lower production when wind farms closely spaced </li></ul>Optimal plant design Actua...
Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary...
Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary...
Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary...
Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary...
Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary...
Optimised turbine layout <ul><li>Maximise AEP by using wind farm design tools </li></ul><ul><li>State of the Art versus Tr...
Optimised turbine layout <ul><li>WakeFarm model </li></ul><ul><li>Nysted wind farm </li></ul>Optimal plant design
Optimised turbine layout Optimal plant design Navier Stokes solver
Summary <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Select best sites – Desk top studies and Site calibration </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Arno J. Brand </li></ul><ul><li>ECN Wind Energy   Wind turbine rotor and Wind farm Aerodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Brand Ea Site Identification Etc Final31mei2010

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In order to operate wind energy in an economic way, ideally without subsidies, the better wind sites must be selected and wind farm layout must be optimised for maximum energy production and minimal cost of energy production

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Brand Ea Site Identification Etc Final31mei2010

  1. 1. Site Identification and Optimal Plant Design for Onshore and Offshore Wind Plants Arno J. Brand ECN Wind Energy
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li> Design drivers </li></ul><ul><li> Wind resource assessment </li></ul><ul><li> Topography and land/sea use </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li> Turbulence and stratification </li></ul><ul><li> Recovery distances </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul><ul><li> Optimal spacing </li></ul><ul><li> Optimal hub height </li></ul><ul><li> Experience </li></ul><ul><li> Turbine layout </li></ul>
  6. 6. Design drivers <ul><li>Annual Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability and Variability </li></ul><ul><li>depending on </li></ul><ul><li>Wind resource </li></ul><ul><li>Topography and land/sea use </li></ul><ul><li>Grid – Proximity and capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Access – Roads, harbours, … </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and permitting constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine choice and layout </li></ul>Site identification Mean wind Turbulence Seconds … Years
  7. 7. Design drivers <ul><li>Annual Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability and Variability </li></ul><ul><li>depending on </li></ul><ul><li>Wind resource </li></ul><ul><li>Topography and land/sea use </li></ul><ul><li>Grid – Proximity and capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Access – Roads, harbours, … </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and permitting constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine choice and layout </li></ul>Site identification Mean wind T u r b u l e n c e Seconds … Years
  8. 8. Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Desk top studies </li></ul><ul><li>Examine maps of mean wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect wind resource tables </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse wind time series </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Ris ø </li></ul>Site identification
  9. 9. Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Desk top studies </li></ul><ul><li>Examine maps of mean wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect wind resource tables </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse wind time series </li></ul>Site identification
  10. 10. Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Desk top studies </li></ul><ul><li>Examine maps of mean wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect wind resource tables </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse wind time series </li></ul>Site identification
  11. 11. Wind resource assessment <ul><li>Site calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term versus short-term </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement site versus plant site </li></ul><ul><li>Source: KNMI </li></ul>Site identification
  12. 12. Topography and land/sea use Site identification Offshore Onshore Conditions Complex Flat Forested
  13. 13. Turbulence and stratification Site characteristics Offshore Onshore Conditions Stable Unstable Stratification Low High Medium Turbulence Complex Flat Forested
  14. 14. Recovery distances Site characteristics Long Short Medium Recovery distances Offshore Onshore Conditions Stable Unstable Stratification Low High Medium Turbulence Complex Flat Forested
  15. 15. Optimal spacing Optimal plant design Long Short Medium Recovery distances Offshore Onshore Conditions 7D … 10D 6D … 7D 4D … 5D 5D … 7D 2D … 3D 4D … 5D Optimal spacing Most frequent wind directions Least frequent wind directions Stable Unstable Stratification Low High Medium Turbulence Complex Flat Forested
  16. 16. Optimal hub height Optimal plant design Long Short Medium Recovery distances 20 + D/2 D 2h + D/2 D Optimal hub height Offshore Onshore Conditions 7D … 10D 6D … 7D 4D … 5D 5D … 7D 2D … 3D 4D … 5D Optimal spacing Most frequent wind directions Least frequent wind directions Stable Unstable Stratification Low High Medium Turbulence Complex Flat Forested
  17. 17. Experience <ul><li>Row effect </li></ul><ul><li>Array effect </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbour effect </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  18. 18. Experience – Row effect <ul><li>Second or third turbine suffers most </li></ul>Optimal plant design Turbine layout x x x x Limit for large number of wind turbines Actual loss depends on spacing and wind speed Wind direction
  19. 19. Experience – Array effect <ul><li>Large production variation when wind direction not constant </li></ul>Optimal plant design Turbine layout x x x x Wind direction
  20. 20. Experience – Neighbour effect <ul><li>Lower production when wind farms closely spaced </li></ul>Optimal plant design Actual loss depends on distance, layout and wind speed Turbine layout x x Wind direction Impact on annual energy production depends on wind rose
  21. 21. Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Create/Disturb regular pattern </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  22. 22. Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Create/Disturb regular pattern </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  23. 23. Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Create/Disturb regular pattern </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  24. 24. Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Create /Disturb regular pattern </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  25. 25. Turbine layout <ul><li>Consider constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Determine primary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Determine secondary axis </li></ul><ul><li>Create/ Disturb regular pattern </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  26. 26. Optimised turbine layout <ul><li>Maximise AEP by using wind farm design tools </li></ul><ul><li>State of the Art versus Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Wake combination models </li></ul><ul><li>Computational Fluid Dynamics solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages versus Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Level of detail </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  27. 27. Optimised turbine layout <ul><li>WakeFarm model </li></ul><ul><li>Nysted wind farm </li></ul>Optimal plant design
  28. 28. Optimised turbine layout Optimal plant design Navier Stokes solver
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Site identification </li></ul><ul><li>Select best sites – Desk top studies and Site calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Site characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Determine recovery distances </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal plant design </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise Annual Energy Production </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Arno J. Brand </li></ul><ul><li>ECN Wind Energy Wind turbine rotor and Wind farm Aerodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>M: P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten, Netherlands E: brand@ecn.nl T: +31 224 56 4775 F: +31 224 56 8214 I: linkedin.com/in/arnobrand </li></ul>

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