College Board Review
Professor Armando Castillo Escobar
A sentence is a group of words that express a complete
Ex. 1. Maria went to the mall with Jose.
2. The dog barked at the large bird.
• Sentences begin with a capital letter and end with one of
three punctuation marks: period (.), a question mark (?) or an
• If the sentence does not express a complete thought it is not
a sentence, it’s a fragment.
Ex. 1. Last week I saw
2. Because it was so unreal
If the word group is sentence restate it as a sentence, but if the
group of words is a fragment write fragment next to it.
1. a beautiful day
2. suddenly several cars pulled over
3. the corner crowded with cars
4. people got out throwing up their hands
5. i noticed a large truck a head
6. children ran to pick up candy
7. that fell from the truck
8. i took pictures of the sweet spill
9. that night we
10. mom had a ball eating the candy
Is the person, place or thing about which something
is being said. The subject shows who is speaking,
who is spoken to or the person place or thing spoken
III. Types of Subjects:
1. The Understood Subject: Is a sentence that gives
a command or makes a request. The subject is
understood. Identify it as (you)
Ex. Please close the door. (you)
Assign the points to the good students. (You)
2. The Simple Subject: Is always a noun or a pronoun.
Ex. Joe played in the game.
3. Complete Subject: Is a noun or a pronoun with all it’s
Ex. Joe the basketball player played in the game.
4. Compound Subject: Is when you have two or more subjects
joined by a conjunction. (and, but, or, nor and yet)
Ex. Joe and José played in the game.
IV. Predicates: Tells what the subject does or is.
Ex. The fishing boat is from Denmark.
Types of Predicates
a.Simple predicate is the verb it’s self.
Ex. Sonia rode her bike to school.
The cat meowed all night.
b. Complete Predicate: Is the verb + Modifiers
Ex. Sonia rapidly rode her bike to school.
The Captain is a successful navigator.
Point out the subject from the following sentences
1. Three pelicans and a sea gull flew over the beach.
2. The children and their parents built a sandcastle.
3. Ben, José and Alex played chess in the competition.
4. Please walk in the stadium and watch the children.
5. The microwave beeped and lit a light at the end.
6. Malcolm is a very thoughtful person.
7. The seagull’s feathers were white.
8. The moon shines down on the water.
9. The bicycle’s back tire needed air.
10. Bart, Mike, and Jim went bowling.
Identify the simple predicate first and the Complete predicate
1. Many birds travel south in the fall.
2. They fly to South America in search for good food.
3. The captain gave the crew a night of shore leave.
4. The crew was celebrating a successful catch.
5. The sub captain is a skillful navigator.
6. On the deck stood men in heavy wool jackets.
7. The fishing boat docked in our harbor.
8. The forty pound fish was the largest caught.
9. Blue fish were the easiest to catch.
10.Salmons swam against the high currents.
V. Kinds of Sentences
Kinds of Sentences Example
1. A declarative sentence makes
a statement. It ends with a
The first day is always hard.
2. An Interrogative sentence asks
a question. It ends with a
Will I find my way around the
3. An Imperative sentence gives
a request or gives a command. It
ends with a period.
Please check your schedule.
4. An exclamatory sentence
expresses strong feelings. It
ends with an exclamation point.
What a beautiful school!
Classify the sentences in Declarative, Imperative or
1. Why do you believe that?
2. I want to know why you believe that. (not a question.)
3. Please accept my apology.
4. Your face is frightening the baby!
5. My shoe is on fire!
6. When did you first notice that your shoe was on fire?
7. My doctor told me to take these vitamins.
8. Ask Doris for the recipe.
9. Did you solve the puzzle yet?
10. Ann, hand me your coat.
VI. Analogies: Test your ability to:
a.Recognize between the words in a word pair
b.Recognize when two word pairs display parallel
To answer an analogy question you must:
•Formulate and recognize the relationship between the words
in the given word pair
•Select the answer containing words related to one another in
most nearly the same way
•Recognize when two word pairs display parallel
An analogy is a type of word problem that often appears on standardized
tests. It is made up of two word pairs, like this:
GRACEFUL : CLUMSY :: late : _______
Your goal in solving an analogy is to find a word that correctly completes
the second pair. At first glance the words in an analogy may seem to have
nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related.
Both pairs of words have the same kind of relationship. To solve the
analogy you need to find that relationship. Read the analogy like this:
"Graceful is to clumsy as late is to 'blank.'"
Ask yourself: What is the relationship between graceful and clumsy? They
are antonyms—words that have opposite meanings. The second pair of
words must also be antonyms. Fill in the blank with a word that means the
opposite of late, and you've solved the analogy. Early is the best answer.
Besides antonyms, the word pairs in an analogy could have one of these types of
synonyms, or words that have the same or similar meanings, as in WORK :
descriptive, in which one word describes the other word, as in BLUE : SKY
part to whole, in which one word is a part or piece of the other, as in ARM :
item to category, in which one word names something that falls into the group
named by the other word, as in MILK : BEVERAGE
C. In what ways could two words be related?
•The relationship will always have to do with the
meaning of the words.
Synonyms INFANT: BABY GROWN-UP : ??
Antonyms BIG : SMALL FULL : ??
Part to whole WHEEL : CAR BRANCH : ??
APPLE : FRUIT CARROT : ??
Cause to Effect SLIVER : PAIN HEAT : ??
Matters of Degree WARM : HOT COOL : ??
TRUCK : TRANSPORT OVEN : ??
1. Nickel : five :: quarter : _______________
2. Pot : top :: pit : _______________
3. Sing : sang :: eat : _______________
4. Left : right :: down : _______________
5. Mouse : mammal :: snake : _______________
6. Which : witch :: weather : _______________
7. Automobile : gasoline :: television : _______________
8. Bird : chirp :: cow : _______________
9. Smile : frown :: ugly : _______________
10. Apple : fruit :: carrot : _______________
Practice: Complete each analogy by writing the correct word
in your paper.
Directions: Complete each analogy by writing the correct word on
the blank line.
1. Nickel is to five as quarter is to _______________________.
2. Pot is to top as tip is to _______________________.
3. Sing is to sang as eat is to _______________________.
4. Left is to right as down is to _______________________.
5. Mouse is to mammal as snake is to _______________________.
6. Which is to witch as weather is to _______________________.
7. Automobile is to gasoline as television is to ________________.
8. Bird is to chirp as cow is to _______________________.
9. Smile is to frown as ugly is to _______________________.
10. Castle is to king as igloo is to _______________________.
11. Morning is to breakfast as evening is to ___________________.
12. Bed is to sleeping as chair is to _________________________.
S-V Subject-Verb John sleeps.
Jill is eating.
Jack will arrive next
S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice.
She loves her job.
He's eating an orange.
S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny.
The workers are lazy.
Karen seems angry.
VIl. Basic English Sentence Patterns
There are five basic patterns around which most English
sentences are built. They are as follows:
S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here.
No one was there.
S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my mom.
The men are doctors.
Mr. Jones is the
VIII. Plural Nouns:
A.Singular Nouns: Name one person, place, thing or idea.
Ex. toy, door, car
B. Plural Nouns: Name two or more persons, places, things, or
Ex. toys, doors, cars
Use the following rules to form the correct plurals.
1.For most nouns form the plural by adding “s”
Singular: teacher street pencil house
Plural: teachers streets pencils houses
2. For nouns that end in s,x,z,ch,or sh simply add “es”
Singular: gas wax dish
Plural: gases waxes dishes
3. Nouns that end with a consonant “y” change the “y” to “i”
and add “es” if the letter before the “y” is a vowel add “s”
Singular: sky army penny alley
Plural: skies armies pennies allies
4. Nouns that end in “f” or “fe” form the plural by changing the
“f” for “v” and then add es.
Singular: belief loaf life
Plural: believes loaves lives
•For some simply add “s” or “es”
5. For nouns that end in “o” simply add “es”
Singular: potato tomato
Plural: potatoes tomatoes
6. Nouns that end in “o” that refer to music form the plural by
Singular: piano contralto banjo
Plural: pianos contraltos banjos
7. Some nouns have irregular plural forms.
Singular: child foot tooth woman
Plural: children feet teeth women
8. Some nouns are the same in the Singular & Plural
Singular: sheep Chinese grapefruit moose salmon
Plural: sheep Chinese grapefruit moose salmon
9. Some nouns have only plural forms
Plural: scissors jeans savings dues
10. Some nouns end in “s” look plural but are considered
Singular: news measles economics United States
11. To form the plural of a compound nouns simply add to the
most important part of the noun.
Singular: billboard sister-in-law track meet
Plural: billboards sisters-in- law track meets
Practice: Form the plural of the following nouns:
1. Baby 6. salmon 11. father-in-law
2. Toy 7. clutch 12. story
3. Rash 8. foot 13. rodeo
4. Mirror 9. butterfly 14. radio
5. Physics 10.shampoo 15. valley
Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number
(singular or plural).
Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; if a
subject is plural, its verb must also be plural.
In the present tense, nouns and verbs form plurals in opposite
ways: nouns ADD an s to the singular form; verbs REMOVE
the s from the singular form.
A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You
use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make
your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including
the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the
interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative
pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
Ex. Ana and her sister Maria bought their new car near their
person I me my mine myself
person you you your yours yourself
person (m) he him his his himself
person (f) she her her hers herself
person (n) it it its (not used) itself
person (pl.) we us our ours ourselves
person (pl.) you you your yours yourselves
person (pl) they them their theirs