49635656 nsn-3 g-radio-planning-day2-v1-3
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  • UMTS offers a wide range of transport bearer services, and the selection below is based on the optimal matching between radio bearer capability and UMTS bearer QoS need. All traffic classes can be transferred more than one way, depending on the details of QoS parameters. CS = Circuit Switched PS = Packet Switched TM = Transparent Mode UM = Unacknowledged Mode AM = Acknowledged Mode DCH = Dedicated Transport Channel RACH = Random Access Channel FACH = Forward Access Channel DSCH = Downlink Shared Channel
  • Other NRT users operating min bit rate, Eg SMS, signalling, which uses RACH & FACH for packet data transmission, requires no setup time. Delay insensitive. High bitrate NRT requires dedicated DCH which requires setup time, which is controllable by the PS.
  • Static simulations - planning tool like NetAct planner (MonteCarlo simulator) Dynamic simulations Study and analyse (users in 2D not 3D; means on one floor) Decisison making tool WinProp model MatLab MapInfo
  • HCS consists of both macro and micro sites.

49635656 nsn-3 g-radio-planning-day2-v1-3 49635656 nsn-3 g-radio-planning-day2-v1-3 Presentation Transcript

  • 3G Radio Network 3G Radio Network Planning Planning Fundamentals Fundamentals --Day 2 -- Day 21 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Agenda – Day 2 • Radio Resource Management • Pre-Launch Optimisation • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting • RAN Sharing • Multilayer Planning2 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management - Objectives - At the end of this module you will be able to... •• List all RRM entities and explain their function List all RRM entities and explain their function •• Explain the interworking between Load Control, Explain the interworking between Load Control, Admission Control and Packet Scheduler Admission Control and Packet Scheduler •• Describe the different handover possibilities Describe the different handover possibilities •• List the two most important soft handover List the two most important soft handover parameters parameters •• Describe the difference between non- Describe the difference between non- controllable and controllable traffic controllable and controllable traffic •• Explain why LA, RA, SA and URA area planning Explain why LA, RA, SA and URA area planning is needed is needed •• Explain the cell search/synchronisation Explain the cell search/synchronisation procedure of the UE procedure of the UE •• Explain how scrambling code planning affects Explain how scrambling code planning affects cell search performance cell search performance •• Explain the concept of group planning Explain the concept of group planning3 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN View slide
  • Radio Resource Management UMTS Traffic Classes CS domain PS domain Conversational Streaming Interactive Background RT traffic NRT traffic • Conversational class is meant for traffic which is very delay sensitive while background class is the most delay insensitive traffic class. • Conversational and streaming classes are mainly intended to be used to carry real time traffic flows. • Interactive class and Background are mainly meant to be used by traditional Internet applications like WWW, Email, Telnet, FTP and News4 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN View slide
  • Radio Resource Management RAN Data Rates AMR speech Rate (kbps) 12.20 10.20 7.95 7.40 6.70 5.90 5.15 4.75 Transparent CS data Rate (kbps) 64 33.6 32 28.8 Extensive multicall capability Non-transparent CS data Rate (kbps) 57.6 28.8 14.4 PS data Rate (kbps) 512* 384 320 256 144** 128 64 32 16 8 * RAN2 • Maximum user data rate 384 kbps (512kbps DL in RAN2) DL ** RAN25 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Overview • Radio Resource Management (RRM) is responsible for efficient utilization of the air interface resources • RRM is needed to maximize the radio performance • Guarantee Quality of Service (BLER, BER, delay) • Maintain the planned coverage for each service • Ensure planned capacity with low blocking • optimise the use of capacity • RRM can be divided into • Power control • Handover control Power Control Admission Control • Admission control Load Control Iub Load Control • Load control (Congestion control) • Packet scheduling Power Control BTS DRNC • Resource Manager Iur Admission Control Packet Scheduler Load Control MS Handover Control Power C ontrol Iub Iu BTS SRNC6 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Logical Model LC PS • AC Admission Control RM • LC Load Control AC Network based functions • PS Packet Scheduler • RM Resource Manager • PC Power Control PC • HC HO Control HC Connection based functions7 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Overview of RRM Algorithms • Power control (PC) maintains radio link level quality by adjusting the uplink and downlink powers. • The quality requirements are tried to get with minimum transmission powers to achieve low interference in radio access network. The basic functions of WCDMA power control are: • Open loop power control (RACH, FACH) • Fast closed loop power control (DCH, DSCH) • Outer loop power control • Handover Control (HC) controls the active state mobility of UE in RAN. • HC maintains the radio link quality and minimises the radio network interference by optimum cell selection in handovers. The Handover Control (HC) of the Radio Access Network (RAN) supports the following handover procedures: • Intra-frequency soft/softer handover • Intra-frequency hard handover • Inter-frequency handover • Inter-system (GSM) handover8 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Overview of RRM Algorithms • Admission Control (AC) decides whether a request to establish a Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is admitted in the Radio Access Network (RAN) or not. • Admission control is used to maintain stability and to achieve high traffic capacity of RAN. The AC algorithm is executed when radio access bearer is setup or the bearer is modified. The AC measures take place as well with all kind of handovers. • Load Control (LC) continuously updates the load information of cells controlled by RNC • Load Control and provides this information to the AC and PS for radio resource controlling purposes. In overload situations, the LC performs the recovering actions by using the functionalities of AC, PS and HC .9 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Overview of RRM Algorithms • Packet scheduler (PS) schedules radio resources for NRT radio access bearers both in uplink and downlink direction. • The traffic load of cell determines the scheduled transmission capacity. The information of load caused by NRT bearers is determined by PS. • It can be said that PS controls the NRT load when system is not in overload. • PS also allocates and changes the bitrates of NRT bearers. PS controls both dedicated and shared channels.10 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Wideband Power Based RRM • Nokia RRM has the following principles for the operation of network based algorithms, admission control, packet scheduler and load control: • RRM is operating cell basis, i.e. operations are done for a single cell without taking neighbouring cells account. • System load is measured based on total averaged power/ interference in a cell. In uplink it is the total received wideband interference power (PrxTotal) and in downlink it is the total transmitted power (PtxTotal). • AC, PS and LC operations are based these two measurements. • AC, PS and LC operations are done separately for uplink and downlink. Uplink Downlink Node B Measurement Total received wideband Total transmitted power PrxTotal wideband power PtxTotal RRM in RNC Keep load at PrxTraget Keep load at PrxTraget (max) (max) • RRM has the ability to manage cell loading based on the total average uplink/downlink power, which has the affect of eliminating the cell shrinkage occurring due to variations in neighbour cell interference levels.11 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control • The target of the power control (PC) is to achieve the minimum signal-to- interference ratio (SIR) that is required for the sufficient quality of the connection • Power control provides protection against large changes in shadowing, immediate response for fast changes in signal levels and interference levels (SIR). Power control is also needed to cope with the near far problem • PC entity fulfils the radio link power related adjustment by the following basic procedures: • Uplink open loop PC algorithm and random access procedure • PC for downlink common physical channels • Fast closed loop PC • Outer loop PC12 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control Loops • Fast Closed loop PC measures the Interference level • Outer loop PC maintains the set quality Immediate response to fading and fast Fast Closed SRNC RNC changes in signal Loop PC and interference Iub levels DL Outer Node B UL Outer UE Loop PC Loop PC ”Quality loop”: Maintains the specified error rate13 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control Loops UL Open loop power control for initial power setting of the UE • UE performs the initial transmission power calculation with the help of received info from RNC • path loss between Node B and UE • uplink interference level (measured by Node B) • required received C/I • With Random Access Channel (RACH) power ramping is done with preambles • Preamble: In the beginning mobile sends low power and increases it until Node B is able to detect it • After the initial transmission and the synchronisation procedure the fast closed loop PC starts. L1 ACK / AICH Downlink / BS Not detected P2 RACH P1 Uplink / MS Preamble Preamble Message part14 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control Loops Fast Closed loop power control (UL/DL) • Closed loop PC mechanism aims to maintain a SIR target value specified by outer loop PC. The SIR is measured on pilot bits of the dedicated control channel and a corresponding transmit power control (TPC) command is sent on the reverse link. • In UL closed loop PC, the BTS measures the SIR on pilot bits of the UL DPCCH and transmits the corresponding Transmit Power Control (TPC) value on DL DCH. The UE decodes the TPC value and responds accordingly • In DL closed loop PC UE measures the SIR value on pilots bits of the DL DPCH and transmits the corresponding TPC command on UL DPCCH. • In Nokia RAN 1.5 the DL closed loop PC will be such that a TPC command will be generated by the UE for every time slot in a radio frame.15 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control Loops Outer loop power control • The outer loop PC adjusts the SIR target used by the closed loop PC. The SIR target is independently adjusted for each connection based on the estimated quality of the connection. The initial value is provided by admission control functionality in the RNC. • The SIR target value is to be set so that the usage of radio resources is most effective, the power is set to minimum possible, still ensuring that the quality of the connection is good enough. • In uplink outer loop PC the RNC monitors the link quality and adjusts the new SIR target accordingly for the fast closed loop PC. • UE takes care of the downlink outer loop PC. Downlink outer loop PC sets the SIR target for the downlink fast closed loop PC according to quality estimates of the received channel. • Downlink outer loop PC functions are mainly located in the UE, but some control parameters, e.g. BLER target, are set by the RNC.16 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control Loops TPC commands UE adjustsif SIR > (SIR)set then "down" power accordingelse "up" to TPC commands UE1 P1 • UE1 and UE2 are transmitting on the same frequency TPC commands => equalizing transmitter powers is critical ("near-far" problem) P2 • Optimum situation: P1 = P2 at the Node B at all times • Different path attenuations are compensated by using Node B power control. UE2 • Open loop power control: UE adjusts it’s initial transmitter power according to received signal level • Closed loop power control: Node B commands UE to increase or decrease it’s transmission power at 1.5 kHz It is based on received signal to interference ratio (SIR) estimates in Node B. • Closed loop power control also follows the fast fading pattern at low and medium speeds (< 50 km/h) 17 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Uplink Outer Loop Power Control required (SIR)set for 1 % FER • outer loop TPC maintains link quality • optimises capacity / range • is the "link adaptation" method in WCDMA MS stands still • during soft handover: comes after soft handover frame selection time if SIR > (SIR)set then "down" else "up" if FER increase then (SIR)set "up" else (SIR)set "down" (SIR)set adjustment command RNC CN outer loop frame reliability info control18 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Common Channel Power Planning BTS power allocation rule: For Pilot CPCIH 10 %, For other common channels, 10 % For dedicated channels, the rest Ec/Ior=fraction of the power of the channel of interest from the total BS power.19 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Power Control & Diversity • At low UE speed, power control compensates the fading : fairly constant receive power and Tx power with high variations • With diversity the variations in Tx power is less • At UE speed >100km/h fast power control cannot follow the fast fading, therefore diversity helps keep receive power level more or less constant • In the UL Tx affects adjacent cell interference and Rx power affects interference within the cell.20 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Handovers Soft/Softer handover • In Soft HO MS is simultaneously connected to multiple cells • In softer HO MS is simultaneously connected to multiple cell within same Node B • Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) • Intra-frequency handover Hard handover • Intra-Frequency hard handover • Arises when inter-RNC SHO is impossible • Decision procedure is the same as SHO • MEHO and RNC controlled HO • Causes temporary disconnection of the user • Inter-Frequency handover (RAN1.5) • Can be intra-BS hard handover, intra-RNC hard handover, inter-RNC hard handover • Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO) • Decision algorithm located in RNC • Handovers both for RT and NRT Services • Inter-System handover (RAN1.5) • Handovers for CS voice and CS data (NEHO) • Network initiated cell Re-selection for PS (RT or NRT) data to GSM/GPRS21 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Soft Handover Softer-Soft HO Soft-Soft HO Softer HO Soft HO22 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Nokia Soft Handover Algorithm 1. The CPICH Ec/N0 exceeds Strongest pilot in active set -MS Ec/N0 Strongest pilot in active set Addition Window. The mobile station starts Addition Time timer MS Ec/N0 value 2. The CPICH Ec/N0 has been Addition Window continuously higher than Strongest pilot in active set – Addition Window, Drop Window RNC add the neighbour to Active set after the Addition Time timer expires. 3. The CPICH Ec/N0 is smaller than Strongest pilot in active set - Drop Window. The mobile station starts Drop Time timer 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. The CPICH Ec/N0 has been Addition Time Drop Time time continuously smaller than Strongest NeighbourSet Neighbor Set Active Set Active Set NeighbourSet Neighbor Set pilot in active set – Drop Window, RNC drops the cell from the active set to the neighbour set after the Drop Time timer expires. 23 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Load Control • The purpose of load control is to optimise the capacity of a cell and prevent overload situation. • Load control consists of Admission Control (AC) and Packet Scheduler (PS) algorithms, and Load Control (LC) which updates the load status of the cell based on resource measurements and estimations provided by AC and PS. Load change info AC Load status PS LC NRT load24 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Load Control • Since the main criteria in a WCDMA system for the radio resources is the interference, the load of the cell under the RNC is measured periodically based on • uplink interference level • downlink transmission power levels • In uplink, the basic measured quantity indicating load is the total received power of a Node B, PrxTotal • In downlink, the basic measured quantity indicating load is the total transmitted power of a Node B, PtxTotal25 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Radio Interface Load in Uplink • PrxTarget (dB) defines the optimal operating point of the cell interference power, up to which the AC of the RNC can operate. Noise rise as a function of fractional load 20 18 16 14 12 Noise rise [dB] 10 8 6 OVERLOAD AREA PrxTarget [dB] + PrxOffset [dB] MARGINAL LOAD AREA PrxTarget [dB] 4 FEASIBLE LOAD AREA 2 Noise floor 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Fractional load26 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Radio Interface Load in DL • In the downlink, the own cell load factor can be defined as the ratio of the measured transmission power, PtxTotal, to the maximum transmission power of cell PtxTotal Ptx _ total Load in DL η= [dBm] ˆ Ptx _ BTS max C maximum [dBm] ell OVER LOAD AREA PtxTarget [dBm]+PtxOffset [dB] MARGINAL LOAD AREA PtxTarget [dBm] FEASIBLE LOAD AREA [0...1] 0 1 Load27 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Admission Control • Admission Control (AC) decides whether a request to establish a Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is admitted in the RAN or not. • AC is used to maintain stability and to achieve high traffic capacity of RAN. The AC algorithm is executed when radio access bearer is setup or the bearer is modified. The AC measures take place as well with all kind of handovers. • The AC algorithm estimates the load increase, which the establishment of the bearer would cause in the radio network. Both uplink and downlink direction is estimated separately. • The inter-cell interference effect is estimated. Bearer is not admitted if the predicted load exceeds particular thresholds either in uplink or downlink. • In decision procedure AC will use the load information produced by the Load Control (LC) and packet scheduler (PS) functionalities of RRM.28 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Admission Control • The traffic can be divided into two groups • Real Time (RT) or non-controllable • Non-Real Time (NRT) or controllable • THUS some portion of capacity must be reserved for the RT traffic for mobility purposes all the time. The proportion between RT and NRT traffic varies all the time. Overload area Overload MarginLoad Target Estimated capacity for NRT traffic. Power Measured load caused by noncontrollable load Time 29 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Admission Control• Since it is not enough to divide the load to RT and NRT one must take into account the interference coming from surrounding cells. Traffic is divided into controllable and non-controllable traffic. Non-controllable traffic = RT users + other-cell users + noise + other NRT users which operate minimum bit rate Controllable traffic= NRT users30 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Admission Control power PrxOffset / PtxOffset PrxTarget / PtxTarget PrxTotal / PtxTotal PrxNrt / PtxNrt PrxNc / PtxNc controllable power non-controllable power time ADMISSION DECISION: ARAB request is accepted if the estimated non- controllable uplink and downlink load, measured in total received interference power and transmitted carrier power, keeps below the planned load target and the current total load below the overload threshold, defined by target and offset parameters.31 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Packet Scheduler • Packet scheduler is a general feature, which takes care of scheduling radio resources for NRT radio access bearers for both UL and DL • Admission control (AC) and packet scheduler (PS) both participate to the handling of NRT radio bearers • Packet scheduler allocates appropriate radio resources for the duration of a packet call, i.e. active data transmission. Admission control handles bit rate NR R allocat ed, packet service session T AB RACH/F ACH, DSCH or DCH allocation Packet call time Short inactive periods during Packet scheduler handles packet call32 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Resource Manager • The main function of RM is to allocate logical radio resources of NodeB according to the channel request by the RRC layer for each radio connection • The RM is located in the RNC and it works in close co-operation with the AC and the PS • The actual input for resource allocation comes from the AC /PS and RM informs the PS about the resource situation • The RM is able to switch codes and code types for different reasons such as soft handover and defragmentation of code tree. • Manages the Node B logical resources • Node B reports the available logical HW resources • Maintains the code tree, • Allocates the DL channelization codes, UL scrambling code, UL channelization code type • Allocates UTRAN Registration Area(URA) specific Radio Network Temporary Identifier(RNTI) allocated for each connection and reallocated when updating URA33 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Resource Manager • Spreading = channelization and scrambling operations (producing the signal at the chip rate, i.e. spreads the signal to the wideband) • Downlink: Scrambling code separates the cells and channelization code separates connection • The length of the channelization code is the spreading factor • All physical channels are spread with channelization codes, C m(n) and subsequently by the scrambling code, CFSCR • The code order, m and the code number, n designates each and every channellization code in the layered orthogonal code sequences. user data widespread data chanellization scrambling code code34 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management DL Primary Scrambling Code • DL Scrambling code Info is needed for Synchronization between UE and Node B for cell search & identification procedure during • call set up • handover Most Important • Cell search procedure in UE & in frame synchronization step ! • search step 1: slot synchronization to a cell • search step 2: frame synchronization & code group identification • search step 2: scrambling code identification • Each cell has its own Scrambling code (like BCCH is GSM) which need to be planned (like frequency planning in GSM) • Total 512 scrambling codes are available (0…511), they are in 64 groups, each group having 8 codes • Codes could be allocated from same group of from different groups in the planning area35 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Primary Scrambling Code • Here is how Primary Scrambling codes are seen for Planning Engineer (i=0…511) Codes 0 1 2… 63 0 0 8 16 504 1 1 9 17 505 2 2 10 18 506 3 3 11 19 507 4 4 12 20 508 5 5 13 21 509 6 6 14 22 510 7 7 15 23 511 Code Group 136 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management DL Scrambling Code Planning Rule • Scrambling code should be selected in optimum way because • It has affect to the cell search algorithm (time) • The call setup/HO performance depends on the reliability of the search procedure in cell search step 2 and 3 • There must be large enough separation (minimum reuse) between two cells using the same scrambling code (like frequency reuse in GSM) • Recommended minimum reuse is 64 • Scrambling code Planning Rule • Minimize the number of used code groups • Maximize the number of codes per group • The rule is valid in all neighbour sets in all environments37 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management DL Scrambling Code Planning Rule • Scrambling code planning is independent for each carrier layer => same codes could be used • Cell search time increases when the number of neighbours is high like in Urban area • The size of the neighbour sets should be large enough to include all useful candidates but as small as possible to maintain fast synchronization process38 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management DL Scrambling Code Planning Rule - Example PriScrCode 33 30 35 32• Area with 12 Node 34 B(1+1+1) sites 31 1 9 0 2 12 22• Assign the codes such that 18 7 9 codes form geographic 5 6 23 cluster of cells. 17 UE 8• Two code groups enough 4 0 42 up to 15 neighbours 1 6 3 1 2 25 51 2 6 14 13 0 1 Cluster of cells 11 27 having 2 code 28 12 groups 29 IntraFreqNcell ScrCode39 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Registration and Service Areas - Overview • Four Registration areas are known in UMTS • Location area (LA) in core network CS domain • Routing area (RA) in core network PS domain • UTRAN registration area (URA) in UTRAN (not visible to the core network) • Cell as the smallest entity in the UTRAN (not visible to the core network) • Service Area (SA) • Used to inform the core network about the location of a UE  location based services • UTRAN does not make use of SA40 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Location Area (LA) • LA is used for location information in the CS domain of the core network • Each cell in the network is assigned a single location area code (LAC)  No overlap between location areas. • A LA consists of a set of cells with a size of at minimum one cell and at maximum an MSC/VLR area. • A RNC may include many LAs or a LA may span over many RNC areas • When crossing the border of an LA in idle mode, the UE has to perform a location (LA) update procedure.41 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Routing Area (RA) • The RA is used for paging in PS domain of the core network • Each cell in the network is assigned a single location area code (RAC)  No overlap between routing areas. • A RA has to be a subset of a LA and cannot span upon more than one LA. • A RA has a size of at minimum one cell and at maximum a SGSN area. • When crossing the border of a RA, the UE has to perform a routing area (RA) update procedure. • A RNC may include many RAs or a RA may span over many RNC areas.42 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management UTRAN Registration Area (URA) • URA area is used inside UTRAN, but not at CN level • Each cell in the network is assigned at least one URA identifier (URAid)  Overlapping URA’s are possible • Overlapping URA’s reduces the number of URA updates for a given UE • URA consist of number of cells belonging to either one or several RNCs • URA is used to avoid high amount of cell updates for high mobility UEs. RNC commands the UE to change from CELL_PCH state to URA_PCH state  only URA updates instead of cell updates • URA update is a RRC procedure43 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Cell • A cell is the smallest entity in the UTRAN, it is not known in the core network • A cell update takes place if the UE leaves the cell border while it is in CELL_FACH, CELL_DCH or CELL_PCH state. • Cell update is a RRC procedure44 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Service Area (SA) • The SA identifies an area consisting of one or more cells beloning to the same LA • The Service Area Identifier is composed of the PLMN Identifier, the Location Area Code (LAC) and the Service Area Code (SAC). • Service Area is used for location based services • In RAN1.5 the max accuracy is the cell level • In RAN2.1 the accuracy is better -inside the cell • In RAN2.0 there is the Service Area Broadcast feature which enables information providers to submit short messages for broadcasting to a specified Service Area within the PLMN. These messages could be used for informing about e.g. PLMN news, emergencies, traffic reports, road accidents, delayed trains, weather reports, theatre programmes, telephone numbers or tariffs…45 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Radio Resource Management Impact of Registration Areas on Common Channel Traffic • LA, RA or URA size affects the amount of traffic on PCH in (paging) and on RACH and FACH (area updates) • With increasing sizes of LA, RA or URA, traffic on the PCH will increase. • The bigger the registration area, the higher the probability that extra PCH traffic is produced in a cell and the higher the PCH traffic is in that cell. • With increasing sizes of LA, RA and URA, the traffic on RACH and FACH will decrease. • The bigger the registration area, the lower the probability for a specific UE to cross an area border and therefore traffic caused by LA, RA or URA updates decreases. • The planning task is to define the registration area such, that FACH, RACH and PCH traffic is kept low while the battery liftime of the UEs is kept high.46 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Agenda – Day 2 • Radio Resource Management • Pre-Launch Optimisation • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting • RAN Sharing • Multilayer Planning47 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation - Objectives - At the end of this module you will be able to... •• List the actions which are done during pre- List the actions which are done during pre- launch optimisation launch optimisation •• List the tools which are used during pre- List the tools which are used during pre- launch optimisation launch optimisation •• List at least three parameters which could List at least three parameters which could be tuned during pre-launch optimisation be tuned during pre-launch optimisation •• Explain the three golden rules for pre- Explain the three golden rules for pre- launch optimisation launch optimisation48 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-launch Optimisation Introduction • Pre-launch Optimisation means actions to meet the defined coverage and quality criteria • Drive tests are done to test • Coverage for different data rate services • Pilot channel coverage • Soft handover areas and probabilities • Quality (BLER) • Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are defined to measure the criteria • Cell total data throughput • Call setup success rates for different services • Call drop rates • Soft Handover performance49 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-launch Optimisation Process Network Management WCDMA RAN • Nokia NetActTM for 3G • Field Tool Server configuration KPIs, counters me as u Configuration KPIs, rem ent air-interface measurements s RAN Optimisation • pre-defined procedures • semi / full automated S ta rt W in d o w A d d W in d r o w D ro p C o m p T h r e s h o ld D r o p T im e r C h a n g e 1 s t e p s i z e C h a n g e 1 s t e p s iz e C h a n g e 1 s te p s ize C h a n g e 1 s t e p s iz e N M S : C o ll e c t n e tw o rk p e rfo r m a n c e d a ta N o E v a lu a t e K P I H O O v e rh e a d . O K ? Field Tool Yes E v a l u a te a ll G o t o r e le v a n t n e tw o rk K P Is . N o o p t im is a tio n O K ? flo w - c h a r t Yes End50 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Tools • Drive test tools for Coverage verification • Agilent scanner • Nemo Technologies TOM • Ericsson TEMS • Post Processing tool for rollout verification, planning validation, infrastructure verification and network optimisation • Actix Analyzer v. 4.1 and NetAct • Network Configuration tool for Performance Info (PI, KPI) • Network Element Management Unit (Nemu) • Network protocol analyzer for troubleshooting • NetHawk • Uplink and Downlink loading tools51 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Additional terminals (if Initial Drive Testing Configuration available) used to increase network load. Hardblocking will be used to limit required RNC number of BTS Iu-CS terminals ( ATM ) Iub (ATM) STM-1 STM-1 Iu-PS (IP) Nethawk analyser A WCDMA scanner (Agilent, Nemo Technologies TOM or Ericsson TEMS) can be used for (passive) idle mode downlink measurements: • CPICH Ec/Io Extract radio parameters which are • Active set (neighbor list measurements) exchanged over the RRC protocol: • Location information • Uplink SIR target, Downlink BLER When used together with a UE (no target, UL CRC OK/NOK etc. Postprocessing (Actix and/or • NBAP monitoring) and the protocol analyzer, it can a customised tool) tool to (analysing messaging in Iub interface) be correlate the data from •Radio link Measurement report used to assess the UE behavior network and terminal side by •Dedicated RRC messages using the timestamp52 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Load Generation • Because the load situation in the network in the beginning is small, load generation is needed to simulate the situation in loaded network • In uplink there is a possibility to generate noise simply by adding noise to the UL branch to test coverage • by using the UEs which increases the the load in the cell (noise like interference) • Use X simultaneous Y kbits/s RT services to achieve the load • In downlink it is more challenging and also important since a smaller or larger part of the interference is orthogonal and it is less thermal noise like. • Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) is a mechanism used to simulate the users or control signals on the other orthogonal channels of a downlink link • OCNS is a feature candidate in RAN2.153 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Soft Handover Optimisation Example • There are few parameters that have a great influence for the Soft Handover of the network + S o ft H O O v e rh e a d u n n e c e s s a ry s o ft T o o w id e s o ft H O to o h ig h H O b ra n c h - D L T ro u g h p u t a re a a d d itio n A d d it io n W in d o w T o o s m a ll s o ft H O U L m a c r o d iv e r s it y to o lo w - U L T ro u g h p u t a re a g a in d e c r e a s e • Add Window • Drop Window + s ig n a llin g • Maximum Active Set Size fre q u e n t H O s o v e rh e a d • Drop Time • Transmission power of the CPICH channel • Replacement Window54 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Optimising Soft Handover Areas Before After Active set size “Microscopic analysis” on area of 1 km2 2 and 39 sites SHOO [%] 40 KPI improvement Degraded performance Purpose: Increase network 35 performance Target: Soft Handover Overhead at 30 30 optimal point Selected Method: adjust window_add and 25 optimal window_drop parameters parameter value Semi-optimal Result: Optimal parameter value found 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Simulation Phase55 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Optimisation Based on Statistics • Optimisation is mainly based on Nokia NetAct reports • Field measurements are used to get additional information from the pinpointed problem spots • Useful for optimisation • To locate the problem spots geographically and by network elements • To prioritise actions needed with the help of KPIs • To identify reasons for non-performance by giving information on various statistical indicators and network history • Basis for area-wide performance improvement • Area wide parameter tuning based on long-term statistics and trends • Alarms of future problems in fast-growing traffic areas • Prior notice to be able to react in time and to be prepared for network expansions56 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Dynamic Simulations for Higher Visibility Static simulations Dynamic simulations Real network “Snapshot” “Movie” “Reality” Simplified and limited Realistic Nokia Current software Algorithms algorithms, e.g no power algorithms; also future versions in use control algorithms Realistic traffic model; Traffic is low in Traffic No traffic model projection of traffic network launch growthPerformance Statistics collected from Statistics collected over Statistics collected snapshots time period from from network analysing detailed call simulations management system Propagation Ray-tracing propagation Ray-tracing propagation Multipath model with vector map model with vector map propagation Mobility Static Moving randomly or Moving in three along roads with dimensions random speed57 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Optimisation Example • Initial network plan consisted of total 59 cells, of which 24 were in micro layer and 35 were in macro layer • In the first optimisation round antenna tilts and bearings were tuned in macro cells • The sites were already optimised for GSM • Number of served users increased • outdoor users about 2.5% • indoor users about 2.6% • mixed case about 3.1% • Change of other to own cell interference i (average) • outdoor: from 0.43 to 0.44 • indoor: from 0.47 to 0.43 • mixed: from 0.43 to 0.4458 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Macro: Little i in the beginning59 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Macro: Little i after Optimisation60 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Pre-Launch Optimisation Capacity increase after Optimisation • Total number of users is 2500 both in macro and micro layers • Indoor case means that 14 dB attenuation has been used compared to outdoor • Mixed case means that 30 % mobiles are inside • Increase is more than 10 % as shown below • Biggest outage reason is the max achieved Node B power Macro layer Micro layer optimised optimised users users change users users change Outdoor 1931 2206 +14% 1486 1689 +12% Indoor 1872 2079 +11% 1559 1755 +11% mixed 1943 2211 +13% 1485 1713 +13%61 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • 3 Golden Pre-Launch Optimisation rules Optimisation Principles Make sure there is coverage Avoid unnecessary Put cells close to users overlapping Under stand Problem Overlapping of cells, no clear dominance Cell sizes do not match to user distribution No coverage Problem - High i - Outage due to BTS - Outage due to UE power indicator - Low capacity power or uplink load - Outage due to DL link in Planning - High soft handover - Other cell do not Detect Tool overhead collect traffic power - High noise rise while Problem - Blocking in some cells - Dropped calls low throughput in UL indicator - Other cells do not - Bad quality - High soft handover in network collect traffic - Low bit rates for packets overhead Solve - Antenna downtilt - De-Splitting => 2 cells - Antenna tilting - More sites Solutions - Remove sites - CPICH adjustment - Higher link power in DL - SHO parameters? Check Results?? - 10-20% higher capacity - 10-20% higher capacity - Cells collect traffic more equally62 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Agenda – Day 2 • Radio Resource Management • Pre-Launch Optimisation • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting • RAN Sharing • Multilayer Planning63 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family - Objectives - At the end of this module you will be able to... •• Name all Nokia Node B‘s with their Name all Nokia Node B‘s with their maximum configuration maximum configuration •• Explain the signal flow through a Node B Explain the signal flow through a Node B •• Locate the Node B units in a cabinet Locate the Node B units in a cabinet •• Describe different HW configuration Describe different HW configuration possibilities for a Node B possibilities for a Node B •• List all antenna system components List all antenna system components64 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Overview Complete Nokia WCDMA BTS Family for every need • Nokia UltraSiteTM WCDMA BTS for all indoor and outdoor environments • Nokia MetroSiteTM WCDMA BTS for "siteless" installations • Triple-mode Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS for joint GSM and WCDMA networks Nokia Nokia UltraSite Nokia UltraSite Nokia UltraSite Triple-modeMetroSite WCDMA BTS WCDMA BTS WCDMA BTS Nokia UltraSiteWCDMA Optima Optima Compact Supreme EDGE BTS BTS Indoor Outdoor Indoor Outdoor Indoor Outdoor 65 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family UltraSite Optima CompactSmall high capacity WCDMA BTS with integrated battery back-up • freedom in single cabinet configurations – 6 WCDMA carriers and IBBU OR 12 WCDMA carriers • 3 or even 6 sector configurations supported with single cabinet – 3 sectors with IBBU OR 6 sectorsWidest service area • excellent RF performance – output power 10/20/40 W • optimized for Nokia Smart Radio Concept – 2+2+2 with SRC UL/DL supported with one cabinet without IBBUSingle cabinet solution for quick roof-top installations • unobtrusive in roof-top installations due to low cabinet height Outdoor – cabinet height 1300 mm • 1300 x 1200 x 790 • minimum floor space when battery back-up is needed mm – footprint less than 1m2 (790 x 1200 mm) • outdoor cabinet • -33°C ... +50 °C • IP5566 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family UltraSite Optima Compact with RF Extension67 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family •Rectifiers: 3 x Optima Compact with IBBU Extension UltraSite BATA 3.9 kW DC • Power Distribution Unit (PDU) • Common Control Unit (CCUA) • LTE space: 3 x HU • Batteries: 90 Ah (@ 48 V68 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family UltraSite Optima Indoor Widest service area • excellent RF performance – output power 10/20/40 W • cost optimized solution for network roll-out Highest possible capacity for every bandwidth • designed to fully occupy 10 MHz band – 2+2+2 supported with 1 cabinet Fits to every site • minimized site requirements due to compact size – indoor cabinet 1100 x 600 x 600 mm (H x W x D) Indoor • cabinet for indoor installations • 1100 x 600 x 600 mm • -5°C ... +50 °C • IP2069 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family UltraSite Supreme High-capacity multimedia BTS • supports 6 sectored solutions • up to 12 WCDMA carriers per cabinet • cabinet chaining for extreme configurations – chaining of 4 cabinets supported • optimal for operators with 15 MHz band or more – 1 cabinet supports up to 4+4+4 with 20W configurations Widest service area • excellent RF performance – output power 10/20/40 W • full support for Nokia Smart Radio Concept – 2+2+2 with SRC UL/DL supported with one cabinet Minimized footprint • smallest foot print per WCDMA carrier – indoor cabinet footprint 600 x 600 mm for 12 WCDMA carriers Outdoor – outdoor cabinet footprint 770 x 790 mm for 12 WCDMAIndoor • 1940 x 770 x 790 carriers • 1800 x 600 x 600 mm mm • cabinets for indoor and outdoor installations • -5°C ... +50 °C • -33°C ... +50 °C • IP20 • IP5570 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family MetroSite WCDMA "Siteless" WCDMA BTS appropriate for many different applications • cost-effective road-side coverage • in-fill coverage • indoor services • targeted coverage and capacity for hot spots • multi-layer networks Revolutionary all-in-one solution • smallest 2 carrier WCDMA BTS • everything integrated in a single cabinet – base station, integrated transmission, integrated antenna and short-term mains failure protection • common cabinet for indoor and outdoor installations Macro BTS RF performance in micro BTS size • as good RX sensitivity as in Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS – output power 8 W • 996 x 270 x 392 mm • -33°C ... +50 °C • IP5571 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family 14 UltraSite EDGE/WCDMA Configurations 13 • 1+1+1, 8W • 2+2+2, 4W BTS capacity • max. 10 Mbit/s per cabinet KEY: 1 Wideband Transceiver unit (WTR) 1 2 Wideband Power Amplifier unit (WMP) 2 1 5 3 Wideband Input Combiner unit (WIC) 4 Wideband Antenna Filter unit (WAF) Other features 2 6 7 5 Wideband Suming and Multiplexing unit (WSM) 6 Wideband Application Manager unit (WAM) • 6 GSM/EDGE TRXs and 1 8 11 7 Wideband Signal Processor unit (WSP) 8 Wideband Power Supply unit (WPS) WCDMA carriers or 12 3 2 1 0 9 Wideband System Clock unit (WSC) 10 ATM Multiplexer unit (AXU) GSM/EDGE TRXs in single 4 4 4 9 11 Interface unit (IFU) 12 Wideband Fan Module (WFA) 13 Transmission unit (VXxx) cabinet 12 14 Bias Tee unit (BPxx) • tri- sectored solutions • 2-port uplink diversity as standardIndoor Outdoor • AC or DC power feed• 1800 x 600 x 570 mm 1940 x 770 x 750 mm •• -5°C ... +50 °C • -33°C ... +50 °C• IP20 • IP5572 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Unit Positions in UltraSite Supreme WEA (1pc) External Alarm WAF (6pcs) Unit Antenna Filter WPA (6pcs) Power Amplifier WTR (6pcs) Transmitter & WIC Receiver (3pcs) Input WSC Combiner (2pcs) WSM (3pcs) System Clock Summing & IFU (5pcs) Multiplexing Interface WSP Unit (18pcs) AXU (1pc) ATM Cross-connect Unit Signal WAM (6pcs) Processor Application Manager WPS (3pcs) Power Suppy73 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Optima and Optima Compact Configurations Optima Number of Output power Max. HW channel Max. HW channel WPA version Configuration cabinets per carrier capacity / HW Rel.1 capacity / HW Rel.2 1 carrier omni 1 20W 384 768 20W 3 sector 1 1 20W 384 768 20W carrier (1+1+1) 2+2+2 1 20W 384 768 40W 2+2+2 1 10W 384 768 20W Optima Number of Output power Max. HW channel Max. HW channel WPA version Compact cabinets per carrier capacity / HW Rel.1 capacity / HW Rel.2 Configuration 1 carrier omni 1 20W 384 768 20W 1+1+1 1 20W 384 768 20W 1+1+1+1+1+1 1 20W 384 768 20W 2+2+2 1 20W 384 768 20/40W 4+4+4* 1 20W 384 768 40W 2+2+2+2+2+2* 1 20W 384 768 40W *Available in Release 274 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Supreme and Triple-Mode Configurations Supreme Number of Output power Max. HW channel Max. HW channel WPA version Configuration cabinets per carrier capacity / HW Rel.1 capacity / HW Rel.2 1 carrier omni 1 20W 576 1152 20W 1+1+1 1 20W 576 1152 20W 1+1+1 1 40W 576 1152 20/40W 1+1+1+1+1+1 1 20W 576 1152 20W 2+2+2 1 20W 576 1152 20/40W 4+4+4* 1 20W 576 1152 40W 2+2+2+2+2+2* 1 20W 576 1152 40W 4+4+4+4+4+4* 2 20W 1152 2304 40W Triple- Mode Number of Output power Max. HW channel Max. HW channel Configuration cabinets per carrier capacity / HW Rel.1 capacity / HW Rel.2 1+1+1 1 8W 160 320 2 + 2 + 2* 1 4W 160 320 *Available in Release 275 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Signal Flow ATM Cross Connect ATM Switching from/to other BS/RNC Power Amplifier Signal Processor Linear amplification of 1 RAKE Receiver, (De-) to 4 carriers Spreading, Channel coding, ... Interface Unit Termination point for transmission Tx R F BB R x B i- d ir e c tio n a l fr o m /to a d j. C LK W SM fro m /to 2 ./3 . W A M W P A W IC W TR AXU IF U W SM W W W Iu b T x /R x S S S W AF P P P R x D iv to W T R o f 2 . c a r r ie r fro m W T R o f 2 . fro m /to W T R o f 2 . C L K fro m /to o th e r c a r r ie r W AM W SC c a b in e t( s ) c a r r ie r fr o m /to a d j. W SM System Clock C L K to W S M / Baseband reference W TR clocks. Synchronises Summing & Muliplexing Summing Tx-Samples with Iub from WSP. Distributing Rx-Samples from WTR to all WSP Application Manager ATM termination point Contol functions for BS Transmitter & Receiver Modulation/Demodulation, Tx power control, Rx Antenna Filter Input Combiner power measurements Filters, amplifies and 2-way combiner & 2- devides the Rx-signal way devider76 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family 1+1+1 (20/carrier) without SRC W PA Tx R x R x W TR W W W W W SM S S S A AXU IF U P P P M Iu b W AF W IC RF section will change for SRC W PA Tx R x configurations R x W TR W W W W W SM S S S A P P P M W AF W IC W PA Tx R x R x W TR W W W W W SM S S S A P P P M W AF W IC77 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Uplink SRC – 1 Carrier 20W A n t1 W PA Tx R x R x M a in R x W TR R x D iv 1 W AF C a r r ie r 1 A n t2 W IC Tx R x R x D iv 2 R x W TR R x D iv 3 W AF78 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Uplink & Downlink SRC – 1 Carrier, 20W/Branch Tx1 A n t1 W PA Tx R x R x M a in R x W TR R x D iv 1 W AF C a r r ie r 1 W PA A n t2 Tx2 W IC Tx R x R x D iv 2 R x W TR R x D iv 3 W AF79 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Uplink & Downlink SRC – 2 Carriers, 20W/Branch W PA Txsum Tx R x C a r r ie r 1 R x Tx R x C a r r ie r 2 R x W TR W AF Note: W PA Requires Release 2 W IC Units Txsum Tx R x C a r r ie r 1 R x Tx R x C a r r ie r 2 R x W AF W TR80 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Upgrade Path Add Add Add LPA Increased LPA 2 carriers/ LPAs 3 2 carriers/ 2nd carrier power sector sector 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 2x10 W R 2x10 W O 2x20 W R 2x20 W O 6x10 W C 6x10 W E 6x20 W C 6x20 W E 80 Erl 80 Erl C 100 Erl C 100 Erl 240 Erl C 240 Erl 300 Erl 300 Erl C Add • 2 carriers/BTS • 2 carriers/BTS • 2 carriers/sect • 2 carriers/sect 3 TRXs •10W/carrier • 20W/carrier • 10W/carrier • 20W/carrier • 40 Erl/carrier • 50 Erl/carrier • 40 Erl/carrier • 50 Erl/carrier Increased Add 1st carrier power 1 carrier/sector 3 TRXs 1+1+1 1+1+1 1+1+1 1+1+1 R 1+1+1 1+1+1 C 20 W 20 W R 40 W 40 W O 3x20 W E 3x20 W 50 Erl O 60 Erl C 150 Erl C 50 Erl C 60 Erl 150 Erl • roll-out phase 1Add • 1 carrier/BTS 1Add • 1 carrier/sect LPA LPA •1 carrier/BTS • 40W/carrier • 20W/carrier • 50 Erl/carrier • 60 Erl/carrier • 50 Erl/carrier81 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Nokia SRC Capacity Growth Path 4-way diversity for maximum cell coverage2nd carrier • downlink diversity for enhanced capacity • +60% capacity DL diversity gain +75% 2+2+2 4-way UL div capacity 2 x 20W gain 336Erl +3 dB 1+1+1 coverage gain 2 x 20W • 6 dual- TRXs - 20% 210Erl • 6LPAs capacity 1+1+1 20W •56 Erl/carrier • 3 dual- TRXs 120Erl • 6LPAs 1+1+1 • 70Erl/carrier 20W 150Erl • 6TRXs or • 3 dual- TRXs •without SRC • 3LPAs •50 Erl/carrier •40 Erl/carrier82 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Antenna System - Overview • The WCDMA UltraSite Antenna System contains the follwing components • Antennas • WCDMA Masthead Amplifiers (MHA) • Bias-T, supplies WCDMA MHA with DC power through feeder cable, provides lightning protection (can also be used w/o MHA) • EMP Protector, lightning protection, only needed if no Bias- T is used • Diplexers, combining/dividing two bands such as WCDMA and GSM to a common feeder line • Triplexers, combining/dividing three bands such as WCDMA GSM1800 and GSM900 to a common feeder line • Feeder and Jumper cables, Grounding kits83 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Antenna System – WCDMA Panels WCDMA Broadband Antennas Weight Frequency Range Gain Beam Antenna Type Dimensions Downtilt (kg) (MHz) (dBi) Width CS72761.01 XPol F-Panel 342/155/69 mm 2.0 1710-2170 12.5 65° 2° CS72761.02 XPol F-Panel 1302/155/69 mm 6.0 1710-2170 18.5 65° 2° CS72761.05 Xpol F-Panel 1302/155/69 mm 7.5 1710-2170 17 88° 0°..8° CS72761.07 XPol F-Panel 1942/155/69 mm 10.0 1710-2170 19.5 65° 0°..6° CS72761.08 XPol F-Panel 1302/155/69 mm 7.5 1710-2170 18 65° 0°..8° CS72761.09 XPol F-Panel 662/155/69 mm 3.5 1710-2170 15.5 65° 0°..10° WCDMA Narrowbeam Antennas Weight Frequency Range Gain Beam Antenna Type Dimensions Downtilt (kg) (MHz) (dBi) Width CS727762.01 XPol F-Panel 1302/299/69 mm 12.0 1900-2170 21 30 0°..8° WCDMA Dual Broadband Antennas (WCDMA/GSM1800 or SRC) Weight Frequency Range Gain Beam Antenna Type Dimensions Downtilt (kg) (MHz) (dBi) Width CS72764.01 XXPol F-Panel 1302/299/69 mm 12.0 1710-2170 18.5/18.5 65°/65° 0°..8°/0°..8° CS72764.02 XXPol F-Panel 1302/299/69 mm 12.0 1710-2170 17/17 85°/85° 0°..8°/0°..8° WCDMA Omni Antennas Weight Frequency Range Gain Beam Antenna Type Dimensions Downtilt (kg) (MHz) (dBi) Width CS727760 Omni 1570/148/112 mm 5.0 1920-2170 11 360° --84 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Antenna System - Mast Head Amplifier • Technical Data Sheet: Gain, RX band Nominal gain of 12 dB +/- 0.5 dB room Ripple +/- 0.9 dB all temps Insertion Loss 0.6 dB 0 dB within 20 MHz of Response, other freqs passband Passive Intermodulation Products MHA Input Dynamic Range PIM level in RX band -119 dBm / 200 kHz 3rd-order intercept 10 dBm PIM level in TX band -37 dBm / 200 kHz 1dB compression -5 dBm Rated Power at Ports Noise Figure 2 dB ANT port in-band 5 dBm out-of-band 20 dBm Return Loss, ANT and BTS ports BTS port avg 46 dBm in-band RX band 16 dB peak 62 dBm in-band TX band 18 dB Group delay distortion 20 ns over 5 MHZ Critical Input RX filter rejections GSM1800, 1805-1880 65 dB DC Power supplied UMTS TX, 2110-2170 71 dB 7.0 - 8.6V, UltraSite/MetroSite Voltage Critical TX filter rejections 11 - 13 V , CoSited BTS UMTS RX, 1920-1980 65 dB Nominal current 190 mA Max. current 350 mA Alarm Setting Conditions Bypass Mode Alarm current range 200 - 300 mA Insertion Loss 3 dB Switch time 100 msec Return Loss 12 dB85 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Antenna System - Diplexers / Triplexers • Unit types •Nokia Triplexer Unit •Nokia GSM 900 / WCDMA Diplexer Unit •Nokia GSM 1800 / WCDMA Diplexer Unit •Selectable DC pass function in each unit • Technical Data Sheet: RF Performance Insertion Loss, 0.3 dB Port - Common Isolation, port to 50 dB port Return Loss, any >18 dB port Passive Intermodulation Nokia Triplexer GSM RX band -116 dBm WCDMA BTS Rated Power at Ports GSM 900 BTS GSM 120 W avg 1.44 kW peak UMTS 55 W avg 2.15 kW peak GSM 1800 BTS86 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Antenna System – Bias-T RF Performance • Function Insertion loss 0.3 dB • Provides DC power for MHA Return loss 18 dB through feeder line Rated power 55 W avg, 2.2 kW peak • Lightning protection Alarm Signal VSWR alarm 7 dB nominal • Features threshold +/- 2 dB tolerance • Fault monitoring of MHA and no alarm: 0 V, 50 mA max Logic Antenna line alarmed : 3.3V, 0 mA • Fowards alarms to WAF Response time 0.5 sec • Low insertion loss (<0.3dB) no RF power, high VSWR (no Alarm indicates: • Can be installed on mast or in any DC power implied) DC and Signal WCDMA UltraSite cabinet Voltage drop 0.5 V Rated power 7.5 - 9.1V, 350 mA max DC supply via: RJ-45 from BTS Ins loss @ 1 MHz 3 dB87 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Antenna System - Feeders Diameter Weight Min. Bending Attenuation Feeder Type (inch) (kg/m) Radius (mm) @ 2170MHz (dB/100m) Single RepeatedCS72251 1/2 0.35 80 160 11.9CS72252 7/8 0.55 120 250 6.52CS72254 1 5/8 1.45 250 500 4.0588 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family Upgrades to Current GSM Antennas 150 mm 150 mm Upgrade :Current : space + 1300 mmspace polarizationdiversity diversity Space diversity improves performance 0.5..1.0 dB compared to single radome. The gain of 2.5 dB assumes single radome. 260 mm Current : Upgrade: polarization 2 x polarization diversity diversity within one radome89 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family SRC Antenna Solutions 2 pcs X-pol 2 pcs X-pol One SRC One SRC 2 pcs X-pol 2 pcs X-pol antennas per antennas per antenna per antenna per antennas per antennas per sector up to 3 sector installed sector. The sector. The sector up to 3 sector installed m apart form next to each number of number of m apart form next to each each other others antennas does antennas does each other others not increase. not increase.90 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Agenda – Day 2 • Radio Resource Management • Pre-Launch Optimisation • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting • RAN Sharing • Multilayer Planning91 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting - Objectives - At the end of this module you will be able to... •• Describe what can cause interference in Describe what can cause interference in WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting •• Describe the different antenna system Describe the different antenna system sharing solutions sharing solutions •• Describe the meaning of coupling loss and Describe the meaning of coupling loss and isolation criteria in shared antennas isolation criteria in shared antennas •• List the aspects having influence to the List the aspects having influence to the overall network quality overall network quality •• Explain the impact of site & antenna Explain the impact of site & antenna location to the network quality location to the network quality92 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Co-Siting Example: UltraSite & Citytalk GSM Site Space for 3 cabinets GSM 2+2+2 GSM 2+2+2 GSM WCDMA 2+2+2 WCDMA 2+2+2 2+2+2 2+2+2 (10 W) (10 W) •Base Station Equipment: • Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Suppreme with 6 Carriers, • Nokia Citytalk BTS with 6 TRXs. •Transmission Equipment: • Nokia FlexiHopper Microwave Radio •Separate Antennalines and Shared Antennas: • 3 pcs GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol antennas 65 deg • Optional: Mast Head Amplifiers for one or both networks •Nokia UltraSite Support: • 7.8 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy • up to 180 Ah battery capacity • Backup time 1 hour •Site Environmental Data: • Footprint (Width mm x Depth mm) •Indoor: 1800 mm x 620 mm •Outdoor: 2310 mm x 1110mm • Weight: Indoor 1030 kg, Outdoor 1290 kg93 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Co-Siting Example: UltraSite & Citytalk94 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Co-Siting Example: UltraSite & Citytalk GSM Site Space for 4 cabinets GSM 2+2+2 GSM 2+2+2 GSM W 4+4+4+4+4+4 W 4+4+4+4+4+4 2+2+2 2+2+2 (10 W) (10 W) •Base Station Equipment: • 2 pcs Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme with 12 carriers in each, • Citytalk GSM BTS with 6 TRXs. •Transmission Equipment: • Nokia UltraHopper Microwave Radio •Separate Antennalines and Shared Antennas: • 3 pcs GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol 65 deg/33 deg, • 3 pcs WCDMA X-pol 33 deg antennas • Optional: Mast Head Amplifiers for one or both networks •UltraSite Support: • 14.3 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy • up to 180 Ah battery capacity • Backup time 1 hour •Site Environmental Data: • Footprint (Width mm x Depth mm) •Indoor: 2400 mm x 620 mm •Outdoor: 3080 mm x 1110mm • Weight: Indoor 1320 kg, Outdoor 1650 kg95 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Interference from Other System • GSM spurious emissions and intermodulation results of GSM 1800 interfere WCDMA receiver sensitivity • WCDMA spurious emissions interfere GSM receiver sensitivity • GSM transmitter blocks WCDMA receiver • WCDMA transmitter blocks GSM receiver GSM GSM UMTS UMTS 1800 UL 1800 DL UL DL 40 1710-1785 1805-1880 MHz 1920-1980 2110-2170 MHz MHz MHz MHz96 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Interference from Other System • Two main reasons to isolate GSM and WCDMA • Blocking • Sensitivity • GSM1800 BTS can have up to -105.5 NEW spec: -96 dBm / 0.1 MHz -96 dBm / 0.1 MHz = -80 dBm / 4 MHz (relation to 3,84 Mchips) spurious emissions at the -106 antenna connector1 Noise Power (dBm) • Thermal noise floor of the -106.5 WCDMA band is -108 dBm => in theory -108 dBm - (-80 dBm) = -107 28 dB isolation needed between GSM1800 and WCDMA -107.5 -108 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Antenna Isolation (dB) More information: TS 25.104 and GSM 05.05 197 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Harmonic distortion • Harmonic distortion can be a problem in the case of co-siting of GSM900 and WCDMA. • GSM900 DL frequencies are 935 - 960 MHz and second harmonics may fall into the WCDMA TDD band and into the lower end of the FDD band. • 2nd harmonics 2nd harmonics can be filtered out at the output fGSM = 950 - 960 MHz of GSM900 ... BTS. GSM900 WCDMAWCDMA FDD 935 - 960 MHz TDD 1920 - 1980 f 1900 -192098 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN MHz
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting IM Distortion from GSM1800 DL to WCDMA UL • GSM1800 IM3 (3 means • For active elements IM third order) products are products levels are higher hitting into the WCDMA than IM products produced FDD UL RX band if by passive components fIM3 = 2f2 - f1 • Typical IM3 suppression • 1862.6 ≤ f2 ≤ 1879.8 MHz values for power amplifiers • 1805.2 ≤ f1 ≤ 1839.6 MHz are -30 … -50 dBc depending on frequency f1 f2 spacing and offset • Typical values for passive X dBc fIM3 elements are -100 … -160 dBc GSM1800 GSM1800 WCDMA WCDMA UL DL UL DL 1710 - 1785 MHz 1805 - 1880 MHz 40 MHz 1920 - 1980 MHz 2110 - 2170 MHz99 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA• Horizontal separation between antennas• By proper antenna placement 50dB isolation reachable• No deterioration in performance if GSM BTS compliant with -96dBm GSM BTS WCDMA BS100 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA• Nokias diplexer/triplexer combines GSM/WCDMA to one feeder cable Multiband Antenna• Diplexer/Triplexer isolation > 50dB• No deterioration in performance if GSM BTS compliant with -96dBm Nokia Diplexer/ Triplexer GSM BTS WCDMA BS101 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA• Multipanel Antenna in use• Antenna isolation >30dB• General GSM requirements Multiband Antenna fulfilled if GSM BTS compliant with -96dBm GSM BTS WCDMA BS102 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Spurious Emissions from GSM to WCDMA•Worst case scenario Multiband Antenna•>30dB isolationassumption•GSM BTS spuriousemissions comply "oldspec." -30dBm Addiotional filter needed Non-compliant GSM BTS WCDMA BS103 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Separate Antenna Lines Typical Requirement for Minimum Coupling Loss between GSM and WCDMA antennas: Nokia equipment 30 dB Other 50 dB Without Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers With Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers Antennas Antennas for GSM for WCDMA Nokia MHAs Nokia MHAs for for GSM WCDMA GSM BTS WCDMA BTS Nokia Bias-Ts NokiaBias-Ts104 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN GSM BTS WCDMA BTS
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Shared Antenna Lines with Separate Antennas Typical Isolation Requirement for diplexers used with: Nokia equipment 30 dB Other 50 dB Without Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers ith Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers W GSM Antenna WCDMA Antenna GSM Antenna WCDMA Antenna Nokia MHAs for GSM Nokia WCDMA MHAs Nokia Outdoor Bias-Ts Separate DC feed Nokia GSM / WCDMA Nokia GSM/WCDMA for new Nokia MHAs Diplexer Units Diplexer Units with Selectable DC pass Nokia Bias-Ts GSM BTS WCDMA BTS105 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN GSM BTS WCDMA BTS
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Shared Antenna Lines with Shared Antennas Without Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers With Nokia Mast Head Amplifiers GSM/WCDMA Dual Band GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-polarized antenna with X-polarized antenna with 4 antenna connectors 2 antenna connectors (Separate Elements for both (1800/WCDMA wideband element Systems)) or built in diplexer function) Nokia Outdo or Bias- GSM/WCDMA Ts Diplexer Units inside Nokia GSM/WCDMA GSM BTS cabinet Diplexer Units with Separate DC feed Selectable DC pass for new Nokia MHAs GSM BTS WCDMA BTS Nokia Bias-Ts GSM BTS WCDMA BTS106 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Antenna Isolation Measurement Example: Horizontal Antenna A Antenna B (fixed) UMTS Front View GSM1800 horizontal separation distance Side View direction of radiation 1000mm 2000mm 400mm 650mm Figure 5. Sketch of measurement configuration107 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Antenna Isolation Measurement Example: Horizontal GSM1800 65 deg to UMTS 65 deg Horizontal co-polar measurements 75.00 70.00 65.00 1900MHz Isolation (dB) 1950MHz 60.00 1980MHz 55.00 50dB marker 50.00 45.00 40.00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 .. 0. 3. 6. 9. 1. 2. 4. 5. 7. 8. 1. Distance (m)108 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Antenna isolation measurements II: Vertical Antenna B UMTS Antenna A GSM1800 (fixed) 10m Figure 11. Sketch of measurement configuration109 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Antenna isolation measurements II: Vertical GSM1800 115 deg to UMTS 65 deg 85.00 Noise Floor Noise Floor 80.00 75.00 Isolation (dB) 70.00 1900MHz 1950MHz 65.00 1980MHz 60.00 55.00 50.00 25 50 25 50 0 75 0 0 0 0. 0. 0. 1. 1. 0. 1. Distance (m)110 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Planning Rules in Co-siting • Isolation requirement • With Nokia equipment 30 dB • Without Nokia equipment 50 dB • GSM- WCDMA co-siting is possible if antenna isolation requirement is fulfilled • By proper antenna placement • minimum Horizontal distance (~0.3 m) • minimum Vertical distance (0.25 m) • Di- or triplexer is needed in case feeder and antenna is shared between different systems • Tighter filtering is needed in Antenna line of Non-compliant GSM BTS to avoid the TX power interference to WCDMA Rx • Careful frequency planning in GSM wont cause interference to WCDMA111 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment • Assessment means the evaluation existing 2G sites & antenna system and possible interference situation for 2G/3G Co-siting Network Assessment Network Planning & Site Acquisition Civil Imp Design Integrate. Works112 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment - Network QualityRequested Network Qualityas guaranteed KPI values =Equipment Quality +Network Implementation Quality + Network Planning TRNetwork Planning Quality PS S Quality CS Co Co re Network Implementation Quality re RF Equipment Quality Network Quality does NOT depend only from network planning113 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment - Dominance & little i 128 kbps BTS TX power 43 dBm 170 i = 0.2 MS TX power 21 dBm D i = 0.2 Maximum propagation loss (dB) i = 0.4 Ec/Io -16.5 dB 165 C i = 0.4 i = 0.6 BTS Eb/No 1.5 B i = 0.6 160 i = 0.8 MS Eb/No 5.5 A i = 0.8 Other to own cell 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, interference ratio i 155 0.8 A B C D Orthogonality 0.6 150 Channel profile ITU Vehicular A, 3 km/h MS speed 3 km/h 145 MS/BTS NF 8 dB / 4 dB Antenna gain 16 dBi 140 0 500 1000 1500 DL throughput in kbps • Doubling of the "little i" will cause114 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN throughput to decrease to 70% of the
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment - Question Which one of the sites is suitable for 3G ?115 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment - Answer• Low other to own cell interference can be achieved by planning clear dominance areas:• The cell coverage (and overlap) must be < 300 m properly controlled. The cell should cover only what it is supposed to cover • Low(er) antenna heights and down tilt of the antennas • Use buildings and other environmental structures to isolate cells coverage > 3 km • Use indoor solutions to take advantage of the building penetration loss• Avoid sites "seeing" the buildings in horizon especially over the water or otherwise open area (due to huge interference)116 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment - Impact of tilting Cell B - downhill gradient Cell A - uphill gradient Connnected to over 15 neighbours ! significantly relatively greater catchment limited area catchment area • Too high “visibility” across the network The obvious solution is to increase the antenna downtilt to • Has low capacity due to restrict the cell footprint to a huge inter-cell more reasonable area interference and SHO117 © NOKIA overheadDATE / NN FILENAMs.PPT/
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Network Assessment - Check List Problem indication Problem indication Basic rules Basic rules Solutions Solutions if rule is not applied if rule is not applied Dropped calls Dropped calls(1) Make sure (1) Make sure Bad quality Bad quality Do not use this site Do not use this sitethere is coverage there is coverage Low bit rates Low bit rates Not clear dominance area Not clear dominance area 1. Use Antenna tilting 1. Use Antenna tilting (2) Avoid unnecessary (2) Avoid unnecessary ⇒ High inter-cell interference ⇒ High inter-cell interference 2. Put Antennas lower 2. Put Antennas lower overlapping of cells overlapping of cells ⇒ Low capacity ⇒ Low capacity 3. Do not use the site 3. Do not use the site Users at the cell edge Users at the cell edge (3) Locate cells (3) Locate cells ⇒ high inter-cell interference 1. Use Different site 1. Use Different site close to users ⇒ high inter-cell interference 2. Use Antenna tilting close to users ⇒ high soft handover overhead ⇒ high soft handover overhead 2. Use Antenna tilting (4) Make cell sizes (4) Make cell sizes Blocking in some cells, Blocking in some cells, 1. Use Antenna tilting 1. Use Antenna tilting match user distribution match user distribution others do not collect traffic others do not collect traffic 2. Do not use the Site 2. Do not use the Site118 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Co-siting Optimisation Example • WCDMA 1900 Network • Identified places for optimisation • Urban area:high other-cell interference • Rural area: a few sites collecting a lot of interference • Optimisation approaches • Antenna down tilting • Antenna lowering119 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Co-siting Optimisation Example - Rural Area • 27 sites, 49 cells • Omni, 2-sector and 3-sector sites • Varying antenna heights • Area 15 km x 15 km • On average 8 km2 per site • Terrain: hilly with waters120 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Co-siting Optimisation Example - Urban Area • 16 sites, 48 cells • All 3-sector sites • similar height • Area 10 km x 12 km • On average 7 km2 per site • Terrain: flat without waters121 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting 5 Degree Downtilt Everywhere - Capacity • Down tilting everywhere improved capacity in urban area by 13%, but reduced slightly capacity in the rural area • The urban area benefited from down tilting because of high overlapping of the cells before optimisation (=high i) Optimization Effect Before Optim After Optim 2000 Number of Users 1500 1000 500 0 Rural Urban122 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting 5 Degree Downtilt Everywhere - Coverage • Coverage probability got lower in urban area after downtilting Optimisation 2 branch Rx diversity Indoor coverage Outdoor coverage (+20 dB loss) Rural before after before after Speech 12.2 kbps 95% 89% 40% 37% Data 64 kbps 85% 77% 22% 22% Data 144 kbps 78% 68% 15% 16% Urban before after before after Speech 12.2 kbps 99.9% 99.9% 74% 61% Data 64 kbps 99.8% 98.6% 46% 38% Data 144 kbps 99.1% 96.2% 33% 29% Coverage % reduced after downtilting123 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Optimisation Affects Neighbouring Sites • Those sites which suffered are close to the optimised sites • Also the surrounding sites should be considered in the optimisation performance decreased optimised site124 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Little i After Optimisation – Urban Area • After optimisation the little i is more uniform in all cells, i.e. the performance of the worst cells has clearly improved • Average little i 1.3 → 0.78125 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Number of Users After Optimisation – Urban Area Worst cells clearly improved • After optimisation the number of users per cell is more uniform in all cells, i.e. the performance of the worst cells has clearly improved • Average number of users 36 → 41 (i.e. capacity increase ~13%)126 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting Soft Handover Overhead After Optimisation Soft Hand-Off Overhead and Probability (Original) Soft Hand-Off Overhead and Probability (Optim) 45% Rural 45% Rural 40% Urban 40% Urban 35% 35% 30% 30% 25% 25% 20% 20% 15% 15% 10% 10% 5% 5% 0% 0% SHOProb. Soft(+er)HOverhead SHOverhead AreaProb% SHOProb. Soft(+er)HOverhead SHOverhead AreaProb% • Soft handover overhead is reduced after optimisation in urban area since the cell overlapping (=little i) is reduced • Soft handover probability reduced 30% → 26% • Soft handover overhead reduced 39% → 33%127 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Agenda – Day 2 • Radio Resource Management • Pre-Launch Optimisation • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting • RAN Sharing • Multilayer Planning128 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • RAN Sharing - Objectives - At the end of this module you will be able to... •• Explain the meaning of RAN sharing and Explain the meaning of RAN sharing and its key benefits its key benefits •• Explain what network elements are Explain what network elements are possible to be shared in RAN possible to be shared in RAN •• Describe the most important network Describe the most important network planning issues to be taken into account in planning issues to be taken into account in RAN sharing RAN sharing129 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • RAN Sharing Overview • Network sharing, i.e. one network operator provides the entire network for certain areas with the other acting as a MVNO (Mobile Virtual Network Operator). • No impact on the radio network dimensioning • Geographical network sharing, i.e. one operator south, one north • No impact on the radio network dimensioning • Site sharing, i.e. sharing new or existing sites including antennas, site support systems and potentially transmission • No impact on the radio network dimensioning • RAN sharing (Multioperator RAN), i.e. sharing the entire RAN in a specific area where the amount of traffic is predicted to be low, so that it does not make economically sense to build independent networks130 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • RAN Sharing From Site Sharing to RAN Sharing Scope of sharing: • Sharing of RNCs and BTSs: • RNC • Initial coverage with low service • Site environment demand • BTS Equipment space (cabinet) • Low-traffic areas • SiteSupportSystem • Places with limited BTS sites, e.g. • Transmission subways • Antenna and feeders (optional) • Fewer sites with larger Cost savings in configurations when • Civil works • Environmental impact counts • Equipment (feeders, antennas, BBU) Up to 4 operators with own: • Annual rents • Core networks • Site acquisition( hunting, • Services permissions etc) • Network Management System • Operational costs • Dedicated RAN from any vendor in • Transmission (and transmission non-shared areas management)131 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • RAN Sharing Concept Operator 1 CS CN MNC 1 Operator 1 Frequency 1 PS CN Shared RNC MNC 1 Shared BTS Operator 2 Frequency 2 CS CN MNC 2 Operator 2 MNC 2 PS CN 3) dedicated BTS for each operator OSS of one operator or Multi-RAN OSS 1) cabinet, BB, WAF, WPA shared dedicated WTRReqired: Frequencies within 20MHz band! 2) cabinet and BB shared dedicated WAF,WPA, WTR132 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • RAN Sharing Concept. Sharing whole BTS including WPA: WPA ANT1/1 WAF 28/50 W WTR D TX P RX ANT2/1 Operator specific X RX WTR TX Common Antennasystem RX RX WAF and WPA NOTE: Frequencies need to be within 20 MHz band2. Cabinet and BB shared: WPA D 28/50 W WTR ANT1/1 TX P RX X RX Operator specific WAF WPA WTR, WPA and 28/50 W ANT2/1 D WTR TX WAF P RX X RX - no frequency restriction Common Antennasystem - higher outputpower per carrier (feeders, antennas, MHA´s) - with Rel.2 units up to 4+4+4/20W per carrier 133 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • RAN Sharing How Operators can work with shared RAN ? • Each Operator has own • PLMN -id • Carrier Frequency • RRM parameters & traffic Monitoring • Neighbour cell lists (own Inter-System HO decisions) • Operators may add independently BTS where they want to provide better coverage or more capacity • Due to own Frequencies and PLMN-id. • Operator specific cell is possible • Mobile Stations (MS) can show appropriate operator logo • Global roaming easy • No extra support features from MSs needed, • works with 3GPP R99 WCDMA MSs • Needs SW-update to Nokia WCDMA RAN134 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Agenda – Day 2 • Radio Resource Management • Pre-Launch Optimisation • Nokia WCDMA Base Station Family • WCDMA/GSM Co-Siting • RAN Sharing • Multilayer Planning135 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning - Objectives - At the end of this module you will be able to... •• Explain the meaning of WCDMA/GSM Explain the meaning of WCDMA/GSM interworking interworking •• Explain the reasons for multilayer usage Explain the reasons for multilayer usage and how it is done and how it is done •• Describe the 3G network evolution from Describe the 3G network evolution from cell layer point of view cell layer point of view •• Explain when compressed mode is needed Explain when compressed mode is needed and what drawback it has and what drawback it has •• Explain on what criteria cell-reselection Explain on what criteria cell-reselection and handover strategies are based on and handover strategies are based on136 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Interworking in RAN 1.5 • Interworking means Handover functionality between GSM and WCDMA or between WCDMA carriers • Handover from GSM to WCDMA or from WCDMA to GSM is inter- system hard handover • Handover between WCDMA carriers is inter-frequency hard handover (intra-BTS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC handover) • Interworking is possible also in idle mode when making cell re-selection • Handover reasons are mainly based on coverage in WCDMA and load in GSM • Compressed mode is used in WCDMA for inter-frequency or inter-system neighbour measurements before handover decision • Service downgrade/upgrade might be needed during inter-system handover137 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Handover Types in RAN 1.5 Operator 1 Operator 2 3G HLR/AUC E-interface MSC/VLR 3G MSC 3G 3G HLR/AUC MGW A-interface 2G MSC/VLR Iu (cs)-interface MGW GSM BSS GSM BSS Intersystem, Intrasystem, Intra-MSC, Inter-MSC, Intra-PLMN Inter-PLMN UMTS RAN MSC/VLR 2G Intrasystem, UMTS RAN Intra-MSC, Intersystem, Intra-PLMN Intrasystem, Inter-MSC, UMTS RAN UMTS RAN Inter-MSC, Inter-PLMN 2G HLR/AUC Intra-PLMN GSM BSS138 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Introduction • Multilayer Network means the use of microcellular network to give more capacity needed in traffic hot spots • Macro layer is mainly used for coverage and fast moving mobiles • Micro layer is used to provide capacity for traffic hot spots • Typically different frequencies are used for different layers • Other layer’s frequency139 can be reused in some © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Capacity in Macro vs. Micro Environments • Packet data throughput, calculated with CDMA capacity formulas Assumptions Micro cell: higher orthogonality Micro: higher isolation between cells Results These figures without transmit diversity • Downlink capacity is more sensitive to the environment because of orthogonal codes (other cell interference affects more downlink) • Micro cells provide a higher capacity due to less multipath140 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Multilayer Antennas • The general rule is that microcellular antenna placement provides better (very high) capacity but lower coverage • The key question is : When this should be done? • The capacity is high because the cells are well isolated and the DL is quite orthogonal • The coverage is low because the very same buildings that isolate the cells from each other also isolate the mobiles from the Node B in larger cells • The factors affecting the decision include at least • Traffic density • Max required bitrate in the UL direction • Inter-cell interference with different antenna positions • Propagation loss with different antenna positions • Site acquisition costs • Etc.141 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Solution 1 • Most simple usage of two carriers. • In an area which is covered by a continuous cell layer and the capacity requirement exceeds the available capacity the most simple solution is to add a second carrier to the cells, co- located with the first carrier. WCDMA f1, fWCDMA f1, fWCDMA f1 , f2 WCDMA f1, 2WCDMA f1, 2WCDMA f1 , f2 f2 f2 • This process can be continued further to additional carriers. • Compressed mode raises the interference. • The traffic between the carriers could be balanced by directed RRC connection setup in the call setup phase and by inter-frequency handovers.142 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Solution 2 • Micro cell layer in the middle of surrounding macro cells using the same carrier as the macro cells. • This way of mixing different cell types is fully applicable but it requires that clear dominance areas for micro and macro layers. WCDMA ff WCDMA f1 • This is a microcell solutions for covering holes WCDMA 11 WCDMA f1 • In long run going to smaller cell sizes cannot be W f1 W f1 W f1 avoided in hot-spot areas, and a micro cellular W f1 W f1 W f1 solution has the benefit that inter-cell interference is minimised, leading to increasing cell throughput and user bit-rates.143 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Solution 3 • Different frequencies are used for different layers (Hierachical Cell Structure HCS) • From the network planning point of view this solution is easier to deploy than the previous since overlapping is possible. WCDMA f1 WCDMA f1 WCDMA f1 WCDMA f1 • The macro layer can collect traffic from micro layers dominance area W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 whereas in solution 2 macro cells and W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 micro cells collect traffic within their own dominance areas. • This is the microcell solutions for capacity reasons144 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Solution 4 • In addition to solution 3 the GSM/GPRS macrolayer is added to HCS • Dual mode UE‘s can change to GSM/GPRS where no WCDMA coverage exists, this enables to GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS provide seamless 3G services without seamless WCDMA coverage WCDMA f1 WCDMA f1 WCDMA f1 WCDMA f1 • Allows traffic balancing between GSM/GRPS and WCDMA W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 W f2 • Compressed mode raises the interference. BSIC decoding is time consuming • This is the solution if WCDMA/GSM interworking is required145 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning RAN1.5 Handover functionality GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS GSM/GPRS WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA Coverage reason IS-HO Load reason IS-HO W W W Wfrom GSM(BSS10.5) W W W W Coverage reason IF-HO • GSM handover • Based on RSSI measurements of all cells in neighbour list • Controlled by HO algorithms in BSC • WCDMA soft handover • Based on pilot Ec/No measurements of all cells in neighbour lists on the same frequency • Mobile Evaluated handover (MEHO) controlled by SHO parameters • WCDMA IF & IS handover • Based on measurement results in serving cell • Coverage (CPICH RSCP or CPICH Ec/No) • UL DCH quality,UL DCH Power, DL DPCH power • Network evaluated handover (NEHO) controlled by IF and IS HO parameters 146 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning WCDMA Compressed Mode • Compressed mode is the method to create idle periods (=gap) in the transmission in order to perform Inter-Frequency or Inter-System measurements during the gap Measurement gap Measurement gap Compressed mode Normal frame Normal frame • Because same data amount is sent during shorter time it has the following affect to the cell • Reduced UL coverage • Reduces DL capacity • Reduced Quality147 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Cell Re-selection between layers • Cell selection & re-selection can be done • without HCS operation • with HCS operation • Normally cell re-selection is done to cell having better coverage, but with HCS operation the cell re-selection is also possible to the weaker cell or to the GSM (in case they have higher priority) • Both quality and level should be good enough in the neighbour cell before cell re-selection • Neighbour cells with different priorities could be prioritised by using offset during penalty time • Cells having same priorities (or HCS not used) are ranked and cell re- selection is done to the best cell • Traffic balancing with directed RRC connection setup is possible in WCDMA148 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Usage of Hierarchical Cells • Use HCS parameters => mobile camps to micro cell whenever it is available • HCS parameters not supported in dedicated mode Hot spot Macro area f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 Fast moving MSs- Fast moving MSs- feature can also feature can also f2 f2 f2 f2 be used to push be used to push f2 f2 f2 f2 UE to Macro Layer Micros UE to Macro Layer to avoid frequent to avoid frequent cell re-selection cell re-selection f2 f2 f1 f1 f1 f1 Start call in micro cell Coverage reason handoverbecause of HCS priorities from micro to macro149 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Fast Moving Mobiles in Micro Cells • Fast moving mobiles can be handed over from micro frequency to macro frequency • High mobility is detected based on the frequency of active set updates WCDMA macro f1 WCDMA macro f1 X Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Micro f2 Fast moving mobile Too frequent active set updates within micro frequency → initiate inter-frequency handover to macro frequency150 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Cell Re-selection Rules • During cell re-selection it is possible to camp on GSM or WCDMA depening how parameters are set in serving and neighbouring cell • Camping on GSM is recommended: • Continious GSM coverage • 3G ->2G handover amount is reduced or it is not at all supported • Camping on WCDMA is recommended: • Continious 3G coverage, utilize fully 3G network • For dual mode Mobiles • 2G ->3G handover is not supported • Initial Nokia implementation strategy is to push all dual mode MS to WCDMA151 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN
  • Multilayer Planning Inter-System Handover Rules • 5 Handover Triggering reasons is possible from WCDMA • CPICH Ec/No, CPICH RSCP, UL quality & Power, DL Power • GSM neighbours are measured only in Compressed mode, not all the time • UE needs more power for neighbour measurements during compressed mode -> measurements should start early enough • BSIC decoding time need to be taken into account; the ISHO procedure could take more time in case many GSM neighbours are measured as neighbours • Handover from GSM to WCDMA is done only if GSM load is high enough152 © NOKIA FILENAMs.PPT/ DATE / NN