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Clean Coal Technologies

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Clean Coal Technologies

Clean Coal Technologies

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Clean Coal Technologies Clean Coal Technologies Presentation Transcript

  • Clean Coal Technologies
    An Overview
    3 February 2010
    Arnab Mitra (101532)
    1
  • 2
    Major Concerns
    To reduce Environmental impact of coal energy production
    • Chemically washing impurities/minerals from coal.
    • Treating flue gas with steam to reduce SO2, CO2 etc.
    • Improve efficiency.
    • Carbon capture and storage (CSS).
  • 3
    Presentation Overview
    • Supercritical Technology.
    • Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).
    • Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) Power Generation.
  • 4
    OUTPUT INCREASE
    D
    Temperature ( 0 C )
    Boiling Water
    B
    C
    Dry Saturated Steam
    E
    24’0c
    F
    A
    -273
    0
    Entropy KJ / Kg K
    The Super Critical Cycle
    Critical Point
    225 kg/cm2 , 374.15OC
  • 5
    Super Critical - Distinguishing Features
    Structural Differences
    • Evaporator System – Drum less design.
    • Low Load Circulation.
    • Separator.
    Metallurgical Differences
    • Need for better grade of material.
    Chemistry Differences
    • Stringent water quality requirements.
    • 100 % flow through CPU.
  • 6
    Super Critical - Evaporator System
    Natural Circulation
    Controlled Circulation
    Super Critical
  • 7
    Super Critical - Spiral Wall Tubing
  • 8
    Water and Steam Flow
  • 9
    Super Critical - Separator System
    • Separates steam and water during circulating mode operation.
    • Runs dry during once through mode operation.
    • Smaller in size as compared to the drum in sub critical boilers.
    Air and Incondensable gases
    Dry Steam
    Water + Steam
    Moisture
  • 10
    Super Critical - Sliding Pressure Operation
  • 11
    Super Critical - Plant Cycle
  • 12
    Thermal Efficiency Improvements
    % ɳ
    4.5
    600 / 600OC
    3.3
    566 / 593OC
    2.3
    566 / 566OC
    1.5
    538 / 566OC
    538 / 538OC
    0.7
    BASE
    538 / 538OC
    169
    246
    310
    Steam Pressure (kg/cm2).
  • 13
    Super Critical - Improved Efficiency
  • 14
    Technology Adoption Status
  • 15
    Super Critical Advantages - Summary
    Enhancements
    • Plant efficiency - 0.69 % to 1.96 %
    • Fuel tolerance - more tolerant to coal variety
    Reductions
    • Coal consumption.
    • Ash production.
    • CO2
    • SO2
    • NOX
    500 MW at 68.5 %, per year
    • CO2 - 78300 tonnes
    • SO2 - 365 tonnes
    • NOX - 71 tonnes
    1.79 % to 4.24 %
    Improvements
    • Faster capacity addition.
    • Startup time is lesser.
    • Better part load efficiency.
  • 16
    Super Critical Disadvantages
    • Higher power consumption of BFP.
    • Better control of Feed water quality required.
    • More complex supporting and framing in boiler due to spiral tubing.
  • 17
    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)
  • 18
    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)
    • Turns coal into gas.
    • Removes impurities from coal gas before combustion.
    • Lower emissions of SO2, particulates and mercury.
    • Good efficiency: ~ 48 %
    X High prohibitive cost.
  • 19
    Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) Technology
  • 20
    Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Open Cycle
  • 21
    Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Generator
  • 22
    Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Brayton Cycle
  • 23
    Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) - Summary
    • Furnace Temperature ~ 2000OC.
    • Hot Exhausts can be used in a combined cycle (ɳ ~ 60 %).
    • Power α Velocity2.
    • Present Status ?
  • 24