Clean Coal Technologies

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Clean Coal Technologies

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Clean Coal Technologies

  1. 1. Clean Coal Technologies<br />An Overview<br />3 February 2010<br />Arnab Mitra (101532) <br />1<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Major Concerns<br />To reduce Environmental impact of coal energy production<br /><ul><li> Chemically washing impurities/minerals from coal.
  3. 3. Treating flue gas with steam to reduce SO2, CO2 etc.
  4. 4. Improve efficiency.
  5. 5. Carbon capture and storage (CSS).</li></li></ul><li>3<br />Presentation Overview<br /><ul><li> Supercritical Technology.
  6. 6. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).
  7. 7. Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) Power Generation. </li></li></ul><li>4<br />OUTPUT INCREASE<br />D<br />Temperature ( 0 C )<br />Boiling Water<br />B<br />C<br />Dry Saturated Steam<br />E<br />24’0c<br />F<br />A<br />-273<br />0<br />Entropy KJ / Kg K<br />The Super Critical Cycle<br />Critical Point <br />225 kg/cm2 , 374.15OC<br />
  8. 8. 5<br />Super Critical - Distinguishing Features<br />Structural Differences<br /><ul><li> Evaporator System – Drum less design.
  9. 9. Low Load Circulation.
  10. 10. Separator.</li></ul>Metallurgical Differences<br /><ul><li> Need for better grade of material.</li></ul>Chemistry Differences<br /><ul><li> Stringent water quality requirements.
  11. 11. 100 % flow through CPU.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Super Critical - Evaporator System<br />Natural Circulation<br />Controlled Circulation<br />Super Critical<br />
  12. 12. 7<br />Super Critical - Spiral Wall Tubing<br />
  13. 13. 8<br />Water and Steam Flow<br />
  14. 14. 9<br />Super Critical - Separator System<br /><ul><li> Separates steam and water during circulating mode operation.
  15. 15. Runs dry during once through mode operation.
  16. 16. Smaller in size as compared to the drum in sub critical boilers.</li></ul>Air and Incondensable gases<br />Dry Steam<br />Water + Steam<br />Moisture<br />
  17. 17. 10<br />Super Critical - Sliding Pressure Operation<br />
  18. 18. 11<br />Super Critical - Plant Cycle<br />
  19. 19. 12<br />Thermal Efficiency Improvements<br /> % ɳ <br />4.5<br />600 / 600OC<br />3.3<br />566 / 593OC<br />2.3<br />566 / 566OC<br />1.5<br />538 / 566OC<br />538 / 538OC<br />0.7<br />BASE<br />538 / 538OC<br />169<br />246<br />310<br />Steam Pressure (kg/cm2).<br />
  20. 20. 13<br />Super Critical - Improved Efficiency<br />
  21. 21. 14<br />Technology Adoption Status<br />
  22. 22. 15<br />Super Critical Advantages - Summary<br />Enhancements<br /><ul><li> Plant efficiency - 0.69 % to 1.96 %
  23. 23. Fuel tolerance - more tolerant to coal variety</li></ul>Reductions<br /><ul><li> Coal consumption.
  24. 24. Ash production.
  25. 25. CO2
  26. 26. SO2
  27. 27. NOX</li></ul>500 MW at 68.5 %, per year<br /><ul><li> CO2 - 78300 tonnes
  28. 28. SO2 - 365 tonnes
  29. 29. NOX - 71 tonnes</li></ul>1.79 % to 4.24 %<br />Improvements<br /><ul><li> Faster capacity addition.
  30. 30. Startup time is lesser.
  31. 31. Better part load efficiency.</li></li></ul><li>16<br />Super Critical Disadvantages<br /><ul><li> Higher power consumption of BFP.
  32. 32. Better control of Feed water quality required.
  33. 33. More complex supporting and framing in boiler due to spiral tubing. </li></li></ul><li>17<br />Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)<br />
  34. 34. 18<br />Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)<br /><ul><li> Turns coal into gas.
  35. 35. Removes impurities from coal gas before combustion.
  36. 36. Lower emissions of SO2, particulates and mercury.
  37. 37. Good efficiency: ~ 48 %</li></ul>X High prohibitive cost.<br />
  38. 38. 19<br />Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) Technology<br />
  39. 39. 20<br />Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Open Cycle<br />
  40. 40. 21<br />Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Generator<br />
  41. 41. 22<br />Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Brayton Cycle<br />
  42. 42. 23<br />Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Summary<br /><ul><li> Furnace Temperature ~ 2000OC.
  43. 43. Hot Exhausts can be used in a combined cycle (ɳ ~ 60 %).
  44. 44. Power α Velocity2.
  45. 45. Present Status ?</li></li></ul><li>24<br />

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