Bridge-Plate & Multi-Plate Applications and Case Studies (Randy McDonald, P.Eng.)

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Ron Prychitko, P.Eng. & Randy McDonald, P.Eng. will provide a complete overview of Bridge-Plate and Multi-Plate applications in Canada. Please join them for a review of engineering, construction, and performance considerations in various applications. This webinar includes case examples for bridges, culverts, stream enclosures, mine portals, road and rail grade separations, pedestrian tunnels and more.

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  • On behalf of Ron and myself we like thank everyone joining today’s webinar. This slide illustrates the 2 corrugated structural plates products we are highlighting today, Multi-plate and bridge-plate. Both are used to construct a variety of segmental steel plate structures which when assembled on site will offer a wide range of shapes and sizes for buried infrastructure applications.The larger (deeper) bridge-plate corrugation profile expands the range of potential applications due to its increased stiffness and load resistance as compared to the shallower multi-plate corrugation.
  • The agenda summarizes the topics that Ron & I will be covering.I’ll start with a brief overview as to the origins and history of multi-plate and bridge-plate, followed by the benefits of buried plate structures and available coating options. Specific to engineering and design I’ll elaborate on how our experience, knowledge and customer service can be utilized to develop economical solutions through multi-plate or bridge-plate solutions.We have numerous case histories lined up to present that cover a wide range applications. Within the case histories, end treatment options will be shown along with photos of custom fittings designed to fit site conditions and/or specific applicationrequirements..
  • The American Rolling Mill Company or ARMCO based in Middletown Ohio, pioneered the development and introduction of heavy gauge corrugated plate that were factory punched, curved and zinc coated after production in 1931. This allowed enabled larger diameter drainage pipes to be bolted on site in comparison to regular CSP. They selected the trademark name of Multi-Plate.As a footnote, ARMCO expanded into Canada around the same time frame as the introduction of MP by purchasing the Canadian Ingot Iron Company. At that time the Canada Ingot Iron Company had facilities in Guelph, Sherbrooke, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Regina, Calgary and Vancouver.The originalMP corrugation profile of 6” pitch x 1.5” corrugation depth eventually increased to a 2” corrugation depth by 1952. Today the multi-plate profile remains at 6” x 2” (or 152 x 51 in metric units) in North America.The market demand for larger diameters and shapes other than round grew. By 1960’s a variety of shapes were available including arch (open bottom)spans up to 12.2m. In combination with larger spans, deep bury applications were encountered. In 1975 a 15.5m span multi-plate super-span arch known as Vieux Comptoirwas designed with custom straining footings which proved the ability for the arch to support 16.8m of overburden.By 1984, the world’s largest Multi-Plate SuperSpanarch was constructed supporting an 18m span.Armtec introduced the larger Bridge-Plate corrugation profile in 1999. BP arch structures can now exceed 18m spans.
  • With enhanced section properties, bridge-plate arches are able to match the same spans and larger without “special features” required by multi-plate super-spans.Manufacturing advances in the early 2000’s, enabled the roll curving of bridge-plate sections to relatively tight radii. This development enabled a new family of metal box culverts to be introduced. Box shapes with a low rise/span ratio are ideal for low headroom, open bottom applications as can be seen this slide.
  • The Armtec nameevolved from the sale of Armco Canada Limited in the 1980’s to Canadian interests.The Canada Ingot Iron Company was founded in Guelph ON in 1908 had been associated with Armco in their early years of culvert manufacturing,They were eventually acquired by Armco over 70 years ago.In 1930, Armco as the leader in steel culvert industry, published the 1st Handbook of Culvert and Drainage Practice which is shown on this slide.(click to add handbook slide)Several editions and 84 years later, this handbook, now published by the CSPI in Canada, still remains a primary resource for designers “for the solution of surface and subsurface drainage problems” as stated in the original handbook.
  • Segmental bolted plate construction enables unique geometries to be pre-engineered and manufactured to precise tolerances in controlled factory conditions.The compactness of nested plates minimizes shipping volumes which provides economical transportation to remote and international destinations. Individual plates, although typically too heavy to maneuver by hand, are easily and typically hoisted with light cranes, boom trucks or excavators, equipment common to most road builders.Buried steel structures rely on support from an engineered soil envelope surrounding the shell to maintain their shape while also shedding load into the soil envelope. Overburden soils also comprise the primary dead load component of forces the shell must support. The complex soil-metal interaction enables the buried shell to resist large live loads that girder configurations cannot.The dispersion of surface loads that occurs through the overburden in buried conditions typically protects the buried shell to a certain extent from live load effects.The net result is buried structures can be economically designed with significant reserve capacity for overload conditions.
  • Zinc is the basis of the protective coating known as hot-dip galvanizing. Zinc cathodically protects steel by sacrificing itself to protect the underlying base steel from corrosion. Even if the coating were damaged, zinc’s sacrificial action will protect exposed steel up to ¼” away. The tightly adhered coating, with a bond strength of around 3600 psi or 25 MPa, has excellent abrasion resistant properties as the intermetallic layers are harder than the base steel. The 3 step process to hot-dip galvanize involves diligent surface preparation, dipping each member into a molten 98% zinc bath followed by an inspection to measure the zinc thickness. The weight of zinc that is possible to adhere to a structural element is a function of that materials thickness, its chemical makeup and dipping time in the kettle.The Canadian material standard for corrugated pipe products is CSA G401. The standard lists the required zinc thicknesses for buried plate structures. The table shown duplicates the published standards.
  • The last decade has introduced polymer coatings for buried plate structures. Armtec’s trade name for polymer coating is Strata-CatPolymer coatings are a second barrier coating applied for further protection of buried elements. Comprehensive research and testing recognizes that polymer barrier coats broadens the allowable range of environmental parameters that are known to negatively influence the EMSL of buried steel structures.Process of coating fabricated steel by applying a Ethylene Acrylic Acid (EAA) copolymer over a zinc based layer – 4 step processSurface Preparation – 8 stage pre-treatment washZinc application – (minimum 1.5 mil per side)Copolymer application – spray applied and baked (10 mil thickness per side)InspectionEach process ensures proper bonding of each coating layerThe 4 step polymer coating process entails a diligent surface preparation to eliminate mill scale followed by an 8 stage pre-treatment wash of the base steel to ensure optimum adhesion of each subsequent coating layer.This is followed by the application of a zinc rich base layer to a thickness of 1.5mil per side.The copolymer is spray applied to individual plates which then pass through ovens to complete the bonding to the zinc base coat.
  • This 17 page comprehensive guideline, released this past February, is published by CSPI. To complement the guide is also supported by a white paper detailing the science behind this document. Both documents are a free download from the CSPI website.
  • Today Armtec engineering experience & design services allow designers to tackle applications utilizing a Buried Metal Structures where few other (if any) economical solutions exist.For this wind farm site, a creek crossing was completed with a 8m span x 2.8m rise bridge-plate arch. The overload design criteria however, was a 440 ton crane, which exerted a ground pressure of 150 kPa as it traveled along the road at a very slow speed.8010 span x 2750 rise x 22.8m long 25H BP LPA, Manitowoc 16000 Series 3 440 ton crane, ground pressure 3070 psf, 295’ main boom, approx 900,000 lbs
  • Armtec engineered and supplied a 9.3m span multi-plate super-span mine portal arch whereby the depth of the overburden reaches 29.5m at the mine face.Owner: Kahama Mining Corp. Tanzania (Barrick Gold)Year of Construction: 2000Structure: 72 N High Profile Arch Multi-Plate Super-Span Structure number 96A33-27 9330 span x 5820 rise x 706' long x 7.0mmApplication: Mine Portal (slope = 8.4 degrees, 14.7%)Special Features: Concrete Thrust Beams & Squeeze Block Footings to accommodate soil archHeight of Cover: 29.5 metres (max) at mine faceSoil Arch Depth: varies from 7.0m to 2.0mSqueeze Block Spacing: variable
  • Knowledge of the mechanics of behaviour of buried metal structures continues to grow at an accelerated rate with new research initiatives and the availability of sophisticated finite element modelling tools.These tools allow our engineers to review and quantify forces in both the metal shell and the soil envelope supporting/surrounding the buried structure.This graphic displays the effective vertical stresses in the soil envelope for an elliptical multi-plate supporting a wheel load at mid-span.It also demonstrates the low contact pressures below the invert of the ellipse on the foundation, making it a recommended option whenever poor foundation bearing pressures are present.
  • Knowledge of the mechanics of behaviour of buried metal structures continues to grow at an accelerated rate with new research initiatives and the availability of sophisticated finite element modelling tools.These tools allow our engineers to review and quantify forces in both the metal shell and the soil envelope supporting/surrounding the buried structure.This graphic displays the effective vertical stresses in the soil envelope for an elliptical multi-plate supporting a wheel load at mid-span.It also demonstrates the low contact pressures below the invert of the ellipse on the foundation, making it a recommended option whenever poor foundation bearing pressures are present.
  • Highlights of the technical support Armtec can provide is summarized over the next 2 slides.Armtec brings to the table solutions for buried structure applications that may have been overlooked or considered not viable for other reasons.
  • Armtec technical representatives tract projects to the buried in the ground completion.Support continues beyond receipt of an order as our application specialists travel to job sites to share their knowledge of best practices for buried structure construction.
  • Structural plate products are available in many shapes. Individual plates are factory curved, thus available geometrical configurations are numerous.In addition to the 9 shapes identified, the photos illustrate 2 additional geometries.The top structure is a pear shape on footings. (rise exceeds the span).The bottom photo is an aluminum box culvert, framed by a CIP headwall and gabion wingwalls.89N Pear shape on footings – 7689 span x 7748 rise x 79.248m (260’) long - Cleveland Cliff Mines
  • Sites can demand alignments other than a straight run. 3 of the photos capture the fabrication of horizontal elbows and tees for a multi-plate, tunnel liner plate and bridge-plate projects.All assemblies are plant fabricated an erected, prior to galvanizing, to ensure a proper fit up in the field.The bottom site photo illustrates a vertical elbow for a mine portal. The centre photo, also a mine portal, illustrates reinforcing for a round pipe penetration, that serves as a safety zone.
  • Sites can demand alignments other than a straight run. 3 of the photos capture the fabrication of horizontal elbows and tees for a multi-plate, tunnel liner plate and bridge-plate projects.All assemblies are plant fabricated an erected, prior to galvanizing, to ensure a proper fit up in the field.The bottom site photo illustrates a vertical elbow for a mine portal. The centre photo, also a mine portal, illustrates reinforcing for a round pipe penetration, that serves as a safety zone.
  • Sites can demand alignments other than a straight run. 3 of the photos capture the fabrication of horizontal elbows and tees for a multi-plate, tunnel liner plate and bridge-plate projects.All assemblies are plant fabricated an erected, prior to galvanizing, to ensure a proper fit up in the field.The bottom site photo illustrates a vertical elbow for a mine portal. The centre photo, also a mine portal, illustrates reinforcing for a round pipe penetration, that serves as a safety zone.
  • Sites can demand alignments other than a straight run. 3 of the photos capture the fabrication of horizontal elbows and tees for a multi-plate, tunnel liner plate and bridge-plate projects.All assemblies are plant fabricated an erected, prior to galvanizing, to ensure a proper fit up in the field.The bottom site photo illustrates a vertical elbow for a mine portal. The centre photo, also a mine portal, illustrates reinforcing for a round pipe penetration, that serves as a safety zone.
  • For this gas plant application, galvanized bridge-plate headwalls and galvanized Armtec bin-wall wing-walls frame a bridge-plate arch. Tension rods extend through the backfill in order to tie the opposing headwalls together for structural stability.
  • For this Quebec application Armtec light gauge galvanized sheet piling was employed.The sheet piling extends below the horizontal ellipse inverts to eliminate scour and undermining concerns.
  • A BC forestry road application utilizes welded 4x4 wire forms for the headwall and wingwalls. The exposed front face is lined with an Armtec geotextile to retain fine materials.Wire forms are easily adapted to fit the curvature of buried structures.
  • Step bevel ends are an economical end treatment option. The cut side plates of the bridge-plate arch act as a retaining wall and are designed as such. The sloping CIP concrete collars provide the bevel wall stability.
  • A skew end is defined whenever the ends are cut at an angle other than 90 degrees to the longitudinal alignment of the structure.This typically occurs when the alignment of the structure is not square or 90 degrees to the roadway.A skew cut across annular plate corrugations will result in the scalloped corrugation profile being revealed as seen in this photo.Skew ends create unique design challenges for buried structures.
  • MSE walls, utilizing either pre-cast panels or CIP panels also complement buried structures.
  • An earthen berm/causeway across the Simms River in Labrador hosts 3 – 4.9m diameter multi-plate pipes to manage the anticipated flows.64N – 4920 dia (16’) x 26.822m (88’) 1.5:1 bevel, 2002, order # 01-3028Esker Road at Simms River, Labrador
  • Bridge-Plate Box c/w Multi-Plate Invert (2012)Fox Harbour NL – see reference dwg. 11-118141-001
  • Arches on footings, spanning the brook, are common place for buried metal structures.Bridge-Plate, capable of wider spans, can also support deep buries as noted in this NL highway application.Torbay Road Bypass & Island Pond Brook Crossing (2009)
  • Canada is responsible for many innovations in deep corrugated structural plate and exports around the world.This Armtec installation under construction in Poland is one such example.This highway overpass is comprised of twin 18.0 span x 5.4m rise bridge-plate arches plus a 3rd 12m span x 4.3m rise bridge-plate arch.The CHBDC section 7, Buried Structures, requires additional design checks for buried deep corrugated applications.
  • A bridge-plate arch provides service road access under Highway 50 in Quebec, A CIP headwall provides a secure end treament.
  • Typical clearance requirements for 2 lane roadways are accommodated in a 11.6m span x 6.5m rise bridge-plate arch.1.5:1 step bevel ends follow the embankment side slopes.
  • Bridge-Plate Arch – Highway OverpassesTorbay Road Bypass NL 2009
  • Twin 9m diameter round bridge-plates were constructed to enable railway traffic to cross over the Ironstone River in Labrador.With a 2.0m bury, the 8.0mm bridge-plate shell did not require any special features to support the E-90 railway live loadThe headwall construction combined a CIP portion extending to approximately 5.0m above the invert with a pre-cast Reco MSE retaining wall.Railway Bridge & Ironstone River Crossing, near Labrador City, NL - 2009
  • Structural plate steel arches are relatively light weight when compared to concrete, but they won’t actually float away as this image suggests.A major intersection of a future multi-lane highway and an active railway lines necessitated sub-assembly of a 15.5m span x 5.4m rise bridge-plate arch in a staging area beside the tracks.49H BP arch - 15.5m span x 5.4m rise x 52.8m long (16-1227 2006)
  • The bridge-plate arch was sub-assembled in 3 lengths.The final configuration, not shown here is a twin bridge-plate arch built with a pre-cast mse headwall/wingwallArmtec’sinternational sales group were instrumental in securing this project located in the UK.
  • Buried steel structures provide numerous solutions for mining and oil or gas plant infrastructure applications.A Bridge-plate arch mine portal, located at the Diavik diamond mine in the Northwest Territories provides vehicular access down a 15% incline to the mine face.Shipped to the jobsite over winter ice roads, construction followed during the short summer months.
  • 6 bridge-plate arches ranging in span from 7.3m to 12.4m were constructed to function as utilidors to protect liquid natural gas lines and services at this Saint John NB facility.4 arches – 12.43m span x 3.93m rise, 2 arches 7.35m span x 3.0m riseCanaport LNG Ltd. Saint John, NB, 1st LNG plant in Canada
  • A 15.m span x 6.7m rise bridge-plate arch was constructed for Highland Valley Copper in Logan Lake BC.The design haul truck was the 1,000,000 lb. GVW CAT 797B vehicle.A primary objective for mines is minimizing hauling distances. The contributes to operational efficiencies.However, an on grade intersections between a private mining road and a public thoroughfare isn’t practical, safe or desirable.A bridge-plate arch, capable of supporting extreme live loads as illustrated in this case history provide economical overpass solutions.An 11.3m wide x 4.6 high clearance is available inside this arch.Lock block headwalls provided the end treatment.Highland Valley Copper 53H - 15.0m span 6.65m rise x 58.88m long BP 2RA order no. 580-108765511.25m wide x 4.575m rise clearance box
  • During the design phase, our analysis dictated the maximum allowable slope directly overtop the ellipse.Unbalanced permanent gravity loads provide unique design challenges for flexible buried structures.when analzing Buried steel was infact 9.06m span x 6.18m rise x 49.28m long 58H bridge-plate HE
  • I understand Armtec sponsored a customer ski day at Whistler last week.Perhaps some of you had the opportunity to use this tunnel.I am still waiting for my invite… Juan!9.06m span x 6.18m rise x 49.28m long 58H bridge-plate HE
  • Bridge-Plate & Multi-Plate Applications and Case Studies (Randy McDonald, P.Eng.)

    1. 1. Bridge-Plate & Multi-Plate Applications & Case Histories Randy McDonald P.Eng. Engineering Manager
    2. 2. Multi-Plate (SPCSP) (152 mm x 51 mm) Bridge-Plate (DCSP) (400 mm x 150 mm) Bridge-Plate vs. Multi-Plate
    3. 3. Agenda 1. History 2. Benefits of Buried Plate Structures 3. Coatings 4. Engineering Experience and Design Services 5. Shapes and Fitting Options 6. End Treatments 7. Applications and Case Histories 3
    4. 4. History of Multi-Plate & Bridge-Plate1/
    5. 5. History of Bridge-Plate & Multi-Plate • 1931 – 6” x 1.5” (152 x 38) corrugated plate • Trademark name Multi-Plate • 1952 – improved to 6” x 2” (152 x 51) corrugation • 1960’s – development of larger spans “Super-Spans” • 1967 – 12.2m span x 6.4m rise Armstrong Bridge • 1975 – 15.5m span x 8.4m rise Vieux Comptoir • 1984 – 18.0m span x 7.4m rise Cheese Factory Bridge • 1999 –added 400 x 150 (15 ¾” x 6”) deep corrugation profile • Trademark name Bridge-Plate 5
    6. 6. History of Bridge-Plate • 2000’s to present • Bridge-Plate (Deep Corrugated Structural Plate (DCSP) pushes arch span envelope to 21m • Enhanced manufacturing methods - Roll curving plates • Introduced a new family of buried plate structures • “Metal Box Culverts” - spans to 15m 6
    7. 7. A Canadian Company Since 1908 “The Canada Ingot Iron Company Ltd”
    8. 8. Benefits of Buried Plate Structures2/
    9. 9. Benefits of Buried Plate Structures • Segmental plate structures economically shipped to remote or international locations via containers • Ease of installation w/o large cranes • Customized shapes to fit the application • Cost efficient - provides lowest possible life cycle cost • Wide range of loading conditions • Deep bury • Heavy Live Loads (haul trucks, track vehicles) • Typically have reserve capacity for overload conditions • Seismic forces 9
    10. 10. Coatings3/
    11. 11. Coatings – Hot Dip Galvanized Nominal Plate Thickness (mm) Standard Zinc Coverage Non-Standard Zinc Coverage Total Mass Both Sides (g/m2) Thickness per side (µm) Total Mass Both Sides (g/m2) Thickness per side (µm) < 4.0 915 64 NA NA 4.0 – 8.0 915 64 1220 87 11 1 Performance Guideline For Buried Steel Structures – Tech. Bulletin 13, CSPI Feb 2012 Table 51 Zinc Coverage for Galvanized Structural Plate Products – CSA G401
    12. 12. Coatings – Copolymer Coating STRATA-CAT • Dual coating systems will provide 2 levels of protection 12
    13. 13. Performance Guideline 13www.cspi.ca
    14. 14. Engineering Experience & Design Services 4/
    15. 15. Engineering Experience & Design Services • Today Armtec engineering experience & design services allow designers to tackle applications utilizing a Buried Metal Structures where few other (if any) economical solutions exist. 15 440 ton crane – 150 kPa ground pressure
    16. 16. Engineering Experience & Design Services 16 9.3m span x 5.8m rise x 215m long Multi-Plate Super-Span High Profile Arch long – 15% grade Deep Bury – 29.5m at mine face
    17. 17. Engineering Experience & Design Services
    18. 18. Engineering Experience & Design Services
    19. 19. Engineering Experience & Design Services Typical Armtec Design Services Conceptual or Design Phase • Custom shape options to fit site specific criteria • Preliminary shell designs as per CSA S6 (CHBDC) • Recommendations for o Alignment o Length o End treatment options o General arrangement o Preliminary footing loads o Engineered backfill specifications
    20. 20. Engineering Experience & Design Services Typical Armtec Design Services (cont’d) • Site visit/review • Product specifications • Budget estimates Follow up services • Design review for construction loading, overloads, or modified design criteria • Complete issue for construction drawing package • Pre-construction meeting coordination • Sealed drawings, mill certificates • On site technical support and construction certification
    21. 21. Shape and Fitting Options5/
    22. 22. Shape Options 22
    23. 23. Fitting Options – Bridge-Plate “Tee” 23
    24. 24. Fitting Options – Horizontal Elbow 24
    25. 25. Fitting Options – Vertical Elbow 25
    26. 26. Fitting Options - Laterals 26
    27. 27. End Treatments6/
    28. 28. 28 End Treatments Type of Crossing Length Constraints Esthetics Function Stability
    29. 29. End Treatments – Steel Headwalls 12.43m span x 3.93m rise Bridge-Plate Arches
    30. 30. End Treatments – Steel Headwalls 30
    31. 31. End Treatment – Welded Wire Headwall
    32. 32. End Treatments – Bevels & Skews 32
    33. 33. End Treatments – Bevels & Skews 33
    34. 34. End Treatment – MSE Walls 34 Pre-cast Panels CIP Panels
    35. 35. Appications and Case Histories7/
    36. 36. Multi-Plate Round Pipes 36
    37. 37. Bridge-Plate Box Culvert with Full Invert
    38. 38. Bridge-Plate Arch – Highway/Water Crossing 12.4m bury 7500 span x 3830 rise x 61.28m long
    39. 39. Triple Bridge-Plate Arches – Animal Overpasses
    40. 40. Bridge-Plate Arch – Highway Overpass • MTQ – Highway 50
    41. 41. Bridge-Plate Arch – Highway Overpass • TCH & Long Harbour Road Interchange • Conception Bay North Bypass & Lady Lake Road 11.6m Span x 6.5 Rise Bridge-Plate Arches
    42. 42. Bridge-Plate Arch – Highway Overpasses • 11580 Span x 6480 rise Bridge-Plate Arches • Robins Road – 32.48m long • Quarry Road – 33.68m long • Whiteway Pond Road – 32.48m long
    43. 43. Bridge-Plate Round – Railway Bridge • Twin – 9050 diameter round Bridge- Plates x 19.3m long • E90 Railway Live Load • Pre-cast MSE Headwalls • Near Labrador City, Labrador
    44. 44. Railway Underpass 44 Bridge Plate Railway Underpass – Active Lines
    45. 45. 45 Bridge Plate Railway Underpass – Active Lines
    46. 46. Bridge-Plate Arch – Mine Portal 46 6.8m x 5.9m rise x 96.5m 15% grade 7.4 degree vertical elbow 10.5m bury at mine face
    47. 47. Bridge-Plate Arch – Utility Crossings
    48. 48. Bridge-Plate Overpass - Mining 48 Design Live Loads • CAT 797B Haul Truck • Seismic Zone 4
    49. 49. 49 Bridge-Plate Ellipse Skier Underpass
    50. 50. 50 Bridge-Plate Ellipse Skier Underpass
    51. 51. 51

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