Dalton's Atomic Theory
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  • 1. DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY<br />5566410241935539940527622552082702762255490820400253539496022860587819513716058775603975105697220353060581977527432055213259207556997609525053606701270005160010933451) All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. For example, atoms of oxygen.<br />Oxygen atomsHydrogen atoms<br />53841652298705308600439420520065056007054102005600705178425344170528320013462051625501790705683250534670588137056642058801002298705810250375920573405017907056388003441702) All atoms of a particular element are identical, but the atoms of one element differ from the atoms of any other element. Each element has unique atoms.<br /> • Oxygen•Carbon•Hydrogen9852084699725492313334118570420512573052451001047753) Atoms of different elements combine with each other in certain whole-number proportions to form compounds. For example, water (H2O) is a combination of one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen.<br />4) In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged to form new compounds; they are not created, destroyed, nor changed into atoms of any other element.<br />There were three fundamental laws established by Dalton and other scientists of his time to support the atomic theory. These laws are the:<br />a) Law of Conservation of Mass<br />The law of conservation of mass states that in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed, or, more accurately, there is no detectable change in mass during an ordinary chemical reaction.<br />b) Law of Definite Proportions<br />The law of definite proportions states that different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.<br />c) The Law of Multiple Proportions<br />The law of multiple proportions states that the mass of one element that can combine with a fixed mass of another element are in a ratio of small whole numbers.<br />