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Active and Passive Voice --- Arman
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Active and Passive Voice --- Arman

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  • 1. Defining “Voice” • “Voice” is a characteristic of verbs which indicates the relation of the verb’s action to its subject. • The voice of a verb may be either “active” or “passive.”
  • 2. Active & Passive Active Voice Form • When we want to say that the subject of a sentence is doing the action, we use the verb of that sentence in its Active form: • e.g. A man is cutting down a tree. ‘A man’ = subject -- doing the action -- cutting - Active Done by : Arman 3
  • 3. Active & Passive Passive Voice Form • When we want to say that the subject of a sentence is not doing anything but is allowing something to be done to it by somebody else, we use the Passive Voice form: e.g. A tree is being cut down by a man. ‘A tree’ = subject = not doing anything, but allowing ‘a man’ to cut it. Passive 2-11-2012 Arman 4
  • 4. Active-Passive Voice – example 1 • Goutham is carrying the girl. Active Voice goutham= subject is carrying = verb the girl = object of the verb Who is doing the action of carrying? = ‘goutham’ – subject of the sentence 02-11-2012 Arman 5
  • 5. Active-Passive Voice – example 2 • The girl is being carried by Goutham. Passive Voice The girl = subject is being carried = verb by = preposition Goutham= object of the preposition ‘by’ Who is doing the action of carrying? = Not ‘The girl’, the subject, but ‘Goutham’, the object 02-11-2012 6
  • 6. Active-Passive Voice – changes 1 • Clavin reads a book every day. Active Voice ‘Clavin’ -- the subject of the Active sentence… A book is read every day by Clavin. Passive Voice ‘by Clavin’ – object of the preposition ‘by’ The subj ect of t he Act ive sent ence becomes t he obj ect of t he pr eposit ion in t he Passive sent ence! 7
  • 7. Active-Passive Voice – changes 2 • Clavin reads a book every day. Active Voice ‘reads’ – verb of the Active sentence A book is read every day by Clavin. Passive voice The Active form of the verb in Active sentence is changed into the Passive form in Passive sentence. ‘reads’ becomes “is read”! 8
  • 8. Active-Passive Voice – not e 1 • He cooks food. Active Voice ‘food’ – object of the verb – singular Food is cooked by him. Passive Voice ‘Food’ – subject of the passive sentence – singular, so ‘is cooked’ -verb singular When the subject of a sentence is singular, the verb must also be in singular 9
  • 9. Active-Passive Voice – not e 2 • When the subject of a sentence is Plural, the verb of that sentence must be Plural: • Joshua carried some books. Active Voice ‘some books’ -- object of the verb in Active – Plural Some books were carried by Joshua. Passive Voice ‘were carried’ – verb – ‘were’ plural / ‘books’ plural 10
  • 10. Active-Passive Voice -- not e 3 • Shelvin has signed ten letters. Active Voice ‘Shelvin’ – subject; ‘has’ – part of the verb – singular ‘ten letters’ – object of the verb in Active -- plural Ten letters have been signed by Shelvin. Passive Voice ‘Ten letters’ – subject – plural; ‘have been signed’ verb – ‘have’ -- plural 11
  • 11. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 1 • Shelvin bakes cakes. Active ‘bakes’ – verb – Simple Present Tense Cakes are baked by Shelvin. Passive Voice ‘are baked’ – verb – Simple Present Tense 12
  • 12. Active-Passive – Tense Change 2 • He is building a sand castle. ‘is building’ – verb – present continues tense – ACTIVE VOICE FORM A sand castle is being built by him. ‘is being built’ – verb – present continues tense PASSIVE VOICE FORM 13
  • 13. Active-Passive -- Tense Change 3 • He has drawn a picture. ‘has drawn’ – verb – present perfect tense ACTIVE VOICE A picture has been drawn by him. ‘has been drawn’ – verb – present perfect tense PASSIVE VOICE 14
  • 14. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 4 • She told me a secret. Active Voice ‘told’ – verb – simple past tense A secret was told (to) me by her. Passive Voice ‘was told’ – verb – simple past tense 15
  • 15. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 5 • The postman was delivering the post. ‘was delivering’ -- verb -- Past Continuous Tense ACTIVE VOICE FORM The post was being delivered by the postman. ‘was being delivered’ -- verb -- Past continuous Tense PASSIVE VOICE FORM 16
  • 16. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 6 • According to the traditional grammar rules, the past perfect continuous tense is not used in Passive form; however, in the contemporary English, there are occasions where the past perfect tense is used in the Passive Form, too! • He had been writing letters for half an hour before somebody called him out. • Letters had been being written for half an hour (by him) before somebody called him out. 17
  • 17. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 7 They will give the beggar some money. ‘will give’ -- verb -- simple future tense -- Active The beggar will be given some money by them. ‘will be given’ -- verb -- simple future tense -- Passive 18
  • 18. Active-Passive -- Tense Change 8 • According to the traditional grammar rules, the future continuous tense in the Active is not used in Passive Voice Form. • e.g. They will be playing with fireworks by the time their father reaches home. Active ‘will be playing’ – verb – future continuous -------- NO PASSIVE -------19
  • 19. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 09 • According to the traditional grammar rules, the future perfect continuous tense is not used in the Passive Voice Form: e.g. You will have been working on the course material for 2 hours by 6 in the evening. ‘will have been working’ – verb – Future Perfect Continuous Tense – Active ---------- NO CHANGE ---------- 20
  • 20. Active-Passive Voice – Tense Change 10 The Modal Auxiliary (helping) Verbs in Passive Voice Form take ‘be’: e.g. He will give you a book. Active Voice You will be given a book by him. Passive e.g. They can pick a number. Active Voice A number can be picked by them. Passive e.g. We must finish this job. Active Voice This job must be finished by us. Passive 21
  • 21. Active-Passive Voice – not e 1 • The Subject of the active voice sentence becomes the object of the preposition in the Passive Voice sentence. The preposition is usually ‘by’ when the object is a person, and ‘with’ when the object is a thing, such as a knife, gun, arrow, etc. • e.g. The hunter shot the deer with an arrow. Active The deer was shot with an arrow by the hunter. Passive ‘an arrow’ -- a thing – preposition ‘with’ ‘a hunter’ -- a person -- preposition ‘by’ 22
  • 22. Active-Passive Voice – not e 2 • When there are two objects of the verb in the active voice sentence, we can change that active sentence into passive in two way: using the first object in one sentence and the second object in the other. 23
  • 23. Active-Passive Voice – not e 2 (cont inued) • e.g. The teacher teaches you a lesson. Active ‘you’ – object of the verb / ‘a lesson’ – object of the verb (A) You are taught a lesson by the teacher. Passive (B) A lesson is taught to you by the teacher. Passive 24
  • 24. Active-Passive Voice -- not e 3 • In writing the Passive Voice, in most cases, the preposition – ‘by’ or ‘with’ – and its object are not used, because they are understood: • e.g. The cook made me an omelette. Active Voice An omelette was made for me by the cook. . Passive Voice 25
  • 25. Remember this table: Tense (or Modal+base) Active Voice Passive Voice Simple present take takes Present continuous am taking is taking are taking have taken has taken took was taking were taking had taken am taken is taken are taken am being taken is being taken are being taken have been taken has been taken was taken were taken was being taken were being taken had been taken will take shall take can take must take will be taken shall be taken can be taken must be taken Present perfect Simple past Past continuous Past perfect Simple future can/may/must,etc.+base
  • 26. Can you remember the past participles of these verbs? Fill in the blank. read found find Check made eaten Check eat sung Check Check sing cut cut Check make taught teach Check read seen Check see Check ОУ “Христо Ботев” с.Садина, общ.Попово
  • 27. Fill in the blank is produced A lot of coffee in Brazil. (produce) Check are called A lot of dogs in England Ben. (call) Check
  • 28. Fill in the blank are used A million drawings Check in The Lion King. (use) Check by his friend, Joshua. is found Simba (find)
  • 29. Complete each sentence in the passive.  People eat millions of bars of chocolate every day! Millions of bars of chocolate every day! are eaten Check  We plant hundreds of trees every year. Hundreds of trees every year. are planted Check
  • 30. Complete each sentence in the passive.  Nowadays people cut down many trees for no reason. Nowadays many trees for no reason. are cut down Check  A Portuguese person teaches my sister. My sister by a Portuguese person. is taught Check
  • 31. Complete each sentence in the passive.  People read millions of newspapers every day. Millions of newspapers every day. are read Check  Shenin and Joyal publish Arman’s new book. Arman’s new book by Shenin and Joyal. is published Check
  • 32. In these examples, spot the use of the active voice and the passive voice. The music was played by Sharika. passive The sun was hidden by the clouds. passive Delighted fans streamed onto the pitch. active Marie wrote the letter to the headteacher. active Danny was praised by the headteacher. passive 34
  • 33. Exercise 1: Choose Active or Passive Put “A” for Active, “P” for Passive: 1. The boy banged on the table. 2. A girl was bitten by a dog. 3. Mrs Wong washes her car every Sunday. 4. The library was broken into last night. 5. I lost my dictionary. 6. The floor is swept by the maid. [ [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] ]
  • 34. Choose Active or Passive (Answers) Put “A” for Active, “P” for Passive: 1. The boy banged on the table. [A] 2. A girl was bitten by a dog. [ P] 3. The floor is swept by the maid. [ P] 4. The library was broken into last night. [P] 5. I lost my dictionary. [A] 6. Mrs Wong washes her car every Sunday. [A]
  • 35. Exercise 2: Multiple Choice 1. The fire ___________ out by the firemen. is put A. puts B. is put C. put
  • 36. made 2. Shelvin ______________ a sandwich. A. make B. are made C. is made D. made
  • 37. 3. A present ____________ to me by the was given English teacher. A. gave B. was given c. given
  • 38. Exercise 3: Fill in the blanks There is a dog which 1)_______(call) is called Bubbles”. It 2) ___________ (own) is owned is kept by Michael Johnson. It 3)_________ is fed (keep) in his home. It 4)___________ (feed) every day by Michael Johnson is dressed himself. It 5) __________(dress) in is said funny clothes. It 6)_________(say) that “Bubbles” is Johnson’s only friend.
  • 39. Exercise 4: Change active to passive 1) The policemen catch the thief. Ans: The thief is caught by the policemen. 2) The girl puts on a beautiful dress. Ans: A beautiful dress is put on by the girl.
  • 40. Exercise 5: Change passive to active 1) The dishes are washed by Amy. Ans: Amy washes the dishes. 2) The car is repaired by Arman and Clavin. Ans: Clavin and Arman repair the car.
  • 41. Exercise 6: Multiple Choice 1. A song ____________ by Goutham. was sung A) sang B) was sung C) sung
  • 42. 2. These houses _________ by the workmen. were built A) built B) was built C) were built
  • 43. 3. Mr. Pitbul __________ in 2005 . died A) die B) died C) was died
  • 44. Exercise 7: Fill in the blanks Two men were seen breaking into a house in my street last night. The police 1) __________ (call) and they arrived were called very was caught quickly. One man 2) ___________ (catch) immediately. The other escaped, but he was found 3) _________ (find) very soon. Both men were taken 4) __________ (take) to the police station were questioned and 5) _____________ (question)separatewere charged ly by a police officer. The two men 6) ___________ (charge) with burglary.
  • 45. Exercise 8: Change active to passive 1) I drew a picture yesterday. Ans: A picture was drawn by me yesterday. 2) Lisa bought some books two days ago. Ans: Some books were bought by Lisa two days ago.
  • 46. Exercise 9: Change passive to active 1) The problems were solved by Jack. Ans: Jack solved the problems. 2) The house was painted by the painter. Ans: The painter painted the house.
  • 47. Revision Exercise: Multiple Choice 1. His secretary _____________ that report wrote last Friday. A) writes B) is written C) wrote D) was written
  • 48. 2. Joshua’s watch was stolen by a thief _________ yesterday. A) B) C) D) steals is stolen stole was stolen
  • 49. 3. Mary always _________ care of her baby takes sister. A) B) C) D) takes is taken took was taken
  • 50. 4. The furniture _________ by the maid every is dusted day. A) B) C) D) dusts is dusted dusted was dusted
  • 51. Revision Exercise: Fill in the blanks Fred owns (own) a fast food shop in Central. are prepared Food, drinks and snacks ___________________ (prepare) by his workers early every morning. entered This morning, when Fred ______(enter) the kitchen of his fast food shop, he saw that everybody was very were done busy. It seemed that two jobs ____________ (do) at the same time by every worker in the kitchen. was were toasted He _____ (be) very happy. Sandwiches _____________ were made (toast) while tea _____________ (make). Potato chips were fried were baked ________ (fry) while apple pies __________ (bake). like Many people _______ (like) to buy fish and chips at Fred’s fast food shop. Besides, more were sold than 300 chicken wings _________ (sell) every day.

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