Ishikawa introduced new meaning for “total quality control” which means “company wide quality control”. He described how all employees, from top management to the workers must participate in quality control.
Late 1970s Company wide quality management became common in Japanese companies.
1983 - The National Quality Campaign was launched using BS5750 main theme. The aim was to popularize to the industry the importance of quality for competitiveness and survival in the world market. Since then the International Standardisation Organization (ISO) 9000 became the internationally recognised standard for quality management systems.
TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness , effectiveness and flexibility of an organization for the benefit of all stakeholders.
It is a way of planning , organizing and undertaking each activity and of removing all the wasted effort and energy that is routinely spent in organizations.
It ensures the leaders to adopt a strategic overview of quality and focus on prevention not detection of problems.
The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces, both externally and internally, and at each interface lie a number of processes . This core must be surrounded by commitment to quality, communication of the quality message, and recognition of the need to change the culture of the organisation to create total quality. These are the foundations of TQM, and they are supported by the key management functions of people , processes and systems in the organisation.
Quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations” . These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price.
Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers.
Every person in the “quality chain” must be trained to ask the ff. questions:
Who are my customers?
What are their true needs and expectations?
How do, or can, I find out what these are?
How I can measure my ability to meet their needs and expectations?
Do I have their capability to meet their needs and expectations? (if not, hat must I do to improve this capability?)
Do I continually meet their needs and expectations?
How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations?
Being fully aware of customers’ needs and expectations, each person must respect the needs and expectations of their suppliers. The ideal situation is an open partnership style relationship, where both parties share and benefit.
All senior managers must demonstrate their seriousness and commitment to quality, and middle managers must demonstrate their commitment; ensure they communicate the principles, strategies and benefits to the people for whom they have responsibility. Only then the right attitudes spread throughout the organization.
Processes the transformation of a set of inputs, which can include action, methods and operations, into the desired outputs, which satisfy the customers’ needs and expectations.
People who actually do the job or carry out the process, each of which has one or several suppliers and customers. An efficient and effective way to tackle process or quality improvement is through teamwork.
Management systems involves proper adoption and documentation of appropriate management systems
Performance Measurement Once the strategic direction for the organization’s quality journey has been set, it needs Performance Measures to monitor and control the journey, and to ensure the desired level of performance is being achieved and sustained.
By definition, a guru is a good person, a wise person and a teacher. A quality guru should be all of these, and must have a concept and approach to quality within business that has made a major and lasting impact.
W Edwards Deming PDCA Cycle The cycle is about learning and ongoing improvement, learning what works and what does not in a systematic way; and the cycle repeats; after one cycle is complete, another is started.
Juran believed quality is associated with customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the product, and emphasised the necessity for ongoing quality improvement through a succession of small improvement projects carried out throughout the organisation.
Feigenbaum is the originator of “total quality control”. He defined total quality control as:
“ An effective system for integrating quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the various groups within an organisation, so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels that allow full customer satisfaction”.
Ishikawa. . . Fishbone or Cause and Effect Diagram The diagram systematically represents and analyses the real causes behind a problem or effect. It organises the major and minor contributing causes leading to one effect (or problem), defines the problem, identifies possible and probable causes by narrowing down the possible ones.
“ Taguchi methodology” is fundamentally a prototyping method that enables the designer to identify the optimal settings to produce a robust product that can survive manufacturing time after time, piece afterpiece, and provide what the customer wants.