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Armenian food guide for tourist for print

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  • 1. ARMEN MEHRABYAN ARMENIAN FOOD GUIDE FOR TOURIST F OREWORDThe food began to have so great value for existence, formations, and developments of the person that turninto the cores of cult in humans’ community development history. The element of material culture outgrownin a component of spiritual culture, the food became the natural link of tradition preservation that gives thechance to open ethnic aspect of history of the people.Today as never the man requires studying of history of society cultural development in connection withapplication of food as a complex that formed traditions.The food culture creates the communication between the man and the nature, live and the beyond, terrestrialand space. Therefore, defining a role of food in ceremonial culture of Armenians, we find it not only as alivelihood, medicinal and magic product, but also as the communicative form that connecting social groups.The function of food as communication tools that creates contacts between the man and a society, the manand a family, the man and the nature, the individual and friends, shown in its ceremonialism.The sense of ceremonial food can be perceived as material invariant of the ceremony. The ceremonialismof food, that accompanied by different crazes and spells, expressed by process of its preparation. Theceremonialism of cooking includes a certain place and time of action, participants to whom the meal isdevoted, verbal formulas, and the spiritual chanting accompanying all process. It is interesting not onlyritual technologies of cooking, but also its functionality of preparation.Traditional character of food culture defines the power supply system of particular ethnos, since duringthe cretin period of time it includes an event of daily life and articulates the point of transformation ofindividually-personal passes into the collectively-public phenomenon’s where each participant dividescustoms of the general.As the power supply system food implied not as a something that people eat or as they cook, but as aaspect of particular behavior of food application and consumption which is shown by the household, social,public, material and spiritual phenomena and reflect mutual relations of people in a society in connectionwith their ethics and an aesthetics.Having generated by thanks of urbanization and an advanced civilization, Armenian culinary culture, hasstarted to filter gradually from high social classes into lower - country layers that in the subsequent has builtsuch assortment and type of dishes that have influence to the classification scheme of the eating system.Armenian cuisine considered as one of difficult and labor consuming in dishes preparation. However, themost important detail of all eating or diet system of Armenian food culture is an intelligent using of food.Attentively looking at a meal of Armenians, we will see how food intake most depended on consciousnessof food acceptance. It proves to be true that during acceptance of the food people did not talk, loading itselfextraneous thoughts, and concentrated on food intake only, chewing the food slowly and well, havingallowed to feel more taste.Recognizing that the human history is a part of history of the nature, and the history of the person is a partof history of a civilization, the concept of food culture is natural communication part of livelihood. Foodculture entitled as application of the foodstuff reflecting to household aspect of food and behavioral aspectof their function. Armen Mehrabyan, Ethno-agronomist, PhD on Food TechnologyAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 2. A RMENIAN MEALTo classify of Armenian healthy food diet system, we consider the basic types of a foodstuff that divide intotwo main categories: vegetative and mammal. At the base of vegetarian foodstuff, we have wild collectionand agriculture and as a base mammal food, we have hunting and cattle breeding.As reception of food important for food system classification, as climatic conditions important for seasonalprevalence for food consumption. In this connection, there is a definition of food application бы zon, suchas: valley, hilly and mountainous.By classification of the food supply system, we consider the basic types of an applied foodstuff at allocationof model or a food pyramid. We do not concentrate on the content of the foodstuff basic caloric and it’sused, but our attention addresses on something another, that have been accepted as conditionally minorfactors which have been allocated from the general complex of a food pyramid. It’s a Vitality of food thatmade nutrition’s of food during its reception and preparation in connection with behavioral aspect of itsapplication.The food supplies not only substances necessary for normal physiological functioning, but also feeds withenergy. “Livelifull only the food in which the life existed” proverb may be prove not only philosophically,but also from the scientific point of view (A.Megrabyan, «Influence of food on consciousness, behavior andcharacter of the person» personal archive notebook #3, page 56). Today we precisely know about how manycalories, vitamins, fibers, fats, carbohydrates, etc is necessary for the normal functioning of the body, but itis necessary to consider, that we forget that very powerful arguments contradicting to the food contentacknowledgement. It has confirmed that if the person in the diet used all necessary elements for its body, itdoest mean that its organism functions normally or he is healthy. That has a point that during scientificresearches we have ceased to consider a life as FORCE that combined with certain kinds of a matter mayprovide the LIFE. Unfortunately, in the centre of our attention we had only the form of that exists as aproduct-matter. Monthly meal MEAT Honey and Sweets Weakly meal Sauces and Pickles Poultry Fish Eggs, Butter Macun (Yogurt) & Dairy Fruits Everyday meal Products Cereals and Vegetable oil Reshta (spaghetti) Beans Chess and Vinegar Bread Wild Herbs/Greens and Cultivated vegetables Water SaltCharacteristic lines of Armenian food culture that have developed for millennia remain up to nowadays.Based on study of written and verbal sources as well as field investigation, we have found expedient todesign and illustrate character of Armenian food culture via introduction of Armenian food pyramid. As abasis for Armenians food pyramid, we do not take quantity and percentage of calories of an appliedfoodstuff in the diet ratio, and take the frequency of using and proportion of the food serving, consideringmost useful food as desirable. The purpose of drawing this pyramid has evident to demonstrate what isapplied as a food and in what frequency definitively, which meanwhile will make possible to understand thedialogue in between what we eat and who we are.All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 3. Rediscovered Armenian Food CultureThe history of food culture bring us back to the Neolithic period and sown the development of the foodculture in the Fertile Crescent, where agriculture began in 8000 BCE then after we discovering thedevelopment of cuisine in ancient Mesopotamia1 where the “test creation” started.As a part of antique civilization Ancient Armenia was one of the centers of culture exchange, whereSumerian, Acadian, Aramaic and Hettetian split over. This tradition of gathering and cultural exchangepassed from generation to generation and reached us trough manuscripts, ethnographical researches and justsmall part of this food culture Armenian were able to keep is their nowadays ethnic cuisine. That’s whyimportance of introduction of re-discovered food culture as a part of social gathering and fine dining todayis essential as never.Today’s Armenia with 29,000 sq.km area is a small country in compare to the Ancient Armenia Majorwhere 700,000 sq.km covered area from Black Sea to Mediterranean and Caspian seas. The geographicallocation of modern Armenia with multi-elevation biodiversity and natural conditions of its location andweather, are major contributors to the scrumptious legumes and cereals, delicious fruits and vegetables andfamous grapes and grains found within its borders.Knowledge of the history of Armenian agriculture and horticulture can be gleaned from the archeologicalrecord supported by surviving written Armenian, Assyrian, Sumerian and Egyptian documents, templeinscriptions, as well as commentaries from antiquity including those of the Greek historian Herodotus (484-425 BCE), the philosopher Theophrastus (372-288 BCE), and the books of Genesis and Exodus in theHebrew bible.To explain the unknown the Armenians created a complex and bewildering theology that drew on the sunand the sky, the four elements and man, as well as every form of life, that was included a pantheon ofhuman gods and goddesses in pagan time. Their beliefs greatly influenced the ancient world and have beenincorporated into many ancient religions such as Zoraostriszm and Manuizm.This remarkable experience of the ancient agricultural practices of grandfathers that creating a renaissancein the culture of food in the Land of Noah and passed from generation to generation trough centuries andmillennia’s.Unfortunately this tradition of harmonic agriculture and balance traditional foods and food processing aredamaged by modernization of “civilization” and mechanization. Soviet system destroy even memory ofharmonic agriculture and after the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia was left without aninfrastructure. Industrialized farming almost vanished because of the lack of funding to repair and maintainfarm and processing equipment. Packaging and distribution of food products were forced to revert to non-mechanical techniques.Many people, because of the circumstances, learned farming practices from their elders who stillremembered the methods of the pre-Soviet era. Today tradition of agriculture is alive because of the ethnicknowledge were passed from generation to generation and rural people return to tradition.With the help from outside interests and Armenians willing to preserve traditions, Armenia agribusiness isfinding a balance of ancient and modern techniques to ensure fine food production. It is possible that withthe return of a vital economy, the reality of a true agricultural renaissance will be realized. 1 Mesopotamia” world have Greek origin and means “Land between the rivers” and both have their headwaters in the mountains of Armenia in modern Turkey. (source: McKay, p.13)All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 4. A RE YOU HUNGRY? Dukh sovats eq?In Armenia most relations eventually settle on a feast. Armenians eat dynamic and joyfully. They are veryhospitable. When you visit an Armenian family, you must have dinner with them and then compliment thehostess for the delicious meal she has prepared.Every region is famous for certain dishes. The range of dishes and ingredients is huge. You can spend weekswithout eating the same dish twice.Eating and being invited to dinner in a typical Armenian family are the most wonderful parts of a visit toArmenia. EATING LIKE A NATIVE helps you order many widely available Armenian dishes. There areliterally thousands of dishes to try. Don’t miss out.Armenian cuisine is as ancient as the history of Armenia. It is a wonderful combination of different tastesand aromas. Armenian cuisine is almost wholly indigenous, although, as every cuisine, over time it hasadopted several food ideas, cooking methods from different cultures. Closely related to Eastern cuisine,various spices, vegetables, fish and fowl and fruits combine to present a unique experience for any visitor.Armenians use different varieties of fresh and dried herbs, “magic combination” of spice blends as well as aseveral sauces according to the dish.The adjustment and mixtures of flavors, dishes, spices and sweets adopt their variety according to the regionthey belong.Regional Foods.Most Armenian foods are available throughout the country, but there are some specialties of each region tosearch out during your visit.West Armenian food (Arevmtyan Hayastany utestner) is famous for its meza (appetizers), abour (soups),aghtzan (salads), meat, fish, fowl as well as meatless dishes (vegetarian), pilaf (noodles), hatz (bread) andanousheghen (dessert).Stuffed grape leaves (yalanchy sarma, dolma), mixed pickles (tourshi), pickled peppers stuffed withchopped vegetables (salamorah tourshi), cured spiced meat (basturma), Armenian spiced dried sausage(soujoukh), Armenian cheese (haykakan panir), fried cheese turnover (tapgadz panir boerag), salted andtoasted pumpkin and squash seeds (ddmi koot) are the most famous west Armenian appetizers.Different sorts of yogurt soups as Hot yogurt soup (tahnabour), yogurt soup (matzoun abour), yogurt soupwith grain (spas), lentil soup (vospov abour), chick pea soup with pumpkin (dedma-siserov siserov abour),meatball soup (kololik arganak), chicken soup (havov arganak), vegetable soup (banjareghen abour) areworth trying especially in winter.You can also be served a variety of salads such as dried beans salad (lobi plaki), bean salad (lobu aghtzan),cracked wheat salad (bulguraghcan), tomato salad (marash aghtzan), eggplant salad with pomegranate seedand roasted walnut (nursempoog), Armenian potato salad (adamakhndzor aghtzan).You can try various preparations of meat, fish, fowl complemented with vegetables such as barbecued(shish kebab), kebab made with flat Armenian bread lavash (losh kebab), broiled meat kebab (lule kebab),stuffed meatballs (karpet porov kufta), stuffed lamb flank (khabourga), rishta (kind of macaroni) withground meat and yogurt (moch manti), potted lamb (tass kebab with rice pilaf), braised beef or lamb(ghavourma), lamb kidneys (yeregamoonk), baked Sevan trout (Sevani epac ishkhan), lamb and barley(keghkegh), chicken with quince (havov sergahfil), bulgur with eggs and tomatoes (havgitov kufta), cheesestuffed eggplants (sempoogov panir tolma), lentils with apricots (mushosh), cheese spinach noodle casserole(panir spanagh yev yerishta), eggplant with lamb (sempoog kebab), baked stuffed apricots (tsiranatol),All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 5. zucchini with meat sauce (meesov ddum), celery stew (kerevouz kerakur), okra with meat sauce (meesovbamiya), meat and potato casserole (khema ev getnakhndzor poory), leek stew (prassa), squash (ddumovkerakur). All these dishes are well cooked and safe to eat.East Armenian food (Arevelyan Hayastany utestner) is also famous for its soups, salads, meat, fish, fowl,vegetarian dishes, noodles, bread and desserts, although the spice usage is different.You can enjoy the great variety of yogurt and vegetable soups, also spas and beet soup (karmir jakndeghovapur) are very tasty. Shepherd’s salad (Hovvy aghtzan) is a very favorite one as well as beet salad(takaghtsan), Marengo, a great variety of vegetable salads, bean pate (lobu tapak), tongue paste (lezvitapak), Navasardyan salad one of New Year specialties. There are many types of Dolma, but Armeniansprepares famous Tolma (“tol” mean grape leave) that is grape leaves stuffed with cereal and fruit.Every region is famous for its typical dishes, e.g. Lory for herbal dishes such as dandur aghcan, pokhindz,Gyumry for grilled beef brains (tavary kyala), Gavar and Echmiadzin for Kuftas. Artsakh is famous for itsJingialov Hatz (flat Armenian bread stuffed with seven sorts of herbs). Khashlama, Buglama, Gapama,,different types of pilafs from cereals (e.g. lentil dish), grilled vegetables and potato, fried mushrooms,several types of meat are available almost everywhere.Let’s not forget Khorovadz (barbecue) served with fried tomatoes, eggplants and peppers mixed salad,Harisa, Sevani Ishkhan (trout), Jermuki Karmrakhayt (trout) and, of course, Khash (scraped bovine shins).Khash is a heavy meal that is best eaten in the winter, with a glass of vodka. MENU (photos of most popular Armenian dishes with name – 2-3 pages)Khashlama is also worth trying: it is boiled meat and potatoes with sliced tomatoes.Harisa is a very ancient and traditional meal closely linked to Mousaler’s Victory Day and Easter. Itconsists of hulled wheat and shredded chicken.Rice with raisins. Look for this delicious Easter dish. It is sometimes prepared also with raisins and candiedapricots. Really perfect to taste.Soups (apur). Look for Spas—a popular soup consisting of egg and flour stirred into matzoun (yogurt).Kololik is also worth trying—meatballs cooked in rice soup with parsley. Beet soup is very deliciousespecially in snowy winter. It is a mixture of beet, carrot, cabbage, potato, onion and beef. Can be servedwith sour-cream.Kyufta is made in different ways throughout the country. Gavar Kufta is made from minced meat spicedwith onions and rolled into balls before boiling in water. It is served in slices, garnished with butter. Whilewest Armenian Kufta is minced meat and nuts spiced with onions and salt, pepper, in the crust made ofcrushed wheat and meat mixture. It is served with lemon juice.Khorovadz restaurants have charcoal manghals for barbecuing. Charcoal manghals exist also in smallrestaurants and cafes throughout the country to serve you a real Armenian delicious Khorovadz. EveryArmenian man is proud of preparing and entertaining it to you so that you appreciate the art of cooking. Itcan be prepared of beef and fowl, but the real Armenian Khorovadz is made of lamb or pork. The mostdelicious slices are called chalaghadj (ribs with nearby meat). Lavash (flat bread) is used to wrap theKhorovadz. Salad made of fried tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, greens and onion is very delicious to beserved with Khorovadz.Khash is for the more adventurous visitor to the country. It is a specialty of many restaurants. Khash is anancient Armenian dish and if you are entertained a homemade Khash, be sure that it’s prepared by anexperienced representative of the old generation. Khash is scraped bovine shins, boiled in unsalted wateruntil the flash flakes of the bones. It is served hot with crushed garlic, white garden radish, cress, and isAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 6. eaten with lavash, which is soaked in the bowl. Khash, in particular, is a heavy dish that is best eaten in thewinter, early in the morning, with a glass of vodka.Greens and salads. Armenian cuisine is also rich in vegetable dishes, salads and herbal dishes. Inparticular, aveluk, sibekh, spanakh, spitakuk are boiled before frying with onions and eggs, and made intosoups and salads. Aveluk and other vegetarian dishes are served with nuts and matzoun. Where to Buy and Where to EatMarkets (shuka) are interesting and useful places to visit.Almost all the markets are open from early morning until 7 PM. You will find a great variety of vegetables,herbs, fruit, meat, sausages, fish, bread, cheese, spices, and sweets there. It is worth visiting them to findprovisions for breakfast, picnics, also appetizers for dinner and lunch.There is also a wholesale markets (Gumy shuka, Malatia) not far from the city center, which is open 24hours and you can find there everything as in ordinary markets and at a cheaper price.Restaurants (khortkaran, chasharan or restoran). Most towns have restaurants where you can find almostthe whole menu mentioned above, and, of course, every town has its particular specialty. Some places havean English menu, especially the restaurants in Yerevan. To discover the best food of each region always askfor the specialty of the house.  Small “out-of-town” restaurants serve a wide range of dishes at moderate prices. These places may have an English menu. The specialties of all these restaurants are Khorovadz served with fried tomato, eggplant, pepper salad with onion and herbs and Kebab.  Event restaurants range in style from elegant and expensive indoor establishments to cafes and bars. Almost every elegant restaurant has extensive outdoor setting area (summer hall), where you can relish the cool evening breeze. When the landscape permits, these restaurants are set on scenic riverbanks or near lakes and ponds. If you are in Jermuk or in Sevean don’t miss the chance to see where the fish provide diversion before being scooped up for the kitchen.  Restaurant Boutique are not so big restaurants and mainly in down town, where you can find creative cuisine based on traditional Armenian recipes.  Hotel restaurants usually serve ordinary Armenian and European dishes. Pizzerias, Fast Food pointers became a popular with young Armenians and located mainly in area around universities.There is also a wide range of European, Russian, Greek, Mexican, Eastern, Chinese, and other restaurantsthroughout Yerevan. Moreover, the most well known area of Armenian restaurants is Proshian Street (orturist call it barbeque street) where you can find small restaurants to enjoy some khorovadz or order it totake away as well as large restaurants with live music.Along the street cafes, preparing the food that presented for you to choose. Each person can orderseparately and up to his own selection. Open café that growing as mushrooms are perfect place to have acup of coffee with family and friends (usually Armenian coffee that is similar to the Oriental one) and icecream with desert. In the area of universities, you can see many stalls, where possible to enjoy differentsandwiches as well as drinks and sweets at moderate prices. How to Order.Armenians have an ancient history, being one of the more ancient nations has their own traditions, andcustoms that is also applies to nourishment. Traditional Armenian family usually has breakfast, whichconsists of something warm (noodle, fried or boiled eggs) bread and snacks, such as different sorts ofsausages and cheese. The breakfast completed with a cup of tea or coffee and usually with sweets (jam,cake).All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 7. The second meal is lunch. It consists of three courses—salad, soup, a main dish. After the meal Armeniansusually have coffee or dessert.The third meal is dinner, which consists of the same courses as lunch, but is usually accompanied with aglass of alcohol beverage (wine, beer, or glass of vodka).Armenians like having tea and coffee during the day. Armenian coffee is the traditional Oriental coffee,which made in Armenian way and has a little different taste. As to Armenian tea there exist different herbalblends, which are recovered by famous Armenian company that distributing under the ARMENIANTEA orAncient Herbals and produced based on ancient Armenian technology and recipes rediscovered manuscriptsand by ethnographic research. The method of collection, processing, blending, and brewing have beeninherited from generation to generation. And every blend has its unique taste, refreshing effect and healthyproperty. You can have the teas both hot and iced.In some restaurants the tip may be included in the bill. If not, leave 10% of the bill.Appetizers (khortkeghen or meza). Bastourma is dried slices of lean beef soaked in spicy chaman. Theother favorite appetizer is Soujoukh—Armenian spiced dried sausage. It is also served hot. If you want to tryfried cheese turnover, ask for tapakats panir.Drinks (khmichq). A variety of natural juices is made of many different types of fruits to be found in thecountry. They are bottled, canned and boxed. If you are invited to dinner you may be entertained homemadejuice or canned stewed fruit, which is very delicious and health- giving. Look for watery yogurt (tan) afavorite Armenian refreshing drink especially in hot summer. Milk (kath) is also available.Fresh fruit drinks and fruit infusions can be found everywhere. Street stalls serve blender drinks made fromfruit, crushed ice and sometimes milk or ice-cream. Juice is ordered by saying—Yes hyuth em uzoum. Avery delicious specialty is iced Armenian tea, that can be found in tea-houses of Yerevan. Coffee is alsoavailable and very tasty. You can enjoy any sort you wish—cappuccino, espresso, Nescafe, instant coffees,and, of course, Armenian coffee (surj), which marks the end of every Armenian meal. It is similar to theOriental coffee from Greece, Turkey and the Middle East. It is served in a small cup.Armenia is also famous for its wine, cognac, vodka and beer.A variety of vodka is made from many different types of fruits. There is considerable praise for Armenianvodka, although vodka prepared in the regions is particularly strong.Armenia is also famous for its wine, particularly Areni and Vernashen, which exported to many countries.Beer has been produced in the country since Urartian (ancient Armenia) period, and some historicalreferences support the idea that it might have first been produced on the territory of the modern-dayArmenia.In particular, Armenian cognac is renowned worldwide and was considered by the British Prime Minister,Winston Churchill, as his favorite.Armenia’s mineral waters are also famous, and known for their medical applications—particularly forkidney, liver, gall bladder and intestinal disorders. The most favorites are Jermuk and Noy, although Bjni,Dilijan and Arzni are also famous table waters.Not only can you drink Armenia’s mineral waters, but also bathe in natural hot water springs and healthresorts found throughout the country.Armenia is very famous for its tasty fruit throughout the world. Fruit such as peaches, apples, pears,plums, cherries, mulberries, figs, pomegranates, strawberries, melons and watermelons are particularlyAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 8. succulent as well as multiple sorts of grapes, but Armenia is particularly famous for its apricots, whichmany consider taste better than anywhere else in the world.The word Kakhtsraveniq (Dessert) is associated with sweet desserts, such as cakes, ice-cream, jamscandied fruit and candies.  Keep an eye open for sweet sausages called Kakhtsr soujoukh, which are must covered walnuts. It is superb.  Candied peaches filled with mixture of nuts are called Allany. Try them.  Look for Gatha - an Armenian special cake. It can be sweet and salty.  Pakhlava is a cake stuffed with nuts and honey. It is worth trying as well as hundreds of other sorts of cakes baked in Armenia.  A wide variety of ice-creams are indispensable in hot summer. To order ice-cream ask for Paghpaghak.Sidebars to be placed anywhere:  Order Garejur to have some beer.  Bread (Hatz). Armenians like to eat bread with almost everything, and there are different types of bread in Armenia, such as Lavash, Matnaqash, Hrazdany hatz, Choerag (West Armenian roll), Cracker bread, Black bread, White bread, Knjouthov hatz, Grandma’s bread.Lavash is a particular favorite—flat bread rolled into circles and prepared in earthenware ovens in theground (tonir).  Food safety and allergies: Armenians are very clean and all the travelers eat everything without any trouble. Simply you must not drink unboiled water the first week of your journey. Use mineral waters for safety.All the dishes are easy to assimilate, if you are used to European cuisine. The only heavy dish that is not toeveryone’s taste is Khash. Don’t have it, if you avoid heavy dishes.  Vegetarian food. If you are a vegetarian you’ll find a wide range of vegetable dishes and noodles. Simply ask Aranz messy kerakoor, and you’ll be offered vegetarian menu, where you can find the dish to your taste. If you like mushrooms, you will discover very tasty dishes.  Table manners. Bread and salt are served on the table first. Armenians consider serving bread and salt as symbols of hospitality.Eating watery dish use spoon in your right hand. The fork in the left hand and the knife in the right are usedto cut the dish (meat or vegetables) and the knife helps to put the pieces on the fork. When you are finishedput the knife and the fork together on the plate.  When an Armenian friend invites you to the restaurant he will ask you what kind of food you prefer and what kind of music you enjoy listening to orientate himself where to invite you. Restaurant pointers.  You don’t need to call the waiter when you have entered a restaurant or a café, as he will approach you himself. When you need, call the waiter by saying Motetseq khndrem.  Armenians generally have breakfast between 8:00 and 9:00 AM, lunch—between noon and 2:00 PM, and dinner—between 6:00 and 8:00 PM.  To get the bill, raise your hand calling the waiter saying Hashive karely e.  Tipping. There’s no need to leave a tip at street stalls, although it is usual to leave tips of 5-10% in cafes and restaurants. In some restaurants the tip may be included in the bill.All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 9. Pronunciation GuideThe EAT LIKE A NATIVE transliteration system is based on normal American spelling not Armeniantransliteration conventions. There are no special phonetic symbols! We try to make the pronunciation asnatural as possible for a speaker of North American English. These transliterations infuriate language puristsbut which work just fine, especially when you are hungry.EAT LIKE A NATIVE guides try to represent the way most Armenians pronounce words every day. Thismeans that, within the guide, the transliteration might be slightly different in different uses of the sameword. Some consonants, in particular the Armenian aspirated t are pronounced somewhere between twoEnglish standards and may be transliterated using either one (e.g. tea = tey or they). We have used a plain tto avoid confusion with the English th, but if you listen to native speakers, you will hear an intake of breathcalled an aspiration when they say some letters. The guttural kh is very common in Armenian. It is sort ofan h pronounced in the back of the throat. The nine Armenian vowels do not pose any problem for Englishspeakers. Some of very long words are divided into syllables to help you say them more easily.Personal pronouns are not required in many Armenian sentences. Oddly enough, you may insert Yes (ayo)as a kind of substitute for a pronoun to start a sentence, but it is not necessary.Armenians use the words please (khendrem) and thank you (shnora-ka-louth-youn) very often and they alsoexpress politeness in their voice and facial expression.One of the odd and charming speech habits of Armenians is to double up rhyming words in nonsense waysas in "Lets go shopping mopping". You may not hear them at first and when you do they will certainlyconfuse you. Although you might never use these word pairs yourself, it is fun to think about using them inEnglish.Don’t be shy about trying to speak in Armenian, even if you do it very badly. Armenians are flattered thatyou are making the attempt. Try to match the rhythm and stress patterns that you hear. That, along withpronunciation, will help you to be understood.All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 10. ConventionsA forward flash (/) is used to indicate options for ordering, as beef/chicken/fish. Hhimnakan barapashar Basic vocabulary ayo yes voch no outel eat (common) senvel eat (formal) bary akhorjak Enjoy the meal! (bon appetite) (I/Yes) Kaghtsats em I’m hungry tsarav em I’m thirsty (I/Yes) ouzoum em utel… I want to eat… toor eendz… give me… …menyun …menu …hashive …bill/check Vorqan? How much? (I/Yes) ouzoum em want chem ouzoum don’t want Vortegh e restorane? where is a/the restaurant? Vortegh e shoukan? where is a/the market? …guisherayin shoukan? … the evening market? … aravotyan shoukan? … the morning market? Vortegh karely e nestel? where can (I/we) sit? Vortegh e zougarane? where’s the toilet? yev and ov made with het, ee lroumen with, in addition arants without (I/Yes) chem outoum… I don’t eat… mananekh mustard katsakh vinegar skhtor garlic Porotik innards Mees meat Khoz pork Agh salt Gar lamb Tavar beef peghpegh pepper Shakar sugar megher honey Yes boussaker em I’m a vegetarian Yes chem karogh ktsou I can’t eat spicy food outel khmichk beverage Danak knife patarakagh fork Getal spoon Seprots napkin erekhayi ator baby chair Gavath glass Apse plateAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 11. Bajak bowl sarouytsov with ice arants sarouytsy without ice mek bajin single portion mek, yerkous, yereq, chors, one, two, three, four, five hing vets, yot, ut, ine, tas six, seven, eight, nine, ten Mek apse one plate erkou spasq two servings vertsrek take away Nkaragroutyoun Descriptive words sare cold ketzou hot (spicy) tak hot (temperature) kosht hard phaphouk soft metz large poker small aghy salty thethou sour hamemvatz spicy kaghtser sweet youghot mees fatty meat Patrastman eghanaknere Cooking methods tekhvatz baked khorovatz grilled khashatz boiled tapakatz deep fried, pan fried chor dry aghtsatz minced tzkhetsratz smoked thethou dratz pickled shogekhashvatz steamed, stewed letsonvatz stuffed Hamemunqmer Flavorings tevek indz hamemunknere give me the condiments agh salt sev peghpegh black pepper karmir peghpegh chili pepper shakar sugar katsakh vinegar dzeth oil mayonez mayonnaise mananekh mustard ketchoup ketchup kitron lemon/lime skhtor garlic kotcha-pegh-pegh ginger darchin cinnamon tomath tomato paste kaneph hemp seed hil cardamom kenjouth sesame seed kenjouthy dzeth sesame oilAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 12. Hamemounky kanachy Leaves used as condiments rehan basil samith dill maghadinos parsley chaman cumin hamem coriander tharkhoun tarragon spanakh spinach avelook sorrel dandoor purslane bokhy black hornbeam yeghinj nettle kotem water-cress, garden-cress ananoukh mint ourts thyme daghts convolvulus, dodder aghatkegh celery leaves Tsitron savory kathnamterk Dairy Kath milk thethvaser sour-cream Karag butter Panir cheese margarin margarine kathnashor curds matzoun yogurt dzether ev yougher Oils and fats zeytouny dzeth olive oil arevatzaghky dzeth sunflower oil egiptatsoreny dzeth corn oil khozy tcharp pork fat kenjouthy dzeth sesame oil Banjaraghen Vegetables jakendegh beet kaghamb cabbage stepgheen carrot tzaghkakaghamb cauliflower Karavouz celery karavouzy terev celery leaves karmir peghpegh chili pepper yegiptatsoren corn varoong cucumber sembook eggplant kanach peghpegh green pepper getnakhendzor jerusalem artichoke marol lettuce kartofeel potato dedum pumpkin karmir bokhk red radish spitak bokhk white radish lolik tomato hatikaghen ev lobeghen Grains and beans lobeghen beans choratsrats loby dried beans tharm loby fresh beansAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 13. volor peas choratsrats volor dried peas tharm volor fresh peas spitak lobi white beans karmir lobi red beans gorisi lobi goris beans siser chick peas kanach volor green peas sev vosp black lentils kanach vosp green lentils hendkatsoren buckwheat hatchar spelt belghoor bulgur tsoren wheat gary oats brindz rice Kanachi Greens rehan basil samith dill maghadinos parsley chaman cumin hamem spicy herb tarkhoun tarragon kotem garden-cress spinach spinach avelook sorrel dandoor purslane yeghinj nettle sekhtor garlic sokh onions kanach sokh spring onions spitak sokh globe onions klor sokh leeks thoup pickled grape leaves Soonk Mushrooms shampinyon field mushroom tzary soonk woodland mushrooms spitak soonk bolete aghvesik chanterelle karmraglookh soonk orange-cap bolete kechu soonk brown-cup bolete Mirg Fruit tziran apricot (all sorts) khendzor apple (all sorts) kanach khendzor small green apple tandz pear (all sorts) salor plum (all sorts) deghdz peach (all sorts) kitron lemon narinj orange mandareen tangerine noor pomegranate sekh melon dzemerook watermelon adamathouz bananaAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 14. khaghogh grapes (all sorts) arkayakhendzor pineapple spitak thooz white fig thooz fig yelak strawberry spitak keras white cherry (sweet) sev keras black cherry (sweet) karmir keras red cherry (sweet) bal cherry (sour) shpanka black cherry (sour) karmir thooth red mulberry sev thooth black mulberry spitak thooth white mulberry mosh blackberry kokrosh gooseberry sev hagharj black currant karmir hagharj red currant mory raspberry getnamory garden strawberry dzekneghen Fish sevany ishkhan Trout (from lake) jermuk karmrakhayt Trout (from river) sig sig khetsgetin lobster dzeky pahatzo canned fish choratsrats dzouk dried fish khavyar caviar Dzeky khavyar fish roe Tzekhetsvatz dzouk smoked fish therchneghen Poultry hav, tchut chicken bad duck sag goose hendoohav turkey therchnak small birds lor quail tchentchghook sparrows lyard liver tapaka deep fried chicken havov khorovatz roast chicken/duck khoz Pork khozy mees pork meat tcharpot mees fatty pork meat tapaka crisp fried khorovatz barbecued chalaghadj ribs vochkhar Mutton gar lamb vorsy mees Game yeghneek deer tchagar rabbit arj bear kerya turtle tchashatesakner Named dishesAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 15. nakhatchash Breakfast hatz bread lavash lavash khashatz havkith boiled eggs dzevatzegh fried eggs karag butter panir cheese yershikeghen sausages mouraba jam megher honey kath milk sourtch coffee they tea apourner Soups thanabour hot yogurt soup matzoun abour yogurt soup spas yogurt celery soup vospov abour lentil soup dedumov siserov abour chick pea soup with pumpkin kelorikov abour meatball soup havov abour chicken soup banjareghen abour vegetable soup karmir tag jakndegh abour beet soup aghtsan Salads lopy plaki Salad with dried beans lopy aghtzan bean salad tabouleh cracked wheat salad marash aghtzan tomato salad sempoog aghtzan eggplant salad getnakhendzor aghtzan potato salad hovvy aghtzan shepherd’s salad jakendeghov aghtsan beet salad marengo marengo (vegetable salads) lobov pashtet bean paste lezvov pashtet tongue paste mayrakaghakayin Capital city salad meesov kerakour Meat dishes tsirani dolma baked stuffed apricots shish kebab barbecued lamb losh kebab lamb-burgers lule kebab broiled lamb-burgers karpet porov kufta stuffed meatballs khabourga stuffed lamb flank Mesov manti macaroni with ground meat and yogurt manti canoe-shaped dumplings filled with meat Plavov kyabab tass kebab with rice kalajosh lamb cooked with yogurt ghavourma braised beef and lamb yeregamoonk lamb kidneys sempoog kebab eggplant with lamb kebab keghkegh lamb and barleyAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 16. havov sergahfil chicken with quince meesov ddum zucchini with meat sauce meesov bamiya okra with meat sauce khema ev getnakhndzor meat and potato casserole poory Dzoukov kerakour Fish dishes dzouk baked fish apkhtats dzouk smoked fish Khorovats dzouk Barbecued fish Panirov kerakour Cheese dishes panir spanagh yev yerishtacheese spinach and noodle casserole sempoog panir dolma cheese stuffed eggplants khemichq Drinks hyuther fruit juice tziran hyuther apricot juice khendzor hyuther apple juice tandz hyuther pear juice salor etc. plum etc. deghdz peach narinj orange mandareen tangerine noor pomegranate adamathouz banana khaghogh grape arqayakhendzor pineapple tan thin yogurt kath milk sourtch coffee tey tea Thrum or busakan tey Herbal tea karmir gini red wine spitak gini white wine aganderayin gini dry wine kaghtser gini sweet wine konyak cognac oghy vodka garejoor beer hanqayin jerer mineral water shat aghy hankayin jour most salty mineral water mijin aghy hankayin jour medium salty mineral water kich aghy hankayin jour least salty mineral water dzevov kerakour Eggs dishes havkith egg Sovorakan dzevadzegh plain omelet Haratz dzevadzegh scrambled eggs Lolikov dzevadzegh Omelet with tomatoes, pepper and basil Yershikov dzevadzegh Omelet with sausages Kanach volorov dzevadzegh Omelet with green peas Soonkov dzevadzegh Omelet with mushrooms Dzevov kanachy Herbs with onion and eggs havgitov kufta bulgur with eggs and tomatoes bousakan kerakour Vegetarian or Lenten dishesAll right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 17. kerevouz kerakur celery stew prassa leek stew ddumov kerakur squash hamov sempoog tasty eggplant mushosh lentils with apricots tapisov soonk ev kartofil baked potato squares with poori fried mushrooms hats Bread lavash Armenian flatbread Matnaqash, Armenian bun bread Hrazdany hatz, Bread of Hrazdan Choerag West Armenian roll Chor hatz Cracker bread Sev hatz Black bread Spitak hatz White bread Knjouthov hatz Sesame bread Tatiky hatze Grandma’s bread. Khemorichov hatz yeast bread Dzithablith pancakes meza Appetizers and snacks Bastourma Dried beef Soujoukh Spiced dried sausage tapakats panir. fried cheese turnover yalanchy sarma, dolma Stuffed grape leaves tourshi mixed pickles salamorah tourshi pickled peppers stuffed with chopped vegetables thethu Pickles Vegetables Banjaraghen __________Tomato Lolik _____Green pepper Kanach peghpegh ___________Red pepper Karmir peghpegh ____________Eggplant Sembook ______Potato Kartofeel _______Jerusalem artichoke Getnakhendzor ___________Carrot Stepgheen _______Cucumber Varoong ______Beet Jakendegh ________White radish Spitak bokhk __________Red radish Karmir bokhk __________Celery Qaravouz _______Cabbage Kaghamb ______Cauliflower Tzaghkakaghamb ___________Pumpkin Dedum _____Lettuce Marol _____Maize, corn Yegiptatsoren ____________Beans Lobeghen _______White bean Spitak lobi __________Red bean Karmir lobi __________Goris bean Gorisi lobi __________Peas Volor _____Chick peas Siser _____Green peas Kanach volor __________Black lentil Sev vosp _______Green lentil Kanach vosp _________Buckwheat Hendkatsoren __________-All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 18. Spelt Hatchar _____Bulgur Belghoor ______Wheat Tsoren _____Oats Gary ____Rice Brindz _____ ______Green Kanachi _____Basil Rehan _____Dill Samith _________Parsley Maghadinos _____Cumin Chaman _____Spicy herb Hamem ______Tarragon Tarkhoun _____Garden-cress Kotem ______Spinach Spinach ______Sorrel Avelook ______Purslane Dandoor ______Nettle yeghinj ______Garlic Sekhtor _____Onions Sokh ___Spring onions Kanach sokh ________Glob onions Spitak sokh ________Leek Klor sokh _______Mushrooms Soonk ____Field mushroom Shampinyon __________Arboreal mushroom Tzary soonk ________Boletus Spitak soonk _________Chanterelle Aghvesik _______Orange-cap boletus Karmraglookh soonk ______________Brown-cup boletus Kechu soonk ________ Fruit Mirg ____Apricot (all sorts) Tziran _____Apple (all sorts) Khendzor ______Small green apple Kanach khendzor ___________Pear (all sorts) Tandz ____Plum (all sorts) Salor _____Peach (all sorts) Deghdz ____Lemon Kitron ______Orange Narinj ______Tangerine Mandareen ________Pomegranate Noor ___Melon Sekh ___Watermelon Dzemerook _______Banana Adamathouz ________Grapes (all sorts) Khaghogh ______Pineapple Arqayakhendzor ____________White fig Spitak thooz _________Fig Thooz ___Strawberry Yelak _____White cherry (sweet) Spitak keras ___________Black cherry (sweet) Sev keras ________Red cherry (sweet) Karmir keras ___________Cherry Bal ___Black cherry Shpanka ______All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 19. Red mulberry Karmir thooth _________Black mulberry Sev thooth ______White mulberry Spitak thooth _________Blackberry Mosh ___Gooseberry Kokrosh ______Black currant Sev hagharj __________Red currant Karmir hagharj _____________Raspberry Mory ____Garden strawberry Getnamory _________ Fish Dzekneghen ________Trout Sevany ishkhan ___________Trout Jermuk karmrakhayt ________________Sig Sig ___Lobster Khetsgetin ________ Poultry Therchneghen _________Chicken Hav, tchut _______Duck Bad ___Goose Sag ___Turkey Hendoohav ________Small birds Therchnak _______Quail Lor ___Sparrows Tchentchghook _______Liver Lyard _____Deep fried chicken Tapaka ______Roast chicken/duck Havov khorovatz ______________ Pork Khoz ____Pork meat Khozy mees _______Crisp fried Tapaka ______Barbecued Khorovatz _______Ribs Chalaghadj _______Fatty pork meat Tcharpot mees _________ Mutton Vochkhar ______Lamb Gar ___ Game Vorsy mees ________Deer Yeghneek ______Rabbit Tchagar _____Bear Arj ___Turtle Kerya _____Dishes Tchashatesakner ____________ Breakfast Nakhatchash _______Bread Hatz ___Lavash Lavash _____Boiled eggs Khashatz havkith ___________Fried eggs Dzevatzegh _______Butter Karag _____Cheese Panir _____Sausages Yershikeghen __________Jam Mouraba ______Honey Megher _____Milk Kath ___Coffee Sourtch ____Tea They ___All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 20. Soups Apourner ________Hot yogurt soup Thanabour _______Yogurt soup Matzoun abour _________Yogurt celery soup Spas ____Lentil soup Vospov abour __________Chick pea soup with pumpkin Ddumov siserov abour ________________Meatball soup Kelorikov abour _____________Chicken soup Havov abour _________Vegetable soup Banjareghen abour ______________Beet soup Karmir tag jakndegh abour ________________ _____ Salads Aghtsan _____Dried beans Lopy plaki _________Bean salad Lopy aghtzan _________Cracked wheat salad Tabouleh ______Tomato salad Marash aghtzan __________Eggplant salad Sempoog aghtzan ___________Armenian potato salad Getnakhendzor aghtzan ________________Shepherd’s salad Hovvy aghtzan _________Beet salad Jakendeghov aghtsan _______________Marengo (vegetable salads) Marengo _______Bean paste Lobov pashtet ___________Tongue paste Lezvov pashtet ____________Mayraqaghaqayin salad Mayraqaghaqayin salad ________________ ___ Meat, fish dish Meesov, dzoukov kerakour ________________Barbecued lamb shish kebab ________lamb-burgers losh kebab ________broiled lamb-burgers lule kebab _________stuffed meatballs karpet porov kufta ________________stuffed lamb flank khabourga _______macaroni with ground meat mock manti ________and yogurtsmall canoe-shaped dough, manti _____filled with meatpotted lamb tass kebab with rice pilaf _______________lamb-yogurt dish kalajosh _______braised beef and lamb ghavourma _______lamb kidneys yeregamoonk __________baked fish dzouk ___lamb and barley keghkegh ______chicken with quince havov sergahfil _____________bulgur with eggs and tomatoes havgitov kufta _____________cheese stuffed eggplants sempoog panir dolma _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-lentils with apricots mushosh ______cheese spinach noodle panir spanagh yev yerishta ________________casserole _____eggplant with lamb sempoog kebab ___________baked stuffed apricots tsirani dolma ____________zucchini with meat sause meesov ddum __________celery stew kerevouz kerakur ______________okra with meat sauce meesov bamiya ___________meat and potato casserole khema ev getnakhndzor poory ________________leek stew prassa _____All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001
  • 21. squash ddumov kerakur _____________tasty eggplant hamov sempoog ___________backed potato squares with tapisov soonk ev kartofil poori _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _fried mushrooms _________ Drinks Khemichq ______Juices Hyuther ______Apricot Tziran _____Apple Khendzor ______Pear Tandz ____Plum Salor _____Peach Deghdz ____Orange Narinj ______Tangerine Mandareen ________Pomegranate Noor ___Banana Adamathouz ________Grapes Khaghogh ______Pineapple Arqayakhendzor ____________Watery yogurt Tan ___Milk Kath ___Coffee Sourtch ____Tea Tey ___Wine Gini ____Cognac Konyak ______Vodka Oghy ___Beer Garejoor _______Mineral waters Hanqayin jerer _____________All right reserved by Armen Mehrabyan ©2001

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