PRINCIPLE #1                 RHIZOME                                                                     GRASSROOTSDYNAMIC...
PRINCIPLE #2              MEMBRANE                                                                  FILMDYNAMICThe term me...
PRINCIPLE #3                    EXERGY                                                                    QUALITYDYNAMICEx...
PRINCIPLE #4              PANARCHY                                                                   NESTINGDYNAMICPanarch...
PRINCIPLE #5                 SYNERGY                                                                  SUM OF PARTSDYNAMICS...
PRINCIPLE #6              INTEGRAL                                                                   OPTIMALDYNAMICIntegra...
PRINCIPLE #7      EMPOWERMENT                                                                  DECENTRALIZEDDYNAMICEmpower...
PRINCIPLE #8                 LEARNING                                                                     DOUBLE LOOP/DYNA...
PRINCIPLE #9               METABOLIC                                                                    CELLDYNAMICMetabol...
PRINCIPLE #10            EMERGENCE                                                                   SWARM/ MESHDYNAMICEve...
PRINCIPLE #11            SYMBIOSIS                                                                    INTERDEPENDENTDYNAMI...
PRINCIPLE #12               CYCLICAL                                                                      SEASONSDYNAMICA ...
PRINCIPLE #13              NETWORKED                                                                  NODES, & SPOKESDYNAM...
PRINCIPLE #14                          FLOW                                                                   PRESENCEDYNA...
PRINCIPLE #15               BACTERIA                                                                  COLONIESDYNAMICThere...
PRINCIPLE #16           INTELLIGENT                                                                    COLLECTIVE INFORMAT...
PRINCIPLE #17   PERMACULTURE                                                                  NATURAL PATTERNSDYNAMICPerma...
PRINCIPLE #18              ECOSYSTEM                                                                             I=input  ...
PRINCIPLE #19                   MARKETS                                                                      CONVERSATIONS...
PRINCIPLE #20                  QUANTUMDYNAMIC                                                         FIELDS & WAVESIn a q...
PRINCIPLE #21          BOUNDARIESDYNAMIC                                                       REFLECTION/ ABSORPTIONA sys...
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Principles 2050 EC2050


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A first draft of harvesting all admissions from the Design Challenge Energetic City 2050 describing the 20 change dynamics/ energy systems used.

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Principles 2050 EC2050

  1. 1. PRINCIPLE #1 RHIZOME GRASSROOTSDYNAMICA rhizome is a stem of a plantt hat is usually found underground, often sending outroots and shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes may also be referred to as creepingrootstalks or rootstocks. If a rhizome is separated into pieces, each piece may be ableto give rise to a new plant. This is a process known as vegetative reproduction and isused by farmers and gardeners to propagate certain plants.SOCIALAs a model for culture, the rhizome resists the organizational structure of the root-tree system which charts causality along chronological lines and looks for theoriginary source of "things" and looks towards the pinnacle or conclusion of those"things." A rhizome, on the other hand, is characterized by "ceaselessly establishedconnections between semiotic chains, organizations of power, and circumstancesrelative to the arts, sciences, and social struggles." Rather than narrativize history andculture, the rhizome presents history and culture as a map or wide array ofattractions and influences with no specific origin or genesis, for a "rhizome has nobeginning or end; it is always in the middle, between things, interbeing, intermezzo.”SPATIALAt the end of the day the rhizome is able to do what it can do because it is alive and isself replicating and self repairing.
  2. 2. PRINCIPLE #2 MEMBRANE FILMDYNAMICThe term membrane most commonly refers to a thin, film-like structure thatseparates two fluids. It acts as a selective barrier, allowing some particles orchemicals to pass through, but not others. In some cases, especially in anatomy,membrane may refer to a thin film that is primarily a separating structure rather thana selective barrier.SOCIALThe image of the biological cell has become one of the reigning metaphors as afundamental assumption about human identity: the idea that selfhood requiresboundaries showing where the individual ends and the rest of the world begins. It allstarts with the notion that impermeable personal and national borders areincreasingly dangerous; boundaries between science and the humanities are blurringby proposing a notion of identity based on relations and connections.SPATIALTranslucent or transparent, flexible, strong, energy-efficient and dazzling, designsincluding membrane materials have opened up new perspectives in architecture.From small awnings to vast stadiums, membranes easily inspire new forms. Self-supporting curved surfaces are a reality. Light is incorporated more thoroughly thanever before. Strength and fire-resistance bring a functional yet striking style to adiverse range of projects and functions.
  3. 3. PRINCIPLE #3 EXERGY QUALITYDYNAMICExergy is the energy that is available to be used. After the system and surroundingsreach equilibrium, the exergy is zero. The destroyed exergy has been called anergy.The cumulative exergy consumption of a good is a sum of the exergy decreases thatoccurred in order to create it. The ratio of exergy to energy in a substance can beconsidered a measure of energy quality.SOCIALExergy is the fuel for dissipative systems, i.e. systems that are sustained by convertingenergy and matter, e.g. a living cell, an organism, an eco-system, the Earths surfacewith its material cycles, or a society. The exergy concept should, therefore, be usedsystematically to describe such systems scientifically. Human settlements andlandscapes are part of the physical environment, which is governed by the Laws ofThermodynamics.SPATIALThe key question is whether second-law thinking can advance the planning anddesign of exergetic landscapes or, more specifically, whether spatial planning anddesign can help reduce exergy destruction in the built environment. The assimilationof renewable energies will claim space in the landscape, while the spatialorganisation of the physical environment will influence how much energy at whichquality is required to sustain humanity. That is why we believe that landscapes shoulddevelop into highly structured and symbiotic life-support systems thatmaximiseexergy dissipation and minimise entropy production.
  4. 4. PRINCIPLE #4 PANARCHY NESTINGDYNAMICPanarchy is the structure in which systems, including those of nature (e.g., forests)and of humans (e.g., capitalism), as well as combined human-natural systems (e.g.,institutions that govern natural resource use such as the Forest Service), areinterlinked in continual adaptive cycles of growth, accumulation, restructuring, andrenewal. The cross-scale, interdisciplinary, and dynamic nature of the theory has ledus to coin the term panarchy for it. Its essential focus is to rationalize the interplaybetween change and persistence, between the predictable and unpredictable.”SOCIALPanarchy, a term devised to describe evolving hierarchical systems with multipleinterrelated elements, offers an important new framework for understanding andresolving this dilemma. Panarchy is the structure in which systems, including those ofnature and of humans, as well as combined human-natural systems, are interlinked incontinual adaptive cycles of growth, accumulation, restructuring, and renewal. Thesetransformational cycles take place at scales ranging from a drop of water to thebiosphere, over periods from days to geologic epochsSPATIALPanarchitecture is a kind of hybrid thinking that combines insights and practices fromarchitectural thinking with those from ecological thinking—specifically the ecologicalthinking known as panarchy.Panarchy (as a metaphor) seems to be useful in providingalternative insights into neighbourhood dynamics.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE #5 SYNERGY SUM OF PARTSDYNAMICSynergy is two or more things functioning together to produce a result notindependently obtainable, the ability of a group to outperform even its bestindividual member. A third form of human synergy is when one person is able tocomplete two separate tasks by doing one action.SOCIAL. Effective groups actively lood for the points in which they disagreed and inconsequence encouraged conflicts amongst the participants in the early stages of thediscussion. In contrast, the ineffective groups felt a need to establish a common viewquickly, used simple decision making methods such as averaging, and focused oncompleting the task rather than on finding solutions they could agree on.] In atechnical context, its meaning is a construct or collection of different elementsworking together to produce results not obtainable by any of the elements alone.SPATIALThe elements, or parts, can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies,documents: all things required to produce system-level results. The value added bythe system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, iscreated primarily by the relationship among the parts, that is, how they areinterconnected. In essence, a system constitutes a set of interrelated componentsworking together with a common objective: fulfilling some designated need
  6. 6. PRINCIPLE #6 INTEGRAL OPTIMALDYNAMICIntegration is an important concept in mathematics and, together with its inverse,differentiation, is one of the two main operations in calculus.SOCIALIntegral society is best understood as Global Civil Society’s answer to the malady ofmodernism. It is most easily seen via the “web” metamorphosis sweeping throughevery facet of today’s increasingly global civilization. Thus, after 300 years of greatexpectations leading to stark realities, western civilization is abandoning modernculture’s machine story of life and sweeping into the Integral Era with a brand-newweb worldview. Already visible in concepts such as global economy, global village,holistic health, One Planet, and the World Wide Web, every facet of our society—from business, education and medicine to community building, politics andspirituality — is being recast in kind.SPATIALUrban design success should be measured by its capacity to support humanity.Integral city or urbanism offers guideposts along that path toward a more sustainablehuman habitat. To embrace convergence, clearing Blockages, Alignment, and acrossthe Fissures., Integral Urbanism must embody five qualities: Hybridity, Connectivity,Porosity, Authenticity, and Vulnerability.
  7. 7. PRINCIPLE #7 EMPOWERMENT DECENTRALIZEDDYNAMICEmpowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, educational, genderor economic strength of individuals and communities. The process which enablesindividuals/groups to fully access personal/collective power, authority and influence,and to employ that strength when engaging with other people, institutions or society.In other words, “Empowerment is not giving people power, people already haveplenty of power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobsmagnificently. We define empowerment as letting this power out: self-managinggroups, create autonomy through boundaries, share.SOCIALSociological empowerment often addresses members of groups that socialdiscrimination processes have excluded from decision-making processes. Itencourages people to gain the skills and knowledge that will allow them to overcomeobstacles in life or work environment and ultimately, help them develop withinthemselves or in the society. Empowerment may also have a negative impact onindividuals, corporations and productivity depending on an individuals views andgoals. It can divide the genders or the racesSPATIALCase studies from across the world demonstrate that the architecture ofempowerment has already proved a successful and versatile solution to revitalisinghistoric cities, upgrading slums and creating new settlements.
  8. 8. PRINCIPLE #8 LEARNING DOUBLE LOOP/DYNAMIC PRAGMATISMLearning from experience is one of the most fundamental forms of learning but it hastended to be less valued within formal education until recently. Within professionaleducation our interest is not so much in learning from a single experience, or learningin the short term; but more in a long term, developmental process that enableslearners to develop well grounded professional knowledge and skills. The termreflective, refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselvesSOCIALReflective thinking and the perception of relationships arise only in problematicalsituations. As long as our interaction with our environment is a fairly smooth affairwe may think of nothing or merely daydream, but when this untroubled state ofaffairs is disrupted we have a problem which must be solved before the untroubledstate can be restored.SPATIALHuman intelligence is the basic bio-cultural good of his democratic method of socialreconstruction, which begins with the kind of naturalistic biological understandingthat is crucial to environmental practice. It is a mistake to conceive of the humanmind as a tabula rasa, or blank slate, upon which any notions whatsoever can beimprinted, is that all genuinely educative experience arises from “the native structureof our body, organs, and their functional activities and their direct interaction withthe environment.” In short, the relationship between the body’s natural needs and itsgiven historically and geographically contingent environment furnishes “the initiatingand limiting forces in all education.”
  9. 9. PRINCIPLE #9 METABOLIC CELLDYNAMICMetabolism is the set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of livingorganisms to sustain life. The metabolism of an organism determines whichsubstances it will find nutritious and which it will find poisonous.. Metabolism isusually divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter, forexample to harvest energy in cellular respiration. Anabolism uses energy to constructcomponents of cells such as proteins and nucleic acidsSOCIALOne central concept in Marx’s thought on this topic is that of the “social metabolism”between the mankind and nature. Marx came to this concept thanks to the works ofthe agro-chemist Liebig, who had produced evidence that urbanization had brokenup the nutrient cycle: mineral matter incorporated in food, clothes, etc. was exportedto cities and eventually polluted the rivers and the sea, instead of going back into thesoil as it had in pre-capitalist societies.SPATIALUrban Metabolism is a model to facilitate the description and analysis of the flows ofthe materials and energy within cities. The use of the Urban Metabolism model offersbenefits to studies of the sustainability of cities by providing a unified or holisticviewpoint to encompass all of the activities of a city in a single model: “the sum totalof the technical and socio-economic processes that occur in cities, resulting ingrowth, production of energy, and elimination of waste.
  10. 10. PRINCIPLE #10 EMERGENCE SWARM/ MESHDYNAMICEvery resultant is either a sum or a difference of the co-operant forces; their sum,when their directions are the same -- their difference, when their directions arecontrary. Further, every resultant is clearly traceable in its components, becausethese are homogeneous and commensurable. It is otherwise with emergents, when,instead of adding measurable motion to measurable motion, or things of one kind toother individuals of their kind, there is a co-operation of things of unlike kinds. Theemergent is unlike its components insofar as these are incommensurable, and itcannot be reduced to their sum or their difference.SOCIALSwarming is a well-known behaviour in many animal species from marching locuststo schooling fish to flocking birds. Emergent structures are a common strategy foundin many animal groups: colonies of ants, mounds built by termites, swarms of bees,shoals/schools of fish, flocks of birds, and herds/packs of mammals.SPATIALEmergent structures are patterns (fractals) that cannot result from a small set of rulesor events. The common characteristics are: (1) radical novelty (features notpreviously observed in systems); (2) coherence or correlation (meaning integratedwholes that maintain themselves over some period of time); (3) A global or macro"level" (i.e. there is some property of "wholeness"); (4) it is the product of adynamical process (it evolves); and (5) it is "ostensive" (it can be perceived).
  11. 11. PRINCIPLE #11 SYMBIOSIS INTERDEPENDENTDYNAMICSymbiosis or Mutualism is any relationship between individuals of different specieswhere both individuals derive a benefit. In general, only lifelong interactions involvingclose physical and biochemical contact can properly be considered symbiotic. Themodern meaning of the term symbiosis is broad and ranges from mutualisticsymbiosis with maximal cooperation (via bilateral exploitation) to non-cooperativeparasitism (with unilateral exploitation).SOCIALThis evolutionary theory of cooperation or social symbiosis is also commonly referredto as “kinship theory” or “kin-selection” theory, because it is through kinship withbreeders that helpers realize copies of their own genes in the next generation even ifthey do not reproduce themselves. Recent evolutionary theory recognizes theparallels between understanding conflict and cooperation at the individual level andthe species level and models of symbiosis work in approximately the same way askin-selection models.SPATIALSymbiotic relationships include those associations in which one organism lives onanother, or where one partner lives inside the other. Symbiosis played a major role inthe co-evolution of flowering plants and the animals that pollinate them. Manyplants that are pollinated by insects, bats, or birds have highly specialized flowersmodified to promote pollination by a specific pollinator that is also correspondinglyadapted.
  12. 12. PRINCIPLE #12 CYCLICAL SEASONSDYNAMICA process that returns to its beginning and repeats itself in the same sequence. Suchprocesses are seen in many fields, such as physics, mathematics, biology, astronomy,economics, audio frequency, etc.SOCIALLife cycle is a period involving all different generations of a species succeeding eachother through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction orsexual reproduction (a period from one generation of organisms to the sameidentical).SPATIALThere are 3 types of cycles: haplonticlife cyclediplontic life cyclediplobiontic life cycle(also referred to as diplohaplontic, haplodiplontic, or dibiontic life cycle).Life Cycle in urban planning or architecture is the dynamic, iterative process ofchanging the landscape over time by incorporating new planning processes, newtechnology, and new capabilities, as well as maintenance, disposition and disposal ofexisting elements of the city.
  13. 13. PRINCIPLE #13 NETWORKED NODES, & SPOKESDYNAMICMost social, biological, and technological networks display substantial non-trivialtopological features, with patterns of connection between their elements that areneither purely regular nor purely random. Such features include a heavy tail in thedegree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativityamong vertices, community structure, and hierarchical structure.SOCIALA network is called a small-world network by analogy with the small-worldphenomenon (popularly known as six degrees of separation). The small worldhypothesis, is the idea that two arbitrary people are connected by only six degrees ofseparation, i.e. the diameter of the corresponding graph of social connections is notmuch larger than six.SPATIALIn the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such aslattices or random graphs but often occur in real graphs. A network is named scale-free if its degree distribution, follows a particular mathematical function called apower law. The power law implies that the degree distribution of these networks hasno characteristic scale.
  14. 14. PRINCIPLE #14 FLOW PRESENCEDYNAMICFor the most part (except for basic bodily feelings like hunger and pain, which areinnate), people are able to decide what they want to focus their attention on.However, when one is in the flow state, he or she is completely engrossed with theone task at hand and, without making the conscious decision to do so, losesawareness of all other things: time, people, distractions, and even basic bodily needs.This occurs because all of the attention of the person in the flow state is on the taskat hand; there is no more attention to be allocated.SOCIALFlow is the mental state of operation in which a person in an activity is fullyimmersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the processof the activity.SPATIALIn graph theory, a flow network (also known as a transportation network) is adirected graph where each edge has a capacity and each edge receives a flow. Theamount of flow on an edge cannot exceed the capacity of the edge. Often inOperations Research, a directed graph is called a network, the vertices are callednodes and the edges are called arcs. A flow must satisfy the restriction that theamount of flow into a node equals the amount of flow out of it, except when it is asource, which has more outgoing flow, or sink, which has more incoming flow. Anetwork can be used to model traffic in a road system, fluids in pipes, currents in anelectrical circuit, or anything similar in which something travels through a network ofnodes.
  15. 15. PRINCIPLE #15 BACTERIA COLONIESDYNAMICThere are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as thereare human cells in the body. Many important biochemical reactions, such as energygeneration, occur by concentration gradients across membranes, a potentialdifference also found in a battery.SOCIALBacteria, long perceived as simple creatures, are now recognised to be smart beaststhat can conduct intricate social life while using sophisticated chemical language, onewe have only recently begun to decode. The bacterial power of cooperation ismanifested by their ability to develop large colonies of astonishing complexity. Whilethe number of bacteria in a colony can be more than 100 times the number of peopleon Earth, bacteria are twittering (“ bacterial twittering” or “chemical tweeting”) tomake sure they all know what they all doing (by exchanging “chemical tweets”).Bacteria are the most prolific organisms on Earth. Many of them are fierce killers, butmany more are indispensible to our survival.SPATIALBacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements. Bacteria often attach tosurfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms or bacterial mats. ria living inbiofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components,forming secondary structures such as microcolonies, through which there arenetworks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients.
  16. 16. PRINCIPLE #16 INTELLIGENT COLLECTIVE INFORMATIONDYNAMICIntelligence has been defined in many different ways, including the abilities, but notlimited to, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication,reasoning, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining, planning, and problemsolving.SOCIALIntelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animalsand plants. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines or the simulation ofintelligence in machines.The theory of multiple intelligences as a model of intelligence claims thatdifferentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities[disambiguation needed], rather than seeing it as dominated by a single generalability.SPATIALPrinciples of Intelligent Urbanism (PIU) is a theory of urban planning composed of aset of ten axioms intended to guide the formulation of city plans and urban designs.They are intended to reconcile and integrate diverse urban planning andmanagement concerns. These axioms include environmental sustainability, heritageconservation, appropriate technology, infrastructure efficiency, placemaking, "SocialAccess," transit oriented development, regional integration, human scale, andinstitutional integrity.
  17. 17. PRINCIPLE #17 PERMACULTURE NATURAL PATTERNSDYNAMICPermaculture is a philosophy of ecological design which attempts to developsustainable human settlements and agricultural systems modeled from naturalecosystems. The word "permaculture" originally referred to "permanent agriculture"but was expanded to stand also for "permanent culture," as it was seen that socialaspects were integral to a truly sustainable system.SOCIALDon’t tell people how to garden, or how to build a house. Your function as a designeris to place things in the environment, and place them in such a way that you use theirmultiple functions, that you create low energy inputs for high yield and stability.Atthe same time, your role is that of a creative observer. You must learn to observenature, to recognize how to develop potential uses so that humans may benefit.SPATIALThe patterns of the natural world play a prominent part in the design practice ofPermaculture. Too often though natural patterns and shapes (spirals, curves, waves,branches etc.) are used as if they were magical — as if “naturalness” was a sufficientcondition for their use in design. There are two aspects to patterning: the perceptionof the pattern that already exists and how these function, and the imposition ofpattern on sites in order to achieve some specific ends. Also be provoked to think ofwhat forces and conditions influenced the particular organisms to possess theseshapes?
  18. 18. PRINCIPLE #18 ECOSYSTEM I=input A=assimilation R=respiration NU=not utilized P=production B=biomass WASTE IS FOODDYNAMICKey processes in ecosystems include the capture of light energy and carbon throughphotosynthesis, the transfer of carbon and energy through food webs, and therelease of nutrients and carbon through decomposition. Biodiversity affectsecosystem functioning, as do the processes of disturbance and succession.SOCIALEcosystems are dynamic entities—invariably, they are subject to periodicdisturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. Whenan ecosystem is subject to some sort of perturbation, it responds by moving awayfrom its initial state. The tendency of a system to remain close to its equilibriumstate, despite that disturbance, is termed its resistance. On the other hand, the speedwith which it returns to its initial state after disturbance is called its resilience.SPATIALLeft: The frog represents a node in an extended food web. The energy ingested isutilized for metabolic processes and transformed into biomass. The energy flowcontinues on its path if the frog is ingested by predators, parasites, or as a decayingcarcass in soil.Right: An expanded three link energy food chain (1. plants, 2. herbivores, 3.carnivores) illustrating the relationship between food flow diagrams and energytransformity. The transformity of energy becomes degraded, dispersed, anddiminished from higher quality to lesser quantity as the energy within a food chainflows from one trophic species into another.
  19. 19. PRINCIPLE #19 MARKETS CONVERSATIONSDYNAMICA market is one of many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relationsand infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.SOCIALMarkets allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced. A market emerges moreor less spontaneously or is constructed deliberately by human interaction in order toenable the exchange of rights (cf. ownership) of services and goods. A market can beorganized as an auction, as a private electronic market, as a commodity wholesalemarket, as a shopping center, as a complex institution such as a stock market, and asan informal discussion between two individuals. Markets of varying types canspontaneously arise whenever a party has interest in a good or service that someother party can provide.SPATIALThe literal meaning of the word is "Gathering place" or "Assembly". The agora wasthe center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city. Later, the Agoraalso served as a marketplace where merchants kept stalls or shops to sell their goods.From this twin function of the Agora as a political and commercial space came thetwo Greek verbs ἀγοράζω, agorázō, "I shop", and ἀγορεύω, agoreúō, "I speak inpublic". Markets are therefor often defined as conversations.
  20. 20. PRINCIPLE #20 QUANTUMDYNAMIC FIELDS & WAVESIn a quest to find equilibrium, fields of quantum energy respond by resisting forcesthat appear to have originated outside the parameters and constraints of their ownfield of awareness. In essence, a relationship is created born of an intention thatoriginates from a position of unity, the degree of which can be felt and at timesmeasurably understood. The momentum created in response to this projection istypically greater than the original force, a counter projection intended to restorebalance within the contextual constraints of its own field. The process of bringingharmony between energy fields also creates a new “tipping point” between them.SOCIALConsciousness can be expanded solely upon a change of energy, i.e. frequency, withinthe parametric field in which it has its position. Similar to a tuning fork, fields of “likekind” will resonate and be attracted to each other.SPATIALIn a three dimensional universe these “individual” forces create the micro fields, i.e.dualities, required for both an expansion and contraction within the context of bothmeaning and purpose. These impressions are received through quantum receptorslinked to the virtual fields of both the brain and the heart in addition to other organsand systems that together give form to the physical body. Impulses in the form ofquantum energy are linked to virtual fields we describe as our mind and ouremotions. The effect supports the concept we describe as experience. Theseexperiences appear symbolically before our consciousness in the form of a hologram
  21. 21. PRINCIPLE #21 BOUNDARIESDYNAMIC REFLECTION/ ABSORPTIONA system boundary is a two-dimensional closed surface that encloses or demarcatesthe volume or region that a thermodynamic system occupies, across which quantitiessuch as heat, mass, or work can flow.In short, a thermodynamic boundary is ageometrical division between a system and its surroundings.SOCIALSocial boundaries separate us fromthem. Explaining the formation, transformation,activation, and suppression of social boundaries presents knotty problems. It helps todistinguish two sets of mechanisms: (1) those that precipitate boundary change and(2) those that constitute boundary change. Precipitants of boundary change includeencounter, imposition, borrowing, conversation, and incentive shift. Constitutivemechanisms include inscription–erasure, activation–deactivation, site transfer, andrelocation. Effects of boundary change include attack–defense sequences.SPATIALTopologically, it is usually considered to be nearly or piecewise smoothlyhomeomorphic with a two-sphere, because a system is usually considered to besimply connected. For theoretical purposes, a boundary may be declared to beadiabatic, isothermal, diathermal, insulating, permeable, or semipermeable. Thesystem is the part of the universe being studied, while the surroundings is theremainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system. It is alsoknown as the environment, and the reservoir. Depending on the type of system, itmay interact with the system by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work),momentum, electric charge, or other conserved properties