College board review


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College board review

  1. 1. College Board Review ENGLISH The Sentence Professor Armando Castillo Escobar
  2. 2. I. Definition: A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. Ex. 1. Maria went to the mall with Jose. 2. The dog barked at the large bird. • Sentences begin with a capital letter and end with one of three punctuation marks: period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation point(!) • If the sentence does not express a complete thought it is not a sentence, it’s a fragment. Ex. 1. Last week I saw 2. Because it was so unreal
  3. 3. Practice: If the word group is sentence restate it as a sentence, but if the group of words is a fragment write fragment next to it. 1. a beautiful day 2. suddenly several cars pulled over 3. the corner crowded with cars 4. people got out throwing up their hands 5. i noticed a large truck a head 6. children ran to pick up candy 7. that fell from the truck 8. i took pictures of the sweet spill 9. that night we 10. mom had a ball eating the candy
  4. 4. II. Subjects Is the person, place or thing about which something is being said. The subject shows who is speaking, who is spoken to or the person place or thing spoken about. III. Types of Subjects: 1. The Understood Subject: Is a sentence that gives a command or makes a request. The subject is understood. Identify it as (you) Ex. Please close the door. (you) Assign the points to the good students. (You)
  5. 5. 2. The Simple Subject: Is always a noun or a pronoun. Ex. Joe played in the game. 3. Complete Subject: Is a noun or a pronoun with all it’s modifiers. Ex. Joe the basketball player played in the game. 4. Compound Subject: Is when you have two or more subjects joined by a conjunction. (and, but, or, nor and yet) Ex. Joe and José played in the game. IV. Predicates: Tells what the subject does or is. Ex. The fishing boat is from Denmark.
  6. 6. Types of Predicates a.Simple predicate is the verb it’s self. Ex. Sonia rode her bike to school. The cat meowed all night. b. Complete Predicate: Is the verb + Modifiers Ex. Sonia rapidly rode her bike to school. The Captain is a successful navigator.
  7. 7. Point out the subject from the following sentences 1. Three pelicans and a sea gull flew over the beach. 2. The children and their parents built a sandcastle. 3. Ben, José and Alex played chess in the competition. 4. Please walk in the stadium and watch the children. 5. The microwave beeped and lit a light at the end. 6. Malcolm is a very thoughtful person. 7. The seagull’s feathers were white. 8. The moon shines down on the water. 9. The bicycle’s back tire needed air. 10. Bart, Mike, and Jim went bowling.
  8. 8. Identify the simple predicate first and the Complete predicate last. 1. Many birds travel south in the fall. 2. They fly to South America in search for good food. 3. The captain gave the crew a night of shore leave. 4. The crew was celebrating a successful catch. 5. The sub captain is a skillful navigator. 6. On the deck stood men in heavy wool jackets. 7. The fishing boat docked in our harbor. 8. The forty pound fish was the largest caught. 9. Blue fish were the easiest to catch. 10.Salmons swam against the high currents.
  9. 9. V. Kinds of Sentences Kinds of Sentences Example 1. A declarative sentence makes a statement. It ends with a period. The first day is always hard. 2. An Interrogative sentence asks a question. It ends with a question mark. Will I find my way around the new school? 3. An Imperative sentence gives a request or gives a command. It ends with a period. Don’t panic. Please check your schedule. 4. An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feelings. It ends with an exclamation point. (!) What a beautiful school!
  10. 10. Classify the sentences in Declarative, Imperative or Interrogative, exclamatory! 1. Why do you believe that? 2. I want to know why you believe that. (not a question.) 3. Please accept my apology. 4. Your face is frightening the baby! 5. My shoe is on fire! 6. When did you first notice that your shoe was on fire? 7. My doctor told me to take these vitamins. 8. Ask Doris for the recipe. 9. Did you solve the puzzle yet? 10. Ann, hand me your coat.
  11. 11. VI. Analogies: Test your ability to: a.Recognize between the words in a word pair b.Recognize when two word pairs display parallel relationships To answer an analogy question you must: •Formulate and recognize the relationship between the words in the given word pair •Select the answer containing words related to one another in most nearly the same way •Recognize when two word pairs display parallel relationships
  12. 12. Analogies An analogy is a type of word problem that often appears on standardized tests. It is made up of two word pairs, like this: GRACEFUL : CLUMSY :: late : _______ Your goal in solving an analogy is to find a word that correctly completes the second pair. At first glance the words in an analogy may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related. Both pairs of words have the same kind of relationship. To solve the analogy you need to find that relationship. Read the analogy like this: "Graceful is to clumsy as late is to 'blank.'"
  13. 13. Ask yourself: What is the relationship between graceful and clumsy? They are antonyms—words that have opposite meanings. The second pair of words must also be antonyms. Fill in the blank with a word that means the opposite of late, and you've solved the analogy. Early is the best answer. Besides antonyms, the word pairs in an analogy could have one of these types of relationships: synonyms, or words that have the same or similar meanings, as in WORK : LABOR descriptive, in which one word describes the other word, as in BLUE : SKY part to whole, in which one word is a part or piece of the other, as in ARM : BODY item to category, in which one word names something that falls into the group named by the other word, as in MILK : BEVERAGE
  14. 14. C. In what ways could two words be related? •The relationship will always have to do with the meaning of the words. Synonyms INFANT: BABY GROWN-UP : ?? Antonyms BIG : SMALL FULL : ?? Part to whole WHEEL : CAR BRANCH : ?? Member to Category APPLE : FRUIT CARROT : ?? Cause to Effect SLIVER : PAIN HEAT : ?? Matters of Degree WARM : HOT COOL : ?? Object to Function TRUCK : TRANSPORT OVEN : ??
  15. 15. 1. Nickel : five :: quarter : _______________ 2. Pot : top :: pit : _______________ 3. Sing : sang :: eat : _______________ 4. Left : right :: down : _______________ 5. Mouse : mammal :: snake : _______________ 6. Which : witch :: weather : _______________ 7. Automobile : gasoline :: television : _______________ 8. Bird : chirp :: cow : _______________ 9. Smile : frown :: ugly : _______________ 10. Apple : fruit :: carrot : _______________ Practice: Complete each analogy by writing the correct word in your paper.
  16. 16. Directions: Complete each analogy by writing the correct word on the blank line. 1. Nickel is to five as quarter is to _______________________. 2. Pot is to top as tip is to _______________________. 3. Sing is to sang as eat is to _______________________. 4. Left is to right as down is to _______________________. 5. Mouse is to mammal as snake is to _______________________. 6. Which is to witch as weather is to _______________________. 7. Automobile is to gasoline as television is to ________________. 8. Bird is to chirp as cow is to _______________________. 9. Smile is to frown as ugly is to _______________________. 10. Castle is to king as igloo is to _______________________. 11. Morning is to breakfast as evening is to ___________________. 12. Bed is to sleeping as chair is to _________________________.
  17. 17. S-V Subject-Verb John sleeps. Jill is eating. Jack will arrive next week. S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice. She loves her job. He's eating an orange. S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny. The workers are lazy. Karen seems angry. VIl. Basic English Sentence Patterns There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built. They are as follows:
  18. 18. S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here. Flowers are everywhere. No one was there. S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my mom. The men are doctors. Mr. Jones is the teacher.
  19. 19. VIII. Plural Nouns: A.Singular Nouns: Name one person, place, thing or idea. Ex. toy, door, car B. Plural Nouns: Name two or more persons, places, things, or ideas. Ex. toys, doors, cars Use the following rules to form the correct plurals. 1.For most nouns form the plural by adding “s” Singular: teacher street pencil house Plural: teachers streets pencils houses 2. For nouns that end in s,x,z,ch,or sh simply add “es” Singular: gas wax dish Plural: gases waxes dishes
  20. 20. 3. Nouns that end with a consonant “y” change the “y” to “i” and add “es” if the letter before the “y” is a vowel add “s” Singular: sky army penny alley Plural: skies armies pennies allies 4. Nouns that end in “f” or “fe” form the plural by changing the “f” for “v” and then add es. Singular: belief loaf life Plural: believes loaves lives •For some simply add “s” or “es” Ex. Roof/roofs
  21. 21. 5. For nouns that end in “o” simply add “es” Singular: potato tomato Plural: potatoes tomatoes 6. Nouns that end in “o” that refer to music form the plural by adding “s” Singular: piano contralto banjo Plural: pianos contraltos banjos 7. Some nouns have irregular plural forms. Singular: child foot tooth woman Plural: children feet teeth women 8. Some nouns are the same in the Singular & Plural Singular: sheep Chinese grapefruit moose salmon Plural: sheep Chinese grapefruit moose salmon
  22. 22. 9. Some nouns have only plural forms Plural: scissors jeans savings dues 10. Some nouns end in “s” look plural but are considered singular. Singular: news measles economics United States 11. To form the plural of a compound nouns simply add to the most important part of the noun. Singular: billboard sister-in-law track meet Plural: billboards sisters-in- law track meets
  23. 23. Practice: Form the plural of the following nouns: 1. Baby 6. salmon 11. father-in-law 2. Toy 7. clutch 12. story 3. Rash 8. foot 13. rodeo 4. Mirror 9. butterfly 14. radio 5. Physics 10.shampoo 15. valley
  24. 24. Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb must also be singular; if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural. In the present tense, nouns and verbs form plurals in opposite ways: nouns ADD an s to the singular form; verbs REMOVE the s from the singular form.
  25. 25. VIII. Pronouns A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun. Ex. Ana and her sister Maria bought their new car near their home.
  26. 26. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessiv e Adjectives Possessiv e Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns 1st person I me my mine myself 2nd person you you your yours yourself 3rd person (m) he him his his himself 3rd person (f) she her her hers herself 3rd person (n) it it its (not used) itself 1st person (pl.) we us our ours ourselves 2nd person (pl.) you you your yours yourselves 3rd person (pl) they them their theirs themselve s Pronoun Chart
  27. 27. Reading Comprehension
  28. 28. Reading Comprehension