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Overview of armenian food culture development in connection with the history of agriculture

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  • 1. Overview of Armenian Food Culture Development in connection with the history of agriculture. (as a attachment)Prepared byDr.Armen Mehrabyan,Master of Ethno-botany and PhD on Food TechnologyBEGGINING PERIOD DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD CULTURE WORLD FOOD DEVELOPMENT IN CULTURE GEOGRAPHIC AREA DEVELPMENT OF ARMENIA POLEOLITIC (Old stone age)Oldest known tools 2 000 000 BC Wild harvest and fishing Unknownfashioned inAfrica, First truehuman HomoerectusHunting 1 000 000 BC Raw meet, eggs & Unknown mushrooms used as food Homo erecticus 800 000 BC Rise and millet used as a UnknownHumans learn to food,use and controlFire Homo Sapience 500 000 BC Family and primitive Unknown groupsFirst artistic images 30,000BC First stage of harvesting Beginning of harvesting -of hunting and V.Bdoyan, History ofharvesting found in Agriculture of Armenia,cave in France and page 4Spaine MESOLITIC (Stone Age)First Paleolithic 20, 000 BC Second stage of harvesting Preliminary agricultureimages of plant and development started from mountainInvention of needle areas and it is possible that 17,000BC emmer grain used for food territory of historical Armenia was one of the 16,000BC einkorn grain used for place for some food domesticated plant origin and their used as a steeples food – L.B.Harutunyan, Armenian Cuisine, page 24 NEOLOTIC (New Stone Age)
  • 2. Agriculture begins 10,000BC Cultivation of wheat, Armenia was one of the simple bread making, Centers of Origin of beer & soup preparation Crop Plants and and used of almonds according to the Vavilov that called Near-Eastern Center (as a part of of Asia Minor, all of Transcaucasia, Iran, and the highlands of Turkmenistan). Eighty- three species including nine species of wheat were located in this region. – History of horticulture, Jack R. Harlan. 1992 Crops & Man ASA, CSA, Madison, WI; Armenian highland in Asia Minor was a motherland of indoeuropean civilization – A.Dikshti, Vvedenie v Arkheologiyu, page 28-52 First Pottery invented in First Pottery invented in Japan Mesopotamia dated 6500 BC, and more correct in the territory beetwin Karkemish and Big Chab rivers that in Armenian highland. – A.Teryan, Armenia as a centre of civilization, page 98 bow and arrow invented New hunting system and in Europe animal pre-domestication radically connected with bow and arrow. - J.N. Leonard, 1973 First Farmers, Time LifeAnimal Goth Domestication in Civilization starts fromdomestication oldest known city Jecicho Jecicho and have an in modern Iran influence to then neighboring people livelihood.- History of horticulture, J.N. Leonard, 1973 First Farmers, Time Life
  • 3. 9,000BC Sheep domestication in Ethnic formation of people Near East that leaves in the territory and tkatskij stanok byl of Armenia Highland, sozdan means from upper Tavros until Mesopotamia (Kur- Araks river valley, Capadovkia, central part of Asia Minor, northern Mesopotamia). G.Karapetyan, Ocherki Armyanskoj Istorii, Page 23,36Pattern village 8,000BC wheat, pomegranate, Started from 8000 -7000grows in Catal apple, lentils used for food people that leave inHuyuk that in and pork domestication Armenian Highlandterritory of current started settled lifestyle,Turkey near Aghdznik, withDomestication of 7,000 BC beans and walnuts used for development ofHorse by pre- food and domestication of animalsarmenian – 7000- cattle domestication and agriculture.6000 bc – G.Karapetyan, OcherkiA.Teryan, page 78 Armyanskoj Istorii, PageNear to Akner (Lori 36-37region) found the Near to Kharber foundedamulet ornamented metallic nettles and cupperSun God dated tools that dated 8000 BC7000 bc as another – A.Teryan, page 98relicts found ner tothe Lori berd anddated 2000 bc–A.Teryan, page 79; END OF STONE AGE Copper Age 6,500 BC wine and spelt preparation According to the VavilovOldest Stone used in food the following crops wereMassive build in domesticated in the nearBrittany and first east centre of crop origincity state develop in 6,000 BC maize, tortillas, dates and that includes also ArmeniaSumer - 6000 bc; broccoli used as food - History of horticulture,Cylinder seal begin 5,500 BC chickpeas, lettuce and Jack R. Harlan. 1992used as a mark and honey used as a food Crops & Man ASA, CSA,first writing Madison, WIpictographiccompass in Near Grains and LegumesEast -5500 bc; 1. Einkorn wheat, Triticum monococcum (14 Bronze Age 5000BC olives & olive oil , chromosomes) Mesopotamian Noah’s/Deluge cucumbers & squash, chili 2. Durum wheat, Triticum Civilization peppers, avocados & taro, durum (28 chromosomes) potatoes, milk & yogurt, 3. Poulard wheat, Triticum grapes, watermelons & turgidum (28 sorghum chromosomes)
  • 4. 4800 BC First accurate calendar 4. Common wheat, invented in Egypt and Triticum vulgare (42 pyramid build chromosomes) 4500BC Fertile Crescent (history of 5. Oriental wheat, Triticum horticulture, lecture 23-24) orientale Earliest written cod of low 6. Persian wheat, Triticum in persicum (28 Herdsman rid horses in chromosomes) Armenian highland 7. Triticum timopheevi (28 4000BC Yeast breads and pita, chromosomes) oranges & citrons, Cart as 8. Triticum macha (42 a first transportation by chromosomes) using the horse as a carrier 9. Triticum vavilovianum, power invented in branched (42 Armenian highland chromosomes) 10. Two-row barley,Sumer established 3500 BC First writhing scripts Hordeum distichum, H. in 3500 BC and tablets by Sumerian, first nutansexist till 2000 BC canal building and 11. Rye, Secale cereale (HH, lecture 9) systematic agriculture 12. Mediterranean oats, established Avena byzantina 3600 BC Popcorn 13. Common oats, Avena 3500 BC Imperial government sativa established by pre- 14. Lentil, Lens esculenta Armenian – Hittites 15. Lupine, Lupinus 3400 BC Hebrews introduce pilosus, L. albus monotheism Forage Plants Ancient Egypt 3300 BC Development successful 1. Alfalfa, Medicago culture economy based on sativadevelopment till 30 agriculture, rye and oats 2. Persian clover, BC cultivation, Trifolium resupinatum 3200 BC chicken and elephant 3. Fenugreek, Trigonella domestication in India foenum graecum Iron Age 3000 BC Pomegranate tree was use 4. Vetch, Vicia sativa as a tree of longevity and 5. Hairy vetch, Vicia paradise tree in the villosa Sumerian tablets dated – Fruits A.Teryan, page 17 1. Fig, Ficus carica Arab trade spices 2. Pomegranate, Punica Spices, butter & palm oil, granatum barley, peas & carrots, 3. Apple, Malus pumilo onions & garlic and (one of the centers) 2900BC figs 4. Pear, Pyrus communis 2838BC soybeans and others 5. Quince, Cydonia 2800 BC Phoenician develop oblonga modern alphabet and 6. Cherry, Prunus cerasus Homer compose Iliad and 7. Hawthorn, Crataegus Odyssey
  • 5. 2737BC tea azarolus Discovery of cupper, bronze and iron and invention of tools in the Armenian highland supports development of agriculture and food culture.Rome founded 2700BC First time culture of Food ingredients were cooking and eating used as a base for culinary introduced as a cuisine culture and development of cuisineGolden Age of 2500 BC duck First bread balked in Greece territory of Armenia – B.B. Piotrovski, Istoriya I kultura Urartu, page 28 Armenia 2492 BC formation of Armenian And since 11 August as a nation under the 2492 BC started leadership of ancestor Armenian calendar that Hayk has 13 month and divided 360 into 12 month and 4 season and 5 days were include in the separate month. - G.Karapetyan, Ocherki Armyanskoj Istorii, Page 110 First celebration of Nawasard and fist Armenian seven-food demonstration. The name of all food must started from N letter (Ngacagkov hac, Nushi karkandak, Nuri mrgatan, etc) , enciclopedicheski calendar 1990, page 8. 2400BC muskmelon Cultivated in Armenian valley 2300 BC Subartu-Nairi country Kuti people that were a part of Subartu-Nairi render tribute from Godea mainly grain, vegetable oil, etc - Movsisyan, 2005, page 95
  • 6. 2200 BC Water wheel invented in According to the Elb Near East – Asia Minor , archeological facts, the Armenian highland; people that leaved in History of Horticulture, Armenian highland such Jack R. Harlan. as Armi, Ursaumi and kakmiumi had a kings and kingdom and have a well- developed trade culture. Movsisyan, 2005, page 64 Babylonia and 2112-2004 BC Arratta – first pre- Garden of Babylon, Assyria, armenian country plowing by drilling thesince 2000 BC till established near lake seed instead of 500 BC Urmia , S.N.Kramer page broadcasting. 135-138; I.Kaneva, Aratta people cultivated Enmerkar I verkhovni jrec wheat, marrowfat and Arratti, 1964, page 198; trade fruit trees and wine. Movsisyan, Armenia in Movsisyan, 2005, page 97 3th millenum bc, 2002, page 19; 2000BC pasta & noodles--- Cultivation in marshmallows & Mesopotamia liquorices, radishes Hittite and 1700BC Mesopotamia banquetsMinoans Greece 1650 BC Establishment of Hittite It can be suggest that that exist till 1200 BC, introduction of the chef Gerni, page 193 profession done by Hittites when royal trapeze introduced and first cookbook written as well - according to the information mentioned by Gerni, Hittite, page 138. Rome Felt 1500BC Peanuts, chocolate & Started to used as food vanilla, horseradish 1490BC Raisins First dehumidification of fruit for using in mealUrartu - 1274 – 1274 BC 1274 – 590 BC Van Invention of Vana dzet 590 BC Kingdom established and from sassafras seeds Torya – 1230 - mentioned in Babilonian 1180 BC map, Horowitz, 1988,Judea - 1200 till page 150-152
  • 7. 587 BC 1200 BC sugar Oranges, lemons, peaches, and apricots were cultivated. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, and vegetables such as spinach and artichokes, as well as the characteristic Spanish flavoring saffron produced. The silkworm raised and its food, the mulberry tree, was grown. Sugar made from sugar beet and starts to replace the honey 1000BC pickles & peaches, oats 900BC tomatoes & tomatillos 850BC celery Archaic Greece 750-480 BC Colonization of southern innovations: the self- France, Spain, southern governing city-state, Italy, North Africa imaginative types of art and architecture, and the poetry of Homer, devised the league (ethnos)—a loose alliance of geographically separate, small groups who agreed to share laws and defense—as a new form of political organization - Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. 700BC cinnamon 600BC cabbage 500BC Italian sausages & artichokesConquest of Italy 510-264 BC by Rome Classic Greece 500-323 BC Sparta had become the most powerful city-state 400 BC pastries & appetizers, vinegar, peppercorns & garden cress, 300 BC beets & bananasMacedonia 359-323 BC Alexander the Great andSupremacy AristotelHellenistic Greece 323-31 BC Antigonus I (382?-301 bc) founded a kingdom encompassing parts of Asia Minor, the Middle East, Macedonia, and Greece; Seleucus I (358?- 281 bc) established rule
  • 8. over Babylonia and over land as far east as India; and Ptolemy I (367?- 283bc) took EgyptConquest of the 264-133 BCMediterranean by 200BC turkeys & asparagusRomeCaesar, Gaius 100 – 44 BC Rome EmpireJulius, 65BC quincesRoman general and 55BC Devon cattlepolitical leader who 44BC End of Rome Empire onlaid the foundations March 15of the Romanimperial system.Roman Greece 31 BC- 395 AD Current EraHeight of Roman 1st Century, Ancient Rome, Birth of Fried chicken and foieEmpire, Birth of Christ gras, French toast andChrist, Destruction omlettes, Italian weddingof Pompei (79), soup and rice pudding,Persecution of flan and cheesecakeChristians, Emperor 2nd Century Challah breadConstantine, 3rd Century Roman Britain’s cuisine,Establishment of De Re Culinaria (in Latin)Christian & De Opsoniis etdominance, Decline Condimentis, Apicius –of Roman Empire first written culinary book 4th Century Jerusalem, White kidney bean saladRise of Islam, Dark 5th Century Anglo-Saxon foodAges in Europe, 6th Century Roman control spice trade EggplantPlague, Tang 7th Century SpinachDynasty in China, 8th century Ancient Maya and VikingSung Dynasty in era foodChina, Vikings 9th century coffee & cod 10th century Medieval food , halva & goulash, loquats, Peking duckNorman Conquest 11th century corned beef & cider,(1044), Cathedrals lychees, baklava & filoconstructed, 12th century breadfruit & okraGenghis Khan, 13th century ravioli & lasagne,Ottoman empire in pancakes & waffles,Turkey, Aztecs Viandier de Taillevent,settle in Mexico, couscous
  • 9. Printing press 14th century kebabs, guacamole & kolache, Humble pie, Le Menagier de Paris, apple pie & crumpets, Pipefarces (fried cheese sticks), gingerbread 15th century Japanese sushi & sashimi, Italian risotto & English marzipan, borshch, Netherlands Wel Ende Edelike Spijse, hot dogs, Christopher Columbus old world cuisine BEGINNING OF MODERN ERAPrinted Herbals, 16th century salsa, quiche & puff paste,Columbus, Age of teriyaki chicken & CornishExploration pastys, pecans, papayas, turkeys in Europecashews in the Old World 1517 sweet potatoes in Europe 1529 vanilla in Europe 1544 tomatoes in Europe 1554 Camembert cheese 1587 Brussels sprouts & kohlrabi 1596 English trifle 1597 potato salad 1598 cock-a-leekie 1599 hasty puddingWilliam 17th Century Mechanical improvements corn bread, hoe cakes,Shakespeare, in the traditional wooden spoonbread & hominy,Francis Bacon, plow in 1600 chess pie & shortbread,Rembrant, authentic recipes,Cromwell transcribed, French onion soup, salad, pralines & coffee cake, cream puffs & eclairs, modern ice cream 1615 coffee in Europe 1650 rum 1660 Beginning of scientific Crop rotation, involving farming alternation of legumes with grain started from England 1686 croissants
  • 10. Gardens of 18th Century America---Colonial & coffee in America, FrenchVersailles, Issac Early American fare; Canadian fare, Fortress ofNewton, US Among the important Louisburg, croquettesRevolution (1776), advances were theCarolus Linnaeus purposeful selective breeding of livestock, begun in the early 1700s, and the spreading of limestone on farm soils in the late 1700s 1762 sandwiches 1782 souffle 1797 Charles Newbold, a blacksmith in Burlington, New Jersey, reconceived of the cast-iron moldboard plow.Thomas Andrew 19th Century Modern Food Period Century--Napoleons &Knight: Charles Linzertortes, ammoniaDarwin, Gregor cookies & Cape BretonMendel, Louis pork pies, shepherds pie &Pasteur, Birth of pickled peppers, canapes,Genetics, Morrill 1809 The modern food Cannery developmentAct processing and preservation industry by French chef and inventor Nicolas Appert 1831 John Deere improved the Beginning of Horticultural plow and manufactured it Science in steel; Jethro Tull invent seed drill seedling machine; American Cyrus McCormick produce reaping-machine 1857 Revolution in food Development of industry that demonstrated Microbiology the role of microorganisms in the process of food production was born in by French chemist Louis Pasteur.ASHS founded, 20th Century Thomas Hunt Morgan & cioppino, Donuts from theRediscovery of 1910 Drosophila, Salvation Army, chocolateMendels paper, Mechanization of trufflesSpace exploration Agriculture,by Man - 1967, 1923 Hybrid corn, vitamins, Food for the Diabetic,Man on the Moon - Rise of tractor in Mary Huddleson1969 agriculture 1924 Caesar salad 1927 Electric Refrigerator Recipes, General Electric
  • 11. 1930 World Depression, Dust Pavlova cake Bowl 1950 DNA Structure, Genetic Beginning of Genetically Code Modified Food Products 1960 Herbicides, Vietnam Era 1970 Plasticulture, Tissue culture, Micropropagation 1983 Gene transformation, Penne alla vodka Molecular Biology 1992 computers, Information “Bread as a symbol of Revolution – Internet life” monography about Armenian bread introduced to public 1996 ArmenianTea established and produced herbal teas on the base of ancient Armenian rehabilitated and rediscovered recipes that starts to export to USA and EU high-end restaurant and organic food stores under the Ancient Herbals trademark. 1998 First Armenian Dinner with participation of Best Chefs of US taken place in Boston, Boston Phoenix publication of “My Armenian Dinner:Genomics, Directed 21th Century Ana Sortun nominated as Organic Food ProductionMutation Best Chef in development and Mediterranean Cuisine by beginning of Healthy preparing Armenian Bean lifestyle promotion and Walnut pate campaign 2007 Armenian Dinner fest taken place in Paris for gourmet and chefs 2006 Armenian Culinary federation established 2009 Development of restaurant business reached to his pick in Armenia and more then 1080 restaurants open and 350 functioning only in Yerevan city.