Celebrity Endorsement in advertising a comparative study between UK and India Document Transcript
mba disserTaTion Thesis mba disserTaTion Thesis 2009 The influence of celebriTy endorsemenT in adverTisingcomparaTive sTudy on india vs. uniTed Kingdom ARITTRA BASU UWL ID: 28001438 Word Count: 28296 October 2009 Dissertation submitted as part fulfillment of the MBA (Masters of Business Administration at University of Wales, Lampeter /College of Technology, London) Social Science and Business Administration Programmes Department of Management and Information Technology UNIVERSITY OF WALES LAMPETER 09/23/2009
2PRIFYSGOL CYMRU LLANBEDR PONT STEFFANPERSONAL DECLERATION:It is hereby notified to the Academic Registry and the Department of Management andInformation Technology of University of Wales, Lampeter that “this dissertation is submitted inpart fulfilment of the M.B.A (Masters of Business Administration) at College of TechnologyLondon” by student bearing UWL ID: 28001438. It is an original piece of work which has beensolely researched and written by the student with the help and support of academic supervisorallocated to the student by the University management. The topic of the dissertation has beenchosen by the student from his experience and knowledge gathered from the previous marketingmodules which he has undertaken during his Term 2 (Marketing Pathway) and the idea andconcept behind the topic came from the IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication) moduleassignment which has initiated the phenomenon to develop the research. The student has seen acause behind the research for the benefit and enhancement of advertising media in the context ofGlobal Marketing for prospective companies. Therefore, the whole research is a genuine piece ofresearch and is a reflection of the academic effort and management knowledge of the studentfrom his postgraduate studies. As, a student I completely understand the rules and regulation ofthe academic procedures in a postgraduate study and acknowledge their concern for theperspective students. I solely respect and honor the rules of the University and thereby certifythis research as my own work.“I declare that this dissertation is the result of my own research and all sources are dulyacknowledged by the researcher”Thanking YouYours Faithfully,Arittra BasuUWL ID: 28001438Dated: 28/06/09
3ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:I Mr. Arittra Basu would like to dedicate my master’s degree dissertation to my loving parentsMr. Asit Basu and Mrs Ratna Basu who has always supported and encouraged me throughout mylife and in my academic studies. They have always supported me emotionally and boughtcourage to my life which has given me the present platform to do my master’s degree fromUniversity of Wales, Lampeter. I am grateful to god for giving me such wonderful parents whoalways cared me and bought me up to become a proper individual in life. I would also like tothank Ms. Lipi Begum for supervising my dissertation and her assistance as a faculty hasimmensely helped me to produce my scholastic work. Lastly, I would like to thank all myfriends, fellow class mates and faculties in the College of Technology, London for showing methe light of management studies and making me a professional during the whole tenure of myMBA.
4ABSTRACT:Purpose – The main purpose of this research paper is first, to gain a deeper understanding of thecelebrity endorsement strategy and consumers perception about it. What do consumers feel aboutcelebrity endorsements and where this marketing strategy lays when it comes to actual purchaseof goods and products? Moreover, when the world is heading towards a global economymultinationals and established brands are enhancing their prospects to market products in aninternational market. How effectively they can use the celebrity endorsement strategy. Secondly,to evaluate whether there is any cultural difference among the consumers from differentcountries and cultures? How companies face the challenge to convince consumers about theirproduct by utilising the celebrity endorsement strategy. These are the kind of questions evaluatedand analysed in the whole research.Research Methodology – A survey was conducted of 80 consumer samples (India and UK) andthe sample was chosen as ‘convenience sample’. They were approached about the research byusing online community networking website for Indian sample and for UK, questionnaire weredistributed to volunteering participants in the reception area of Ramada Ealing, hotel. They wereasked various questions about the impact of celebrity endorsement and consumer’s buyingattitude. Even cultural significance from consumers’ view point was taken into consideration.Findings – The data analysis of the research resulted in forming a positive and significantrelationship between the celebrity endorsement and consumers buying behavior. It has beenrevealed that consumers are attracted towards celebrity advertisements and it initiates the 1 stphase of the consumers buying cycle. (Pre-purchase dissonance) Also, the influence of cultureplays an important role in the recognition of a celebrity as described by the sample tested.Difference between Indian and UK consumers were also found from the analysis.Research limitations/implications – Results are based on limited and small sample. Differentlocations within UK and India would have constructed a better research design. There are manyscopes for further studies in this area concerning advertising and marketing relationships.Realistic implications – Celebrities are mere promotional tools used by the companies andbrands to attract consumers. Charisma of the characters doe’s appeals many people, but it doesn’tdemonstrate whether it fosters the sales growth. Culture plays a vital role in the human societyand it’s the fundamental basis to approach people (consumers) across the world.Originality/value – The paper has demonstrated the significance and importance of celebrityendorsement as promotional tool by examining consumers’ perception. Also it has given aninsight to the global marketing sector about the importance of understanding the culturaldifference to penetrate the market effectively.
5Table of contents: Page NumberChapter 11. Introduction1.1 The topic…………………………………………………………………………………101.2 Background……………………………………………………………………………...121.3 Current facts about celebrity endorsements……………………………………………..151.4 Celebrity endorsement in Indian Advertisements……………………………………….181.5 Celebrity endorsements in UK advertisements………………………………………….201.6 Problem Discussion……………………………………………………………………...221.7 Rationale behind the research……………………………………………………………241.8 Purpose of the research…………………………………………………………………..251.9 Outline of the research……………………………………………………………….......25Chapter 22. Literature Review2.1 Celebrity Endorsements and its importance in Promotion Mix…………………….272.1.1 Pros and Cons of Celebrity Endorsement Approach………………………………….272.1.2 Meaning Transfer Model……………………………………………………………...302.2 The Process of Celebrity Selection……………………………………………………352.2.1 The TEARS model……………………………………………………………………352.2.2 The No TEARS Approach for celebrity selection…………………………………….38
62.2.3 Celebrity endorsement and Cultural Dimension………………………………………412.2.4 Acceptance of Celebrity Endorsement based on Cultural Difference……………….. 442.2.5 Celebrity endorsements and ROI (Return on Investments)………………………….. 50Chapter 3 Page Number3. Research Methodology3.1 Purpose of Research…………………………………………………………………..533.1.1 Exploratory Research………………………………………………………………..533.1.2 Explanatory Research……………………………………………………………….533.1.3 Descriptive Research………………………………………………………………. 543.2 Research Approach………………………………………………………………… 553.2.1 Quantitative Research……………………………………………………………….563.2.2 Qualitative Research……………………………………………………………….. 563.3 Research Strategy…………………………………………………………………….573.3.1 The Survey…………………………………………………………………………...583.3.2 Designing of Questionnaire………………………………………………………….593.3.3 Principles of questionnaire construction…………………………………………….613.4 Data Collection Procedure and Analysis…………………………………………....623.5 Sample Selection……………………………………………………………………...633.6 Research Principle…………………………………………………………………....653.6.1 Construct Validity…………………………………………………………………...663.6.2 Reliability…………………………………………………………………………....66
73.7 Logistical and Ethical Consideration……………………………………………….673.8 Summary……………………………………………………………………………..69Chapter 4 Page Number4. Data Analysis4.1 Data Collection Draft…………………………………………………………………….704.2 Data Analysis of Questions……………………………………………………………….724.2.1 Analysis of Close Ended Questions…………………………………………………….724.2.2 Analysis of Open Ended Questions……………………………………………………..86Chapter 55. Findings and Conclusions5.1 Consumers and Companies Opinion about Celebrity Endorsements as a PromotionalStrategy………………………………………………………………………………………..895.1.2 Repetition of Celebrities in Advertisements and Consumers Opinion…………………..905.1.3 Celebrity Endorsement and Cultural Significance……………………………………….915.1.4 Cultural difference between India and UK………………………………………………925.1.5 Meeting objectives of the Research………………………………………………………935.1.6 Implication for future Research…………………………………………………………..945.2. Emerged Model of Celebrity Selection from the Research…………………………….965.3. Cultural difference among consumers in (India and UK) model………………….......986. List of References…………………………………………………………………………...99
8Appendix Number 1 (Questionnaire)Appendix Number 2 (Ethical Consideration Form)Appendix Number 3 (Data collection of the open ended questions)Appendix Number 4 (Email interactions between the student and supervisor)Appendix Number 5 (Letter of Consent from General Manager: Ramada London Ealing)List of Figures and Tables Page NumberFiguresFigure 1.1 Framework of the research………………………………………………………………26Figure 2.1 Pros and Cons of Celebrity Endorsement Strategy……………………………………...28Figure 3.1 The Meaning Transfer Model…………………………………………………………...30Figure: 4.1 TEARS model…………………………………………………………………..36Figure: 5.1 Factors essential for Celebrity and Brand Congruency……………………….39Fig 6.1 Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions of United Kingdom…………………………45-46Fig 7.1 Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions of India………………………………………46-47Fig 8.1 Cultural Dimensions accepted in India and UK……………………………………48Fig 9.1 Comparison between India and UK based on Geert Hofstede: Cultural Dimensions…49Fig 10.1 Research Strategies for different situations………………………………………..58Fig 11.1 Basic Principles of Questionnaire Design………………………………………….61Fig 12.1 5 Sources of Evidence: Strength and Weakness……………………………………62Figure 13.1 summarizes the different methods which are been applied in the research in adiagrammatic flowchart………………………………………………………………………69Fig 14.1 Population Participation of the research…………………………………………….71Fig 15.1 Division of age group of the sample………………………………………………...71Fig 16.1 Celebrities in advertisements………………………………………………………..72
9Fig 17.1 Celebrities in media channels……………………………………………………….73Fig 18.1 Celebrity endorsement influencing busying behaviour of consumers………………75 Page NumberFig 19.1 Power of persuasion of celebrities………………………………………………….76Fig 20.1 Products ideal for having celebrity endorsement…………………………………..77Fig 21.1 Consumer appeals in terms of advertisements……………………………………...78Fig 22.1 Areas prone for celebrity advertisement……………………………………………79Fig 23.1 Preference of celebrities in advertisements by consumers………………………….80Fig 24.1 Percentage of repetition of celebrities in advertisements…………………………...81Fig 25.1 Consumers preference of celebrity advertisement in purchasing…………………...82Fig 26.1 Ranking of celebrity characteristics in an endorsement…………………………….83Fig 27.1 Line chart representation of the characteristics of celebrity from consumer survey…..85Fig 28.1 Model of Celebrity Selection………………………………………………………..96Fig 29.1 Cultural difference among consumers in (India and UK) model……………………98
10 CHAPTER 11. Introduction:In this chapter the researcher has provided the readers an insight about the inception of theproblem of the research and has explained the history behind the problem with various facts anddocumentation which relates to the actual cause of taking celebrity endorsement as a topic ofresearch from global marketing perspective. Later in this research we will see the problemdiscussion followed by purpose of thesis writing addressing the research questions andhypothesis.1.1 The topic:The use of celebrities in advertising has been phenomenal since the inception of the advertisingmedia in the field of marketing. From decades many companies and world’s renowned brandshas taken the advantage of the using public figures in promoting their products to the consumers.Advertising being one of the essential tools of the promotion mix of marketing has played animportant role in the prosperity of the brands and portrayed them as consumable products to theconsumers from different aspects and cultural diversity of the world. However, it has beenobserved in the recent years with the modernization of technology and advancement in theadvertising media, advertising accounts to become a fundamental part for the success and failureof a particular product / brand for major companies and organizations. Advertising has capturedthe consumers mind and has psychologically influenced the buying behavior of the consumers. Ithas acted as a technique of selective vision for the consumer which has helped the brands tobecome associated along with the life style and cultural entity for many individuals. Consumerslike to get the notion of being associated along with the tangible and intangible aspects of thebrands and products. In a specific way it depicts the personality and attributes of the individual.Additionally, with the advancement in the field of consumable products and with invention ofmodern hi-tech technology there has been an increased state of competition in the market
11globally and several companies came up with similar product offerings which created a big poolof developed products and goods with slightly modified attributes. Now, the challenge for themarketers arises when they are trying to establish their own brand in the market in order toachieve brand equity and market share.In relation to this subject there comes the importance of individual personalities and knownfigures of the society who portray specific images of them in promoting the products and goodsof the companies which gives them another dimension of association and catalyzes thepromotional mix of the marketing dynamics. However, as we study human psychology it wouldbe eminent from the behavioral characteristics of human beings that they tend to follow theirsuperiors in order to learn the behavioral attributes. The major example would be taken from thechild and parent relationship where the child always follows what their parents teaches them todo. It is to assume that they learn each and every element to become a proper human being fromtheir parental upbringing. Therefore, some get the good attributes and some get bad from theirparents. Similarly, in the consumer world the consumers do follow certain personalities anddistinguished people to purchase goods and products as they carry emotional traits which aresimilar to certain consumer’s nature and behavioral characteristic. They find their owndistinctiveness within these personalities and enjoy the relationship of using those productsendorsed by them. These personalities or characters are defined as celebrities in the societalterms and they not only belong from the tinsel world of glamour but also from other sectors likesports, academics, business giants, politicians and even entrepreneurs.But the question arises why these characters become a subject of attention from the public andget huge response over their activities. Needless to mention that with their achievement inspecific field the celebrities also gain a lot of power and prestige in the society which acclaimsthem to be personified figures and the clever marketers use them in their promotional mix toutilize their power of persuasion to convince consumers for purchase. However, in the 21stcentury it has been observed that the involvement of celebrities into the marketing activities ofvarious companies has risen enormously. The main objective of the research is to find out thereason behind celebrity endorsement and why do companies do that. Is there any benefit whichthe companies attain through it? If they want to target different market across the globe do theyhave to follow the same strategy or they need to redefine it. Moreover, it has been observed that
12celebrity endorsement is very popular mode of marketing in India rather than in UK where theeffectively of the product/goods are considered more by the consumers than endorsement andeven if there is an endorsement of any product the companies rather do it very intelligently asconsumers are intrinsic in nature. In order to do the research a comparative study about theconsumers from UK and India has been taken as sample.1.2 Background:The world economy has become a global arena, where each and every activity of the trade isimitable by the rest of the world. What is happening in the recent economic crisis situationthroughout the world is just an evidence to prove the phenomena that recession has not onlyeffected the western world but all the developed, underdeveloped and emerging economies of theworld as businesses has become global and are operating in every parts of the world. So theadverse effect or the privilege of operating a successful business is experienced by all. In termsof enhancing a company, a brand or a product to a particular target audience marketers play avital role. On the other hand side it is not a case of miracle to convince consumers in this highlyintrinsic and inquisitive society where people are considerably rational about their buyingbehaviour. Consumers are not living in a fool’s paradise and the conventional phenomenon ofruling the market from a companies offering and perspective is no more pertinent. Nowconsumers are giving the verdict or opinion about what they want from companies and in orderto survive in the market all major industries have to accept the judgement. [Haugtvedt et.al.(2008) in Basu (2009: unpub)]However, marketers are very clever to nurture with the emotions and psychology of theconsumers and they always initiate the phenomenon of buying into the grey matter of the overeloquent society with the help of advertising. Moreover, advertising is a weapon which themarketers use to dominate the consumers attitude towards a specific brand or product.Additionally, advertising principles are based on certain theories of consumer psychology whereuses of different kinds of messages with expressions are highly recognized. [Brook and Green(2005) in Basu (2009: unpub)] Kambitsis et.al. (2002) suggests that advertising has becomeimportant to the contribution and development of the society in the early era of 1930’s.Celebrities and known faces have taken the role of spokesperson to advertise and promote
13goods, services and ideas for various companies and organizations. They came from all facet ofthe society after claiming their identity as personified person from the public and belonged fromglamour world of movie, modeling, arts and even sports background. But when it comes down topromotion an important role has been played by the use of testimonials in marketing. Accordingto theory of advertising, testimonials are considered as promotional tools which are also knownas endorsements. But both testimonial and endorsements carries different meanings in theapplication, where the former is often used to strengthen ‘sales pitches’ for general mass andconvey messages to a larger community and the later take into account the use of ‘celebrities’ incommunicating the message. An endorsement essentially consists of a well written document orstatement of a person who has a public image or a personality of a charismatic leader whosework or contribution to society has been recognized considerably by the community and theirapproval of the product or brand significantly improves the promotional aspect and buying trendof the product or services. [Heath (2004) in Basu (2009: unpub)] This phenomenon has beenprominent since 1893, when British actress Lillie Langtry was portrayed on the package ofPears Soap and thus she became the world’s first celebrity endorser. Though, in thosegenerations the advertisers used celebrities in their campaign to address the consumers about thecurrent trend. (Ibid).Moreover, Tellis (1998) asserts that endorsers of products can be classified into three broadgroups; as in experts, lay endorsers and celebrities. Generally, experts are those people who havespecific knowledge in a particular field and they use their expertise to promote the product/goods of the company. Experts are chosen by the marketers because they have gathered a soundknowledge about the product and the usage of the item through learning, training or experience(Ibid). An example of showing the approval of Oral-B brand by the British Dental HealthFoundation claiming it as an expert’s authority to endorse it as a quality product in dentalmaterial enhancing the credibility of the product. [(www.oralb.com) in Basu (2009: unpub)]Additionally, Tellis (1998) suggests that there is another segment of endorsers who are fictitiouscharacters or rather unknown individuals or characters known as ‘lay endorsers’. They arechosen by the marketers based on the target market they wanted to capture and there are certaincharacteristics of these endorsers which are similar to the target audience which eases the processof identifying the endorser and the message communicated by the companies. Example would be
14taken from the anonymous voice-over in video and audio advertisements which often uses layendorsers to promote the products.However, Shimp (2000) talks about another form of endorsement which is similar to the layendorser concept of Tellis, but instead of using voice, typical individuals are used in thissegment. Shimp (2000) asserts that individual endorser’s are inexpensive than that of usingcelebrity marketing techniques and avoid the conventional biasness of using ‘beautiful people’with physical attributes or individual characteristics which are rather identical in advertisingmedia. Shimp (2000) also suggests that adverts which uses person endorsers includes severalpersons rather than singular ones with the intension that multiple number of endorsers willgenerate higher levels of message involvement and in the same way would create greatermessage circulation. This technique creates a mind block in consumer’s mind and starts showingfavorable attitude towards the brand/ product (Ibid).On the other hand use of endorsements is not only limited to celebrities or experts butconsumers are also endorsed by the brands to reflect the understanding what consumers aregoing to get from the use of the product demonstrating the rational judgement of a commonperson. Using consumer endorsements specially targeting necessity commodities and famousproducts or brands are having substantial benefit for the product as it relates to everyday personand a consumers can imagine him / her in that person which is another way of playing withconsumer psychology. [Perle et.al. (1999: A99) in Basu (2009: unpub)]Subsequently, there is a rational aspect of using celebrities into the endorsement of a product. Ifthe products can be classified as technical (e.g. PC’s) or non-technical (e.g. jeans) then usingcelebrities in a technical product is less substantial than using them in non-technical products. Itis to relate to the rational aspect of evaluating the use of the product, where technical product areused by all consumers coming from every aspect of the society and in such purchases showingsomeone reliable preferably a technical person or common users are more effective. Theirconnotations are highly recognized and valued by the consumers whereas in the use of non-technical products the use of celebrities are of high importance as it associates the brand nameand image of the person along with the product. People tend to perceive a delineation of a
15personified figure into the brand and gets the association of being recognized as part of the cliquesummoning the celebrity as a captivating leader. [Leon et.al. (2008:328) in Basu (2009: unpub)]1.3 Current facts about celebrity endorsements:McCracken (1989: 311) states that Celebrity Endorsement is defined as: “any individual whoenjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good byappearing with it in an advertisement” Moreover, celebrity endorsement has become anomnipresent factor in the global arena of modern marketing and is recognized worldwide in thefield of marketing and advertising (Ibid). In toady’s word of modern hi-tech media celebrities areused in all the communication channels like Television, Radio, Internet, Publications etc and avivid presence of TV actors, movie stars, sport personalities and even dead celebrities areobserved into the marketing campaign of various companies. (Shimp, 2000) However, Kambitsiset.al. (2002) asserts that the use of celebrities in advertising has been associated along withseveral complexities involving the celebrities individual life-style and claims the process to berather sophisticated marketing technique than mere promotional agenda. Marketers around theworld in various established organizations spends a huge amount of money annually on celebritycontracts for their products and it is an established belief among the marketers that celebrities areefficient spokesperson for their products / brands. Another, important verity described by (Belch& Belch, 2001) is that from 1979 to 1997 the popularity of celebrity endorsement has risen from15 to 25 % in USA and in present 21st century more than 20% of all TV commercials around theworld feature celebrities in advertisements. According to (Forbes 2003) in the year 2003 actressJennifer Aniston has been ranked the No. 1 celebrity for endorsing various products forcompanies and brands followed by Rapper Eminem and Dr Dre in the 2nd place and in the 3rdplace Comes Tiger Woods who has got a contact with Nike worth $105 million. This data provesthe fact that how companies are spending a huge block of money on their marketing budgetespecially when it comes to endorse celebrity for product branding.Moreover, (Mowen & Brown, 1981) asserts that marketers also rely on multiple celebrityendorsement as an advertising practice where they target more than one celebrity to endorse theproduct / brand. Examples of companies who are involved into this practice are Pepsi, Coke andNike who have introduced this technique into their advertising campaigns. Most important
16practical illustration of the above tactic has been found in the “Milk Mustache” campaign in theUSA where they have engaged more than 100 celebrities for the promotion of milk since 1995.Subsequently, previous research from scholars proves the fact that while considering celebrityendorsement the ‘thumb rule’ is to consider whether the characteristics of the product matcheswith the profile of the endorser as this tie-up acts as an effective mode of communication. (e.g.Kahle and Homer, 1985; Kalra and Goodstein, 1998; Kamins and Gupta, 1994; Misra andBeatty, 1990; Sengupta et al., 1997; Till and Busler, 1998)Additionally, multiple celebrity endorsement has positive impact on the consumers as itinfluences their behavior. As described by the attribution theory, people summon that the causeof certain events in their life is influenced by their own behavioral acts or is affected by thebehaviors of others around them. From celebrity endorsement perspective it could be analyzedthat consumers receive the message of the endorser based on the fact that he / she actuallybelieves in the qualities and effectiveness of the product (internal attribution) or they are paid tosay so (external attribution) Although, consumers do acknowledge consensus voting about thesame which acts as credit for the marketers and they tend to view the product from endorsersperception. (Kelley, 1967)However, another interesting phenomenon which has come across in the marketing agenda ofcompanies having less resources and financial flexibility is bringing in sports personalities intothe marketing campaign to promote their products. As, most of the companies have consensuallyagreed that celebrity endorsements has become a distinguished part of the promotional drive,therefore for companies having limited budgets endorsements of sports and athletes has turnedout to be potentially viable investment than endorsing named celebrities. (Martin, 1996)Moreover, there are certain general objectives which are expected to be accomplished by theendorsers of any brand. They are as follows:• Capturing consumer’s attention.• Building up the brand name.• Strengthen the brand image of the product• The endorsed message should be plausible.• Adding charisma to the endorsed product.
17• Creating a liking for the advertisement and add recall by consumers.• The prospect of having amplified sales from the campaign (Ibid).On the other hand Jagdish and Wagner (1995) illustrates that celebrities enhance the potential ofhaving the advertisement recalled by the target audience because of their persuasion power. Theyalso enrich the possibility of having positive brand recognition for the product, create a positiveattitude of the consumers towards the brand, catalyze brand consumption among the consumersand construct the identity of the celebrity along with the endorsed brand / product. Furthermore,celebrity endorsement has become an integral part of the advertising strategy for manycompanies as it increases the marginal expenditure of the marketing budget but gives a hugereturn on investment by creating brand equity with the association of “secondary association”of a celebrity with a brand (Ibid).Another facet of the celebrity endorsement is the technique of using them by the companies. Till(1998) mentioned that companies uses the celebrity endorser into their adverts either periodicallyor opportunistically based on the situational requirement of the person in endorsing the productcampaign. From another perspective it would be assumed that the return on investments fromcelebrity endorsements could be dynamic if the celebrity is used by the brand often to endorsethe product. The repetition of the celebrity into the adverts strengthens the association of thecelebrity along with the consumers as many already know the endorser and the rest would cometo know from the previous group’s association. It also creates awareness about the brand andcelebrity among the consumers. Subsequently, the caution is that marketers should maintainstability in endorsing the same personality into the brand which they have endorsed earlier asunexpected fluctuations among the endorser generates a negative association of the brand andsimultaneously fades the possible outcome from the endorsement. (Till, 1998)Some of the example would be taken from Nike’s consistent use of Michael Jordan, Armani andDavid Beckham, Penelope Cruz and L’Oreal. In all the above cases the advertisements hasencouraged the consumers to think about the perfect symbiosis between the product and thepersonality which signifies that all the characters later became intangible element of the brand.(Ibid). If we take the example of different media channels it would be more prominent likeL’Oreal brand uses the celebrity film stars and international models to endorse their shampoos
18and cosmetic ranges using the universal pay off “because I am worth it” which a patent versionof their testimonials used by the endorsers conveying the message to the consumers that if beinga celebrity if the product works on being my beauty secret why not for you. [Mooiji (2005)]However, Jagdish and Wagner (1995) describes that though from investment perspectiveendorsing a celebrity into the marketing campaign of a company is expensive and accounts ahuge involvement of money and networking, but simultaneously is a very effective medium toget a brand attention in the competitive market. It helps the companies to get their product/ brandidentified by the consumers because of the relationship which both the celebrity and brandcarries in the societal structure. Endorsements are rather classified as good technique to maintaina continual flow of stocks as it enhances the consumption making the investment worthwhile.But potential threats of associated risks are not to be eliminated as association (positive /negative) both have certain impacts on the product / brand.1.4 Celebrity endorsement in Indian Advertisements:However, in order to do a research about the impact of celebrity endorsement in marketing andadvertising media and considering this phenomenon as a major tool of promotional mix byvarious organizations of the world, it is very important to do a comparative study betweendifferent countries to exemplify the impact of celebrity endorsement among the consumer’s ofdifferent cultures and their perception towards the association of a product, service / brand alongwith celebrity attachment. Therefore, for the purpose of the research India has been chosen acountry of research and the current facts about celebrity endorsements in India is demonstrated inthis section to give the clear understanding of the country’s position in relation to celebrityendorsement.Chaturvedi (2008) talks about the impact of celebrity endorsement in India during one of thecountries major movement for Polio eradication which has portrayed numerous celebrities ofthe bollywood banner to communicate with the common mass and publics of India throughtelevision ads, friendship cricket matches, awareness programmes, rallies etc. Some of the majorknown celebrities who have done television and media shots for the polio campaign are PrietyZinta, Rani Mukherjee and Priyanka Chopra. Even famous actress and Miss World 1994
19pageant winner Ashwarya Rai and Tennis player Sania Mirza have done print ads for the samecampaign. Moreover, to generate awareness and literate the Indian mass about the importance ofPolio vaccination a wide spectrum of celebrities were approached to endorse the immunizationprogramme and various television spots were prepared and telecasted in the National andterrestrial channels in the television throughout India. (Ibid.)Additionally, the impact of cricket as a sport in India has a huge response from all aspects of thesociety and various community people and in that relation a ‘Friendship Series’ between Indiaand Pakisthan was organized in April 2004 to raise awareness for the Polio Immunizationprorgamme where the captains of 2 cricket teams urged the people to “Bowl out Polio”.Similarly other important celebrities were also approached to do awareness rallies and direct visitto the household to intensify the magnitude of the programme. Farooque Sheikh, an exBollywood actor who has substantial knowledge about Koran addressed the Muslim prophet nadreligious leaders about the importance and validity of the campaign. Javed Akhtar, a script andsongwriter for bollywood films, Sharmila Tagore (ex actress) and Soha Ali Khan (a newcomer in the tinsel world) also did direct home campaigns where they visited the household ofcommon people in particular areas of India to justify the essentiality of the programme andcommunicated the message to the mass. (Ibid.)Another important aspect of celebrity endorsement in India is observed in the ‘Cola Wars’where the major concern comes for all the fizzy drinks company is to create price sensitivity. Asmost of the cola ads are endorsed by popular bollywood celebrities like Sharukh Khan, AmirKhan, Akshay Kumar etc and have glamorous associations which shows the association of thedrink along with the position and celebrity predilection. However, considering the price perbottle was a challenge as most of the companies endorse similar people and Coca Colaimplemented a strategy where they reduced 300 ml bottle to 200ml bottle and sold it in INR 5equivalent to 7p in GBP and $10 in US which benefitted Coca Cola to rule the market for a shortterm, with the celebrity influence to purchase smaller bottles in a cheaper price as the ads werefocused on the price of the bottle than other aspects of the drink. (Amis & Cornwell, 2005)On the other hand there are current facts about celebrity endorsements in India whereinternational companies have endorsed bollywood celebrities for their product launch in India.
20Some of the references would be taken from the endorsement of bollywood superstar SharukhKhan as the brand ambassador of Swiss watch maker TAG Heuer, a part of LVMH Watch andJewellery. As per Jean Christophe Babin, president and CEO of LVMH Watch and Jewellery thecompany has plans to open 4 more outlets in Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai and Hyderabad andthe brand ambassador will involve in the marketing of the new models of watches of thecompany in India. Being the brand ambassador Sharukh Khan commented that the watch hasalways stood for luxury, style, prestige and exception and in India the brand will enhance itsmarket creating its association along with the pristine society. (9th September 2003)As a celebrity Sharukh has also endorsed another Swiss watchmaker Omega before gettingassociated along with TAG Heuer. However, TAG Heuer has also endorsed bollywood actressPriyanka Chopra (Ex Miss World 2000) as a brand ambassador for ladies collection in Indiaand has replaced Susmita Sen from the TAG banner. TAG has always represented glamorousfigures to execute the brand to the world and in India as well they have targeted the celebrities tomaintain the consistency of supremacy of the brand. (16th March 2007)However, the world famous brand of fizzy drinks Coca Cola has also endorsed actor AmirKhan as a brand ambassador of coke in India and has made several Indian ads featuring Amir invarious cultural perspective portraying the Indian eccentricity in different regional culturesprevailing in different states in a humorous version.1.5 Celebrity endorsements in UK advertisements:In compare to India the impact of celebrity endorsements in the advertising and marketing ofproducts / brands in UK are entirely different as seen superficially from a common observation.In UK particularly the adverts are made according to the effectiveness and usage of the productto the general mass and celebrity endorsements are rather limited than its generous use in Indianadds. In UK as well there are several organizations who endorse celebrities from differentbackground and societal structure than using them from the world of glamour. Example wouldbe taken from using Chef Jamie Oliver in the advertisement of grocery retail supermarketSainsbury where they show Jamie endorsing the Sainsbury products and certify that theirproducts are best for cooking and as raw ingredients. Celebrities in UK are rather classified into
21several categories as companies choose them according the fame of popularity in the publicindex. They can be chosen from sports world, glamour, television or from recent scandal as well.Taking the reference of Late. Jade Goody who died of cervical cancer was pointed out as one ofthe characters of arousing racism in a celebrity lifestyle television show Big Brother where shewas accused of doing racist behavior to one of her contestant (Indian actress Shilpa Shetty) byabusing her in public media. This particular event captured a lot of media attention in UK andagain ignited the fire of white vs. brown in UK mass. But with the sudden discovery of herhaving cervical cancer grabbed the attention of the Britons and she got the sympathy of thecommon public from UK and her previous behavior was rather substituted for her illness.Though she had to beg apology but her terminal cancer gave her the fame and the NHS made hera role model of creating awareness among the young women in UK about cervical cancer. Wellit could be described that she turned out to be the person from ‘ashes to gold’ but women in UKhas recognized her as a person who has shown the female Britons about the danger of havingcervical cancer and a positive impact for cervical cancer checks among the women as recordedby NHS.Subsequently, there are other adverts in UK where presences of celebrities are also noticed. Butas UK and US both follows Hollywood film stars therefore the ads of UK also depicts celebritiesfrom US as a vast majority. But there are few adverts where domestic celebrities are seen asbeing an endorser. Some of the examples would be taken from ‘Cadbury’s Milk Tray’magazine advert where Laura Bailey was endorsed for the marketing of Cadbury’s product in1998. Cadbury has also endorsed the television personality Mat Lucas for the marketingcampaign of ‘Cadbury’s Crème Egg’ in 2000. However, there are also certain facts where 2major brands like Cadbury’s and MTV – (chart numbers and pop songs hit channel) jointly madea marketing campaign to promote free live musical events for the popularity and promotion ofboth the brands. For this campaign they endorsed Five, 5ive, Ritchie Neville, J Brown thesingers to promote Cadbury’s as well as MTV to the young audience.[www.advertisingarchives.co.uk]However, there are brands and companies which have endorsed celebrities for their marketingcampaign and the current data about their endorsement policies depicts the phenomenon thatthey not only choose celebrities from the glamour world but from all other business entities.
22Walkers endorsed celebrities Cat Deeley and Garry Lineker for their marketing campaign in2009, Moneysupermarket.com endorsed entrepreneur and Dragon Den’s Peter Jones forpromoting their price comparison website and L’Oreal endorsed actress Jane Fonda for theircosmetics and skincare range which emphasized on antiageing and ageing wrinkles skin care.Even the royal family was endorsed into magazine adverts which were reflected in the coverpage TV Times magazine, 1981 following the wedding of Prince Charles and Princess LadyDiana. Princess Diana appeared back in the cover page of Woman magazine after the birth ofPrince William in 1982. Even sport celebrities like Ian Botham, Andrew Freddie Flintoff,Tiger Woods, Thierry Henry, Roger Federer were endorsed into several consumer goods andmostly into men’s skin care products and sport shoes from companies like Gillette, Suremanand Nike. Interestingly, in UK politicians are also endorsed by companies and recentlySchweppes endorsed Prime Minister Gordon Brown in their Magazine Advert. Also prestigiousbrand for men, Dunhill has endorsed actor Jude Law for their newspaper advert in 2009.Surprisingly, the Dorchester Collection of Hotels used personalities like Grace Kelly, AlbertEinstein, Kristin Scott Thomas and Orson Welles in their 2009 magazine advert, who wereonce associated along with the hotel in her glorious past. [www.advertisingarchives.co.uk]1.6 Problem Discussion:Bryne and Breen (2003) claims that studies and researches in the field of consumer behavior andmarketing shows that celebrity endorsement have positive impact on the purchasing behavior ofthe consumers than non celebrity endorsers. Moreover, McCracken (1989) suggests that celebrityendorsements are effective ways of transferring the association of the personality to the brandand is highly recognized by the marketing community of international organizations. Bryne et al(2003: 289) states that “celebrities can build, refresh and add new dimensions. What celebritiesstand for enhances brands and they save valuable time in terms of creating the credibility acompany has to create in order to build its brands by transferring their values to the brand.When consumers see a credible celebrity endorsing a product they think the company must beOK”Moreover, in this research the specific problem which has been observed by the researcher isrelated to the difference in endorsing celebrities into the advertisements in India and UK. After
23evaluation of the advertisements of both the countries it has been reflected that in India theprominence of celebrity endorsement are more from the tinsel world (Bollywood) of glamourand in all types of product endorsements the companies are eager to get a Bollywood celebrityenrolled into the advertisements rather than endorsing other personalities from any other sectors.On the other hand in UK it has been observed that companies are eager to endorse thecelebrities / personalities into the advertisement campaign of the product or brand based on theeffectively and practical realization of the advertisement in the societal structure. For example,L’Oreal hasn’t endorsed Deborah Meaden (entrepreneur) and Dragon of Dragon’s Den Show(BBC 2) as a celebrity endorser to promote their cosmetic range for women orMoneysupermarket.com has not enrolled Penelope Cruz to promote their price comparisonswebsites. In contrast it has been observed in India that domestic Banking and financial sectorgiant ICICI bank has endorsed actor Sharukh Khan to promote the banks financial and NRIbanking facilities in the form of television adverts. Moreover, celebrities in India endorse alltypes of products from cosmetics, fizzy drinks to National Polio Vaccinations programme wherethe presence of Bollywood personalities are in abundance.According to Bryne et al (2003) most of the companies face the problem while choosing theright personality/celebrity for their product endorsements. It is the responsibility of theadvertisers within a specific company to be able to match the company’s image or product imagewith the personality of the celebrity and the characteristics of the target market to establisheffective messages for the consumers. McCracken (1989) state that endorsements are moreeffective when there is a ‘fit’ between the endorser and the endorsed product. Subsequently,Martin (1996) illustrates that in order to achieve maximum outcome of a celebrity endorsement itis very important to consider the degree of similarity between the image of the celebrity and theimage of the product. The more is the similarity in association between the image of the productand the celebrity, the more positive response from the consumers which leads to purchasingintension of the product. (Ibid).On the other hand Tellis (1998) identifies that companies should concentrate in building up aprolonged relationship between the product / brand and the celebrity (long-term relationship) asit helps the company in designing its strategic goals and objectives in relation to theestablishment of the brand and maintaining a clear and consistent brand strategy over time.
24Bryne et al (2003) argues that maintaining a long tern relationship with a celebrity in anendorsement campaign for a company remains challenging because there is no harmony,between the product and the celebrity and in reality the consumers recalls the celebrity more thanthe product. This is termed as “Vampire Effect”, in marketing terms which signifies the fact thatcelebrities sucks out the ‘life blood’ from the product / brand (Ibid).1.7 Rationale behind the Research:The researcher has chosen this topic as a matter of subject for the dissertation of his MBAfollowing the creation of the problem area which has been observed by the researcher whiledoing the term 2 (MBA) assignment of IMC (Integrated Marketing Communication). The topicgiven by the University was to discuss about impact of testimonial advertising by the advertisersand marketers comparing its advantages and disadvantages. While doing the research for theassignment it has been found by the researcher that there is a distinction between the ways ofcelebrity endorsement in India and UK where the former is having greater affinity towardscelebrity (Bollywood Stars) endorsements in media ads and consumer goods of all genreswhereas in UK the endorsement is based on the credibility of the endorser and their associationalong with the product / brand they are endorsing. Even in UK personalities are endorsed into theadvertisement from various backgrounds and not only from the glamour world. In UK thecompanies are more concerned about matching the profile of the product along with thepersonality and expertise of the endorser. Therefore, they chose various people who haveacclaimed recognition from the society due to their success and achievement in different sectors(sports, business, acting, modeling, politics etc.)However, the interesting constituent of the research is to establish the fact for internationalorganizations who are considering India as a prospective market for expanding their business andwilling to invest in the huge market, is to portray the scenario that they might have to changetheir advertising technique considering the importance and existence of celebrity influenceamong the consumer life-style of general public in the Indian community. Therefore, acomparative study between India and UK has been done in this research based on the consumerpreference of celebrity endorsement in the advertisement of various products in both countries.
251.8 Purpose of the Research:Through the analysis of previous studies and academic research on consumer behavior it hasbeen observed that celebrity endorsements in the advertisements of goods for particular brandsand companies enhances the purchasing behavior of the consumers. Even studies have alsoestablished the fact why companies are in a row to endorse celebrities and how they do it and forwhat objectives? But the segment which has not been researched is the distinction about the wayof endorsing celebrities into different cultures (e.g. western and eastern) where some celebritieshave greater influence than the others. The purpose of the study is as follows:Showing the influence of celebrity endorsements in the marketing campaign of brands / productsand significance of culture in the recognition of a celebrity by consumers’ from various culturesacross the world. Also creating awareness for the probable organizations trying to becomeglobal corporations.1.9 Outline of the Research:The dissertation is a specific research project which is done by the post graduate students ofmaster’s degree and higher studies. As, dissertation is a research process therefore it is veryimportant to consider the structure of the research in which it is going to be drafted in theory. Inthis specific research the dissertation is divided into 6 sections starting from the introduction ofthe topic and background analysis. The 1st chapter illustrates about the cause of taking the topicas a research agenda. The 2nd chapter is the literature review where various consumer behaviorand advertising theory models and previous literature about the research area are analyzedcritically. Main emphasis would be given to the models which organizations follow to endorsecelebrities into product / brand campaign and hence structuring a strong reference of academics.The 3rd chapter would reflect the research methodology of the research followed by the datacollection techniques in chapter 4. In chapter 5th the data gathered is analysis in reference withtheory and academic models with quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Lastly, chapter 6 is adiscussion about the conclusion and findings which the researcher gathered out of the researchand individual recommendation suggestion.
26 INTRODUCTION – CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW – CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – CHAPTER 3 DATA ANALYSIS – CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSON AND FINDINGS- CHAPTER 5Figure 1.1 Framework of the research Source: (Basu: 2009) Author’s creation CHAPTER 22. Literature Review:In the previous chapter the researcher has discussed about the current facts of celebrityendorsement and illustrated the cause of doing the research about the impact of celebrityendorsements in India and UK. This chapter will narrow down the research area to the specific
27objectives with critical discussion of theories and models. The chapter will entail theories like:Pros and Cons of celebrity endorsements, Meaning transfer model, Cultural dimension aboutcelebrity endorsements, TEARS model, no TEARS approach strategy and Investment returns oncelebrity endorsements.2.1 Celebrity Endorsements and its importance in Promotion Mix:This section of the thesis will demonstrate the theories which support the phenomenon ofendorsing celebrities by various organizations worldwide along with the illustration of theories.A critical discussion of the academic models will add value to the research and would establish afirm grounded theory.2.1.1 Pros and Cons of Celebrity Endorsement Approach:Erdogan (1999) suggests that the academic research and annual reports of companies about theschema of celebrity endorsements clearly states the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers as apromotional strategy than non celebrity endorsers. While evaluating the universal thought aboutcelebrity endorsement it has been observed that there is a higher affinity of organizations behindcelebrity endorsements as it nurtures the consumer’s attitude towards endorsed brands andproducts which supports in the purchasing behavior and results higher sales in terms of quantity.Moreover, desirable outcomes are preferable by companies when they endorse celebrities havingpublic consensus and their personality matches with the product profile and the target clientelethan celebrities who have never been endorsed (Ibid).Although there are potential benefits of using celebrity endorsements in the advertising,marketing and promotion of products / brands there are certain risks associated along with thecost of contracts. Moreover, Erdogan (1999) explains about the advantages and disadvantages ofcelebrity endorsements and even if while companies are using celebrities as endorsers, heillustrates a table showing the benefit of this strategy along with suggestion of preventivemeasures for the organizations.Figure 2.1 Pros and Cons of Celebrity Endorsement Strategy:
28 Potential Advantages Potential disadvantages Preventive tactics Increased attention Overshadow the brand Pre-testing and careful planning Image polishing Public controversy Buying insurance and putting provision clauses in contracts Brand prologue Image transformation and Explaining what is their role overexposure and putting clause to restrict endorsement for the brand Brand repositioning Image change and loss of Examining what life-cycle public recognition stage the celebrity is in and how long this stage is going to exist in future Strengthen global campaigns Expensive contracts Selecting celebrities who are appropriate for global target audience, not because they are ‘hot’ in all market audiencesSource: Erdogan (1999, p. 295)Moreover, Erdogan(1999) illustrates that with the invention of new products the consumermarket has become very competitive and the companies are in a row to compete with each otherfor establishing their brand. Thus they are taking the help of celebrity (media stars) attention toassist the marketing of their products. Additionally, with the advancement in the field oftechnology and with entrance of digital TV, Video control systems, internet and satellite TV, 3Dmedia effects, internet advertising etc. the consumers were bombarded with overpoweredadvertising from various channels and advertising media became more challenging sector thanbefore (Ibid). On the other hand the companies have discovered that with celebrity attention intheir product advertisements these potential threats from modern technology can be minimized toa certain extent. From a general perspective celebrity endorsement in any product creates anattention for the consumers and an unrevealed biasness of curiosity which makes this strategymore favorable for the organizations. Furthermore, Erdogan (1999) argues that celebrityadvertisements stand out of the clutter from similar product advertising. Subsequently, celebritiesalso catalyze the communication process and eradicate the excessive noise of the communication
29from the surroundings which improves the process of sending the message of the product to thetarget audience.In contrary, there are certain difficulties which the organizations face while entering into globalmarketing of their products and the massive barriers comes from the foreign markets due to thecultural ‘roadblocks’ from various countries in the form of time, space, language, relationships,power difference, masculinity, femininity (Ibid). E.g. the Indian culture of collectivism vs.individualism in U.K. for which many companies operating in UK has to understand the culturalbackground of India in order to sustain business and enhance operation in India. People in Indianculture are more prone to accept what the society accepts as a whole even if there are certainvariations but they all obey the cultural consensus, which in UK is entirely different andconsumers here are more intrinsic in nature. Erdogan (1999) defines ‘celebrities’ as a powerfulweapon of promotion and conviction while entering the foreign markets as there are manycelebrities whose popularity is wide spread and the publics in those nations accept theirrecommendations. But there are risks associated with celebrity endorsements as well and thechallenge for organizations is to maintain the harmony due to the celebrity image incongruity,drop in popularity, celebrity involvement in events of ethical turpitude and loosing credibilitydue to over endorsements in products / brands (Ibid). Culture Endorsement Consumption2.1.2 Meaning Transfer Model:McCraken (1989) describes the process of endorsement through his model of meaning transferwhich has a comprehensive description about the phenomenon. The focal point of meaningtransfer model states that if the celebrity is utilized appropriately they encode positive set ofmeanings which can be transferred to the endorsed product. The model is divided into 3 sections:culture, endorsement and consumption.Figure 3.1 The Meaning Transfer Model Source: McCracken, 1989, p. 315 Key: Path of meaning transfer Stage of meaning movement
30Objects CelebrityPersons Celebrity Product Product ConsumerContextRole 12 Stage 13 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 1: Culture McCraken (1989) illustrates that celebrities are different from that of anonymous models or actors and organizations invest huge amount of money on celebrities to bring value to the advertisement. They convey extra amount of depth and power of persuasion which is carried over as a message to the consumers. It is a matter of common sense that advertisement carries out messages to the publics and thus they serve the purpose of meaning transfer from the commodity to the usability of the product. But it has been observed that organizations are deeply indulged into endorsing celebrities into their marketing campaign in spite the fact that they are expensive to maintain and are taking most of their marketing budget. Now the question arises why do they do it? What benefit they have got in doing celebrity endorsements than endorsing a local star or popular personality (anonymous professionals)? How a celebrity endorsement adds
31value to the meaning transfer model? What are the attributes of a celebrity endorsement inrelation to marketing campaign and association with culture? Are there any special featureswhich the celebrities bring in to the product campaign which influences the consumer behaviourtowards the brands / products?On the other hand Bergstrom and Skarfstad (2004: unpub) suggests that anonymous actors andmodels presents demographic community in the form of gender, age, status and symbols whichare relatively indistinguishable and vague in carrying meaning to a specific culture due to lack ofpopularity and recognition. Celebrities offer all these attributes with the verity of a special life-style that anonymous models cannot offer and they break the communal barrier with the act ofexactitude. Each celebrity carry a unique constitution of meaning due to their association withinthe community and social power which companies cannot get from the anonymous models /actors. Moreover, it is quite certain that celebrities are more powerful endorsers than that ofanonymous actors / models. Though they also bring in meaning to the any endorsements but theirpower of persuasion is considered limited in compare to celebrity endorsements as celebritieshave a wider circulation of identity and thus they receive consent from various communitiesthroughout the world. Celebrities also transfer the meanings of their association to the brandwith great radiance and accuracy creating a long term acquaintance with the product which theyhave developed from their re-appearance and intense participation.Interestingly, Bergstrom and Skarfstad(2004: unpub) discusses that celebrities gather themeanings of a powerful persona from their characters which they act in television, movie,athletes, politics, sports and other careers. These specific roles which they perform give them theopportunity to associate with various ranges of objects, persona and context which remains withthe celebrity and are reflected in the advertisements making a meaning transfer from a characterto the product / items.Stage 2: EndorsementSubsequently, the 2nd part of the meaning transfer process is endorsement where the celebrity andproduct are major variables and the meanings are transferred from the celebrity to the productmaking it a real endorsement. McCracken (1989) suggests that selection of a specific celebritybased on their characteristics is a challenging task. Advertising agencies choose the celebrities
32based on the criteria that which kind of the characteristics the consumers are looking for from theproduct / brand and who are the celebrities making a ‘close fit’ in that quality circle forendorsement. Selection of the celebrity also takes into account the financial viability of thecampaign.McCracken (1989) after celebrity selection the probable expectation would be that theadvertising should identify the necessity of bringing the celebrity association to the product.However, care must be taken in this process as the celebrities carry a lot of meanings along withthem but the advertisers should understand the ‘perfect match’ of the celebrity and productassociation eliminating the vague aspect of culture instead concentrating on the specific objectiveof the endorsement. Hence, to satisfy the process the advertisers uses people, objects, contextwhich are parallel to have same meaning as the celebrity. Celebrities also take advantage of theadvertisement where there is overreliance and the celebrity utilises this opportunity to refraintheir image (Ibid).Additionally, McCracken (1989) asserts that the advertisement should be designed in such a waythat there is a perfect symbiosis between the product and the celebrity association which initiatesthe consumers to take part in the meaning transfer process. In advertising theory copy testing isdone to measure the success of the advert and when the advert is put forward to the consumersthey realize the connection of the celebrity with the product which helps in the meaning transfermovement from celebrity to product.Stage 3: ConsumptionFrom a general conception consumers today are looking for meaning in everyday life and whenconsumption comes into play they are looking for the absolute value into it. Consumers comefrom various cultures and in all societies the life-style of the public is influenced by the currentphenomenon which is happening in the surrounding of the people. In the 21st century when thereis abundance of materials from various sources the consumers are bombarded with the productofferings and that makes confusion in the mind of the consumers about the consumption of theproduct. Celebrity association supports the buying behaviour of the consumers as it reflectsreliability of the persona in the product endorsement.
33McCracken (1989) suggest that the final stage of meaning transfer from the product to theconsumer is the most complicated process. It is not just a matter of fact that consumers merelyown the product and take possession of its meaning nor the meanings are automaticallytransferred back to the consumers. Consumers must incorporate the meanings into them and theyhave to claim the meaning transfer from the product to self and work along with it. They have toparticipate in the whole process of claiming the meaning where the use of the product willdevelop the process of meaning transfer and it can be assumed as a test examination where theconsumers test the product quality and effectiveness along with the celebrity association andjudge the viability of the association.Celebrities have already influenced the process of buying in the 1st stage of the meaning transferwhere they have associated them along with the product and reflected their own life-style alongwith the product. Consumers have accepted what the celebrities has shown them in the initialphase and then only they have progressed into the final stage. Celebrity association is combinedalong with the objects, people and events around the consumer’s life-style and this phenomenonshows that celebrities built their own self well which is appreciated by the consumers. In aneveryday life the consumers are interchanging among various consumer goods and therefore theyare constantly changing various products / goods to construct the aspect of their self and world.They admire those characters that are also changing their characters depending on the situationof the life and can accomplish the changes well into the situation. As celebrities has already donethe stage 1 of meaning transfer process, now the consumers are processing their mind in theirown stage 1 process where they construct the self meaning out of the meaning provided by thecelebrities and judge whether the meanings are accessible to them there.Additionally, McCracken (1989) states that the consumers simply do not admire the celebritybecause of their association but the reason behind their liking is related to what the consumerswanted to see from the celebrity. When the celebrities enter into the endorsing process they makethe meaning of the celebrity self out of the elements in the form of dramatic cultural dispositionwhich is available in the materials form (products) for the consumers. McCracken (1989)illustrates that celebrities also plays the role of a ‘super consumer’. What actually happens in thisphenomenon is that when a movie star is acting they take up a character based on the script andwithin the script they portray the individual based on the circumstances and situation of the story
34line rather then depicting their own life-style. In most circumstances they carry the character of aperson (imaginary) but they are quite similar to that of the human characters what we see in adaily life. If that character succeeds, then the celebrity becomes a known personality and possesa power of a new self which is accepted by the consumers. (E.g. the role of Kate Winslet in the‘Titanic’ movie gave her the character of the survivor lady of the tragedy and she becameassociated along with the historic epic.) Thus celebrity world is such a imaginary world wherethe characters give new meaning to the person due to their association in a specific role and thistrial method of the celebrities taking up different characters becomes a compelling source ofmeaning in marketing. Similarly, they are also termed as ‘superior customers’ as they gavemeaning to a character and the association of the character with the tangible and intangibleaspect becomes a matter of marketing. They capture the characters in a rational way which giveslife to the characters and the product association along with the characters become a matter ofnew entrants in marketing terms.However, in the society certain groups of people are having higher affinity towards celebrityassociation due to their social supremacy and cultural hierarchy which makes a positiveassociation of these consumers along with the celebrity life-style. Interestingly, these societalgroups are followed by their societal subordinates who gather the knowledge of association ofthe celebrity from their pioneers and they do that not because they know about the celebrity butin order to associate along with the societal supremacy of their peers. Association can also differfrom the generation to generation and also depend upon gender, class, personality and life-stylein a culture of having higher individualism in people than collectivism, but individuals does havepersonal liking and when the consumers chosen character endorse the product the meaningtransfer from product to the consumer becomes relatively easy.Therefore, McCracken (1989) advocates the celebrity endorsement operates as a method ofmeaning transfer from the phase when meaning moves into the persona of the celebrity followingcelebrity to the product and from product to the consumers where the celebrity becomes the keyplayer of meaning transfer process.2.2 The Process of Celebrity Selection:
35 In this section the researcher will entail with the theories which reflect on how the companies select the celebrities. Theory model discussed in this section are TEARS model, no TEARS approach and the stereotyping of the endorsers. 2.2.1 The TEARS model: Moreover, Shimp (2000) suggests that there are 2 general attributes which the companies should consider while endorsing a celebrity for marketing. These are the credibility of the character and the attractiveness of the celebrity which determines the effectiveness of the communiqué of the endorser to the target audience. Under the credibility characteristic trustworthiness and expertise of the endorser are also counted as sub- quality. Credibility refers to the celebrity’s judgment and reliability and expertise refers to the explicit skills, knowledge or capability that the endorser has about the brand (Ibid). Additionally, Shimp (2000) describes that attractiveness consists of 3 sub categories namely physical attractiveness, respect and similarity. An example of physical attractiveness is reflected when the Swiss watchmaker, Omega choose tennis player Anna Kournikova for their marketing campaign. However, Kournikova never won a tournament in her tennis career but the company’s marketing director believes that she is “really everything in one package” (Ibid). Secondly, celebrities are recognized by the publics for their athletic power, appealing personality and acting ability etc which earns them respect from the society and a consensus voting of recognition. The last attribute is similarity where the major concern is focused on the endorser and their capability to match along with the target group of consumers in terms of age, gender, ethnicity etc. (Ibid). However, Shimp (2003: 293) states that the reason behind taking attributes of the celebrity as a major issue is to “identify how brand managers and their agencies actually go about selecting celebrities, as to avoid the grief from making an unwise decision”. TEARS model of Celebrity Selection: Credibility AttractivenessTrustworthiness Expertise Attractiveness Respect Similarity
36T E A R SFigure: 4.1 TEARS model Source: (Basu, 2009) Author’s creationThe TEARS model consists of 5 major parameters based on which the companies select thecelebrity for the advertisement campaign. These 5 parameters are: trustworthiness, expertise,attractiveness, respect and similarity.Trustworthiness: It is related to the fact, how reliable and dependable is the celebrity. Ascompanies endorse the celebrity for enhancing their marketing campaign therefore the mainobjective of selection is based on the circumstances whether the celebrity carries the image in thesociety to convince the target audience. Celebrities earn their trust from the public due to theirwork and achievement in respective field and the marketers utilizes the trustworthiness of thecelebrities in the advertisement. On the other hand if the celebrities are showing self interest inendorsing the product the persuasive effect of the endorsement can be negative and consumer’sreliability towards the celebrity falls but increasing reliability can be enhanced when the endorseris seen as a character having ‘zero’ interest in endorsing the brand.Expertise: Expertise relates to the specific skills and knowledge of the endorser in any particularfield. The celebrities achieve these expertises from their prolonged association within anyspecific subject and also due to excessive media attention. Whether or not the celebrity is a realexpert is unimportant but for companies what matters is the celebrity interference in changing theopinion of the consumers about their product / brand.Attractiveness: In this respect the attractiveness of the celebrity plays a vital role. Celebrityattractiveness in terms of physical attributes grabs a lot of public attention more than theirachievement in acting or expertise. Marketers are clever manipulators to visage the mind of theconsumers with the physical attractiveness as it becomes a prime role of getting general
37consensus in pursuing the mass in various cultures. E.g. Leonardo Dicaprio known as ahandsome actor and his association with TAG heuer, Jude Law and Dunhill, DipikaPadupune (Indian actress) and Kingfisher Airlines.Respect: Celebrities earn respect from the general audience due to their acting skills and theircontribution to the society in sports, business, politics and their arguments in any concerningissues of the society. All these are counted as the personal qualities of the celebrity which earnsthen respect and the credibility of a spoke person. When a respected celebrity endorses a producttheir association enhances the brand’s equity due to the positive alliance of the celebrity. E.g.Shabana Azmi (Indian actress) endorsed the AIDS campaign in India and became the face ofthe WHO’S (world health organization) AIDS campaign in India.Similarity: Similarity relates to the fact how the celebrity relates them along with the age,gender, ethnicity, social class, creed, community and cultural variations. It is highly importantfor companies to consider because consumers admire the individuals who are similar to them inany of the mentioned attributes like from same ethnicity, gender or country. Shimp (2000) statesthat research on ethical minorities reveals that they show greater affinity to the spokespersonwho comes from the same background as they matches with the audience’s liking and gain trustin endorsing a product / brand. (Adopted from Shimp, 2000 and modified by Basu, 2009)2.2.2 The No TEARS Approach for celebrity selection:In compare to Shimp’s (2000) TEARS approach which shows the attributes of the celebrities andhow companies select the celebrities based on the requirement of their advertising campaign, NoTEARS approach of Shimp (2000) describes the correct procedure of celebrity selection by themanagers / decision makers of an organization to avoid the unnecessary hazard of taking anunwise decision of selecting a wrong personality for marketing campaign. The TEARS approachonly reflects on the attributes of the celebrities and the 1 st letter of the word describes thequalities of the characters based on their credibility and attractiveness but the “No TEARS”approach talks about the real quintessence of using the attributes in conjunction with TEARS.
38According to Shimp (2000) the advertisers considers various factors while endorsing celebritiesinto their marketing campaign and some of the core aspects what they are looking from thecelebrity and brand concurrence are: 1. Celebrity and target market match up 2. Celebrity and brand concurrency 3. Celebrity credibility 4. Attractiveness of the celebrity 5. Cost of endorsement 6. Working easy vs. difficulty factor 7. Endorsement dissemination 8. Celebrity association and risk of brand dilutionAll the above mentioned factors are essentials elements which the companies consider whileendorsing a celebrity. Most important aspect of having the factorial analysis is to establish thebrands association with the positive aspect of the celebrity association. Marketers are clever toestablish this phenomenon and a well known idiom “when you are in Rome (do as Romansdo)” reflects the ideology behind the strategy. The choice of ‘right celebrity’ to target the ‘rightmarket segment’ and eliminating the celebrity as well due to their negative manifestation in thesociety is the ‘mantra’ behind celebrity selection by the companies in today’s economicscenario. However, a diagrammatic description of the factors essential for celebrity and brandcongruency is established as follows:
39 Celebrity and target market match up Brand Factors in Celebrity and brand concurrency quest of Celebrity credibilityCelebrityEndorsement Attractiveness of the celebrityFactors required Cost of endorsement Working easy vs. difficulty factor Endorsement dissemination Celebrity association and risk of brand dilution Figure: 5.1 Factors essential for Celebrity and Brand Congruency Source: (Basu, 2009) Author’s creation Celebrity and target market match up: Marketers always choose the celebrity based on the fundamental element whether the celebrity endorsement is going to work for the prospective target market where they want the advertisement to launch. Celebrity alignment has to be in parallel with the target audience. E.g. Sport Stars endorsing brands like Addidas, Nike, and Reebok etc. Celebrity and brand congruency: The reflection of the celebrity in relation to the brand values, decorum, principle and also the image required by the celebrity to enhance the brand advertised. E.g. Moneysupermarket.com and entrepreneur Peter Jones: a well knitted congruency where the celebrity’s association with the business world and financial assessment put forward the image of moneysupermarket.com. Celebrity credibility: It associates along with the reliability and dependability of the celebrity and the knowledge of the person about the product / brand and its effectiveness. If the celebrity trust is reflected in the brand and celebrity’s vow for the brand is significant then the advert is
40considered valuable. E.g. the key statement of L’Oreal said by all the endorsers around the world“because I am worth it”Attractiveness of the celebrity: While choosing celebrities as spokesperson the companiesevaluate the attractiveness of the person and in this relation attractiveness doesn’t means physicalbeauty but also the personality of the character and charisma of the person as an individual. E.g.Dipika Padupune, being the brand ambassador of Kingfisher airlines, India.Cost of endorsement: Another important consideration which all the companies and theadvertising agencies are looking at is the cost of celebrity endorsement. As endorsement itself, iscost sensitive and accounts to huge amount of marketing budget, therefore companies arelooking at the worthiness of the investment. In many occasion they choose the celebritiesdepending on the budget limitations. Subsequently, they also consider the aspect of the brandsimage and its association along with the consumer class, where popular celebrities’ appearanceholds the identity of the brand in spite of the cost involved. Therefore, cost is not a fixedconstraint for endorsement strategy but variable depending on the situation and the need forattention of the brand. E.g. Armani with David and Victoria Beckham (expensive endorsement)but its paying off Armani the return on investment due to the celebrities association. Companiesalways do a cost-benefit analysis in order to determine the celebrity as it relates to thejustification of the fact that what is expected from the return in terms of sales and revenue for theproduct and this analysis establishes the decision of endorsement.Working easy vs. difficulty factor: There is a major concern for the advertisers about thecelebrity endorsement and that relates to the attitude and professionalism of the celebrity.Companies prefer to deal with celebrities who are ‘hassle free’ and are specific about theirroutine. Unprofessional, arrogant, temperamental characters are hard to manage and are difficultpeople to work with as they follow the typical celebrity headed life-style.Endorsement dissemination: If a celebrity is overexposed into the media channel due to theirassociation with various product / brand endorsement there is a possibility that the credibility ofthe celebrity as an endorser fades away. Over exposition of the celebrity reduces their perceivedcredibility and attains saturation among the consumers.
41Celebrity association and risk of brand dilution: However, there are not always positiveeffects of celebrity association. Sometimes the celebrity association with the brand can dilute thebrand image. The marketers and the advertisers are always concerned about the celebritiesprivate life in which their relation with unsocial or trouble elements can hamper the brandsposition recognition failure. There are no set principles to illustrate why the brands suffers apessimistic position when the celebrity endorsing the brand is convicted of any crime or unsocialaffair. (Adopted from Shimp, 2000 and modified by Basu, 2009)2.2.3 Celebrity endorsement and Cultural Dimension:On the other hand if we consider culture as a dimension to measure the impact of celebrityendorsement then it would be argued that the principles of marketing and the advertising doesn’tcomply with the cultural difference which is predominant in the sentient world. Marketing andpromotions for companies is a vital agenda for market development and their weapon to enhancethe target market for the brand / product. But considering the fact that when all companies aregoing global and are operating throughout the world their products are also available to variouscountries in spite of cultural difference and consumers are also accepting the product / brand.The question arises how it is possible to penetrate the deep-rooted cultural ethos of variousnations. While endorsing a celebrity for a product / brand marketers do consider the culturaldimension to evaluate the suitable personality who is going to be recognized and accepted in theprevailing culture and society. When it comes to the core essence of cultural dimensionmarketers study the structure and the societal make-up of the country they are willing to target.Moreover, Ginsburgh and Throsby (2006) suggest that there certain fundamental issues withculture which is denoted by the fact, how the people behave in other cultures, their customs,religion, beliefs, and societal hierarchy. From organization point of view the challenge is toinvestigate how well the public could be motivated to adopt the product, gaining trust amongthem, establishing the product / brand within the specific culture, technological advancement inthe culture and its reach to the human population of that nation. Therefore, describing culture asa nucleus becomes a challenging task for marketers. Ginsburgh and Throsby (2006) describesthat there are 4 main dimensions of cultural variations based on which the cultural segregationhas been done from one culture to another.
42Based on the assumption that a pragmatic approach to identify culture which nurtures thedevelopment and influences economic growth the 4 dimensions of culture are introduced. Theyprevail in the western competitive individualistic society as well as in idyllic closed society ofsolidarity. Casson (1993) in Ginsburgh and Throsby (2006) illustrates the 4 types of dimensionswhich are: 1. Individualism Vs. Collectivism 2. Pragmatism Vs. Proceduralism 3. Low trust Vs. High trust 4. High-tension Vs. Low-tensionIndividualism vs. Collectivism: Earl (1986) in Ginsburgh and Throsby (2006) suggests thatpeople having individualistic approach believes that common people are autonomous in nature inthat respect each and every individual values their own personal ‘lifestyle’ than that of others. Inthe individualistic culture the information required for coordination is widely distributed and theafter shocks received by the individuals are very specific. In this approach people believe thatownership and control of resources should be invested in the individuals as individuals only havethe ability to take decisions based on the information received.On the other hand, collectivist believes that common people are part of the community wherethey are born and they follow the communal structure more than their individual thoughts andjudgement. Even if they have individual thoughts about specific matters, but they always tend tosubstitute that with the consensus from the communal hierarchy. Even adults seek opinion fromtheir elders regarding survival issues. People having collectivist view also believe in groupuniformity as in everyone is same and values group ideas. Information required for coordinationis centralized based to the group and the after shocks are having collective impact. Ownershipand control of resources in this approach is invested in group. [Ekelund and Tollison (1997) inGinsburgh and Throsby (2006)]Pragmatism vs. Proceduralism: Pragmatists believes that sensitive judgements are based uponwide personal experience and should be based upon the grounded theory or practical world i.e. tosay what is obvious to happen in circumstances of odd and even in human life and decisions
43based upon these approaches tend to reflect successful decisions. In spite of the fact that theremight be situations where intuition are very strong based on the circumstances but theseperceptions can be tested through informal conversations with other people. Decisions should bebased on individual judgements and needs prompt attention in the same. Individuals should beresponsible for their own decisions. Proceduralists believes that good decisions are formed fromclosely knitted formal procedures, which are having a theory base and subsequently follows asystematic collection of objective information. Proceduralists believes that the decisions whichare taken in the form of committees may be time consuming and lengthy, but the argument is thatit is better to get the right decisions than taking random decisions within a short span of time.Ginsburgh and Throsby (2006)Low trust vs. High-trust: Cultures which are having the reliability based on high-trust believesthat people and common public will be honest, work hard, loyal and generally keep theirpromises in situations of odd and even and in adverse conditions when they have little / nomaterial inducement related with the subject / matter. In contrast, cultures having low trustappeal believe that common people are motivated to do certain things based on the materialincentives and their motive is concerned with self attainment. Therefore, there might be tendencytowards deceitful behaviour, cheating or elusion. High trust characteristics are a prominentfeature of the individualistic society where the power of enforcement about any agenda is not thesame as compared to collective society. Holmes and Sustein (1999) in Ginsburgh and Throsby(2006)High-tension vs. Low-tension: Subsequently, Scitovsky (1976) and Casson (2002) inGinsburgh and Throsby (2006) assert that person with the attribute of a high-tension society willengage in ambitious projects whereas a person belonging from low-tension society prefers tohave easy projects. High-tension people are more inclined to be stressed out as they are aiminghigh for their own achievement and are ashamed of failure. On the contrary, low-tension peopleare relaxed minded as their aim is comparatively low than others and they blame the situationalfactors for their failure i.e. ‘external locus of control’. Though, low-tension people tend tobehave in an unstructured manner, which often has anti-social repercussion.2.2.4 Acceptance of Celebrity Endorsement based on Cultural Difference:
44Now the main distinction for marketers and advertisers comes when there is a huge culturaldifference between the countries where they operate and are willing to operate in future. Takinginto consideration the cultural difference between India and UK it has been observed that there isa major cultural difference among the cultures of the 2 countries, where the former is having acollectivism approach towards societal decision and the later is having Individualism approachtowards society. From the above discussion of the cultural dimension it is already clear thatIndividualism cultures are always very eccentric and people value their own decisions, whether itis good or bad. In the similar path it would be argued that people is this culture are very muchself conscious and always represent them as an individual in respect to their life and decisionswhich they make in the course of life.While discussing about the acceptance of celebrities in the endorsements of products / goods ithas been commonly viewed that people in individualistic culture are having varied opinion aboutendorsement and following celebrities as stereotypes is not a permanent constraint. Some of thepeople do value endorsement of celebrities and some don’t, even there are groups of people whoare concerned about the association of the celebrity along with the individual life style of them,and therefore follows based on the characteristics match of them with the celebrity character.E.g. People having a business class mind will value celebrities or spokesperson from thatbackground, like entrepreneurs, business magnet endorsing products, whereas teen people willvalue the pop singers and other teen idol celebrities who match a real connection along with thelife-style of them. People in this cultures are looking for the affectivity and efficiency of theproduct / brand more than the endorsers reliability and when the former characteristics matchesalong with celebrity recommendation it catalyzes the process of buying behaviours among theconsumers.According to Hofstede (2009) there are 5 main cultural dimensions which distinguish the worldcultures. They are Power distance index (PDI), Individualism (IDV), Masculinity (MAS),Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), Long term-orientation (LTO). The charts below outlines thedifference between UK and Indian cultures based on the dimensions.
45Fig 6.1 Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions of United KingdomPDI (Power distance index) UK is having a low PDI of 35.IDV (Individualism) Individualism is very high in UK and is 89.MAS (Masculinity) UK scores 66. Masculinity vs. FemininityUAI (Uncertainty avoidance index) Society’s tolerance for uncertainty ambiguity. UK’s score is 35.LTO (Long-term orientation) Long tern orientation vs. Short tern Orientation. UK’s score is 25.Source: Adopted from [www.geert-hofstede.com (2009)] and modified by Basu (2009)On the contrary, if we look at the collectivist culture and the community prevailing in thosecultures it would be eminent that people in those cultures are more concerned about the groupactivity and obey the communal cause than utilizing their own opinion about any given matter. Ina collectivist culture people seek opinion from others to form their own decisions and they arevery cautious about the societal structure and the general consensus of acceptance. They alwaystake the decisions or modify their own opinion based on what a collectivist society will accept.There is a high tendency of interference of powerful people in the decision making stage in thecollectivist society. Therefore, when it comes to celebrity endorsement people always recognizethe characters which are accepted by the society. In a collectivist society people recognize thepower and strength of the people to adjudge them as a spoke person and celebrities in thesecultures plays a vital role in getting general consensus in the society.
46PDI (Power distance index) Power distance in India is high and scores 77.IDV (Individualism) Individualism is low and is 48.MAS (Masculinity) Masculinity is average and scores 56.UAI (Uncertainty avoidance index) Society’s tolerance for uncertainly ambiguity is 40.LTO (Long-term orientation) Long term vs. Short term is 61.Fig 7.1 Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions of IndiaSource: Adopted from [geert-hofstede.com (2009)] and modified from Basu (2009)While, taking the example of India it is very prominent that people have a high influence ofcelebrity culture and acceptance in the social life. They recognize the Bollywood characters as adepiction of the society and want them to be portrayed into the commercial so that, they get anotion of substantiation from them. Even in many advertisements it has been seen that 1 celebrityis used in different forms of product / brand endorsements. Though, according to the principle ofendorsement it might hamper the image of the brand / company but due to high acceptance of thecelebrity image in the society, celebrities are considered as powerful societal tools to rule themass and thus form a matter of acceptance in all aspects. Power, money, strength, popularity andmass acceptance are major factors which companies consider endorsing while a celebrity into abrand / product endorsement in Indian advertisements. Subsequently, it has been seen that globalorganizations are also making their ads domesticated to the Indian community to attractconsumers and are entirely different from their western campaigns. Even people are looking atthe reliability and trustworthiness of the celebrity more than the affectivity of the product. Theybelieve that if popular celebrities endorse the product it has got some ‘weight’ which diminishesthe anxiety of the consumers for acceptance. E.g. Sharukh Khan the Indian Bollywood actor anda popular celebrity in the tinsel world endorses variety of brands and products, but interestinglyhis reliability is having a powerful power of persuasion which flounce the consumers mind andadds as a weapon of marketing for advertisers.
47Fig 8.1 Cultural Dimensions accepted in India and UK:Source: (Basu, 2009) Author’s creation Dimensions India UK Individualism Low High Collectivism High Low Pragmatism Low High Proceduralism High Low Low Trust High Low High Trust Low High High-Tension Variable High Low-Tension Variable VariableMore of the emphasis about the difference between individualism and collectivism has beenillustrated by Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. His primary interest was to discover the workrelated values in a cross cultural community which measures the behavioural attitude of peoplein different cultures. Moreover, Doole and Lowe (2008) describes that in a individualistic society(IDV) there is a variety of relationship between individuals and his / her fellow members in thesociety. E.g. nuclear families, extended families, tribes have a greater degree of individual tie-
48ups. These societies allow greater proximity of freedom in individual life and expect people tobehave as a person representing them as an individual caring their own self interest. Thesesocieties reflect a loose integration of cultural biasness and communal harmony. On the otherhand in a collectivist society individuals are cared and protected from their hierarchal peers and amatter of consensus judgement comes into the decision making process of any individual wheresocietal approval about any given matter (life/work) is valued more than person opinion.Collectivist love to mingle in groups and consult their person life and interest’s in creating andmaintaining a communal harmony. In these societies there is a high degree of cultural andcommunal integration. Hofstede (2003) in Doole and Lowe (2008) identifies countries like USA,UK and Netherlands as Individualistic society and Colombia, Pakisthan and Taiwan ascollectivist society whereas India, Japan Austria and Spain are in the mid-range of theIndividualism vs. Collectivism society.Fig 9.1 Comparison between India and UK based on Geert Hofstede: Cultural DimensionsSource: [geert-hofstede.com (2009)]
492.2.5 Celebrity endorsements and ROI (Return on Investments):However, Shimp (2000) illustrates that companies always perform a cost benefit analysis beforethey endorse an expensive celebrity into their marketing campaign. This analysis determines thefact that whether or not it is justified to endorse an expensive celebrity in terms of scope as it isdifficult to forecast the future revenues which would be obtained from using a special celebrityendorser. The major task for the marketers and the financial analyst of the companies is tocompute the ROI which can be projected from a set of celebrities that connects favourably alongwith the brand’s image the target market (Ibid).Agarwal & Kamakura (1995) suggest that in the present scenario the importance of economicvalue towards strategic marketing decisions are becoming significant aspects of core companyvalues. Farrell et.al. (2000) describes that previous studies and researches in the similar fieldexplains the positive impact of celebrity endorsements in the consumer behaviour segment, butfew researches evaluated the importance of celebrity selection criteria and the companiesvaluation in terms of market growth and stock price. Agarwal & Kamakura (1995) explains thatcompanies spend million of dollars on celebrity for a multi year contract and it always variesaccording to the status of the celebrity. It can also lead up to generating invest in the form ofintangible asset for the company who is endorsing the celebrity. These intangible assets arerecognized as future sales increase, revenues and profits which are important aspect of theendorsement agenda from the company’s strategic perspective (Ibid). Agarwal & Kamakura(1995) suggests that the major question for the companies behind the celebrity endorsementpolicy is concerned with the economic returns which the company is forecasting from theinvestment in the form of celebrity advertising and how companies estimate the ROI on celebrityendorsements.
50Moreover, Agarwal & Kamakura (1995) assert that it is very hard to determine the overallsuccess of the advertising campaign on the sales performance of the company / brand as it isimpossible to assess the effectiveness of a celebrity endorsement and calculate profitability.Additionally, the advertising campaign for a company / brand runs for a period of time with theintension of sales increase or marketing, therefore the current profit might not reflect the trueprofitability attained from the advertising campaign (Ibid). Agarwal & Kamakura (1995) used analternative way of measuring the profitability gained from celebrity endorsement by taking theexpected profit associated along with the endorsement campaign as replicated in the abnormalreturns of the company. Subsequently, they also used the event study methodology to measurethe abnormal return on endorsements.Mathur & Mathur (1997) suggest that event study methodology is often used in order to identifythe valuation effects based on the marketing decision of a company. Mathur et.al. (1997: 70)states that the basic principle of event study methodology is that “investors evaluate and use intheir investment decisions all relevant new information that becomes available to them” Agarwal& Kamakura (1995) describes that because endorsements involves a lot of financial commitmenttherefore a proper scrutiny of financial implications are vital for the investors and the company.When companies endorse a celebrity into the advertising campaign the investors will engage intomaking an independent judgement based on the future returns and profit impact of the contracttargeting the revenue and sales performance evaluating the company’s stock returns of theproduct / brand endorsed. Thus event study methodology examines the valuation of the product /brand in the current market along with the net economic worth of the celebrity endorsement.Additionally, Agrawal & Kamakura (1995) suggest that the research of 110 celebrity contracts ofvarious companies showed proximity towards the positive aspect of the celebrity endorsementpolicy. It has been reflected in the positive outcome of stock return of the products / brands afterusing celebrity advertising and companies’ value endorsement as a worthy investment in spite ofhaving an expensive budget. Farrell et.al. (2000) used the event study methodology to evaluatethe impact of celebrity endorsement and studied some companies’ performance where TigerWoods endorses their products based on a survey on Wood’s tournament performance and thecontract for the endorsement. The outcome shows that they didn’t found a relationship betweenWood’s tournament performance and the excessive ROI of fortune brands (Ibid). However,
51Farrell et.al. (2000) illustrates that there was a matter of relationship distraction betweenAmerican Express (AMEX) and Wood’s as AMEX viewed the credibility of a Golfer is notsignificant to the market of their product. In contrast, Nike has viewed Wood’s performance as aconfirmatory constraint as it has boosted it sales with Wood’s winning performance in hismatches and gave Nike an additional publicity. Moreover, there is another interesting facet thatboth Nike and Wood’s are related to sports and thus a parallel relationship of the brand alongwith the celebrity is viewed credible by the consumers. Additionally, Mathur et.al. (1997) entailsthat most of research on celebrity endorsement came up with the evidence that celebrityendorsement of a brand / product enhances the profitability of the product and have considerablevalues from company’s perspective to attain higher brand equity and market share.
52 CHAPTER 33. Research Methodology:In the previous chapter we discussed about the literature behind the research and analysed sometheoretical framework suggested by academics in the field of celebrity endorsement. Theliterature has given us background knowledge about the research and in this chapter we are goingto frame up questions based on the foundations cited in the literature. However, in this chapterwe are constructing our research methodology which is required to discuss and validate ourresearch. The research methodology will give us the guideline to gather adequate information forthe research and how to practice the methods while gathering information effectively from thesample size. It will help us to construct appropriate questions in order to achieve the accurateanswers for the research and thus validating the research with justified findings and conclusions.Research methodology is divided in to 6 sections whilst: research approach, strategy of theresearch, data collection technique, sample selection, data analysis and research qualitycriteria.3.1 Purpose of Research:Generally there are many different ways of conducting a research, although it is variable basedupon what kind of research the researcher is doing and a clear perception and elementaryknowledge about the research area helps the researcher to classify the problems which are due tobe investigated. Wiedersheim-Paul and Eriksson (1999) suggests that there are 3 differentresearch categories which are essential aspects while dealing with a research problem. Theresearch problem could be dealt with exploratory, explanatory and descriptive researchapproaches.3.1.1 Exploratory Research:
53Reynolds (1971) suggests that exploratory research enables the researcher to investigate certainphenomenons which are similar to the research objective and forming suggestive ideas which areincluded in the actual research. In other way it is a process of gathering relevant data availablefrom the previous researches which are vital aspects to construct and support the causes of theresearch. Patel & Tebelius (1987) defines that the main objective is to gather a pool ofinformation which are specific to the research problem. Exploratory research is conducted whenthe research problem is indistinctly known or when there is lack of clarity about the knowledgeavailable and there are no explicit findings. The ideal practice for data gathering in case of anexploratory research is to conduct interviews (Ibid).3.1.2 Explanatory Research:The objective behind conducting explanatory research is to form precise theory which could beused to used to define pragmatic explanations (Reynolds, 1971) Based on the theory theresearcher constructs the hypotheses of the research which are tested empirically (Patel &Tebelius, 1987) However, Yin (2003) defines that a research is explanatory when there is acause-effect relationship, explaining what are the causes behind the effects shown in theresearch. Aaker & Day (1990) explains that explanatory research approach should be takenwhen one of the variables in the research causes or determines the value of the other variablesand is an appropriate research technique when the problems of the research are difficult todemarcate (ibid). This kind of research technique is also valid when there is no cleardemonstration about specific model to be used in case of problem and what kind of qualities andrelationship are important while considering the problem (Wiedersheim & Eriksson, 1999)3.1.3 Descriptive Research:Patel & Tebelius (1987) suggests that descriptive research provides an explanation about variousincidents which are connected along with individuals, situations or events that occurs and createsa problem. However, its purpose is also to create empirical generalizations which later leads totheory development based on the generalizations illustrated in the research (Reynolds, 1971).Additionally, it is ideal for researches where there is no requirement to investigate a cause-effectrelationship and the problem is well defined (Wiedersheim & Eriksson, 1999). Aaker & Day(1990) suggests that descriptive research is another way of doing secondary research based on
54the previous research data and findings where the objective is to demonstrate few aspects of aparticular problem.However, from the research perspective it is very important to form some questions which arethe focus of the research are the objective of conducting the research. As stated in chapter 1 thatthe purpose of the research is “Showing the influence of celebrity endorsements in the marketingcampaign of brands / products and significance of culture in the recognition of a celebrity, byconsumers’ from various cultures across the world. Also, creating awareness for the probableorganizations trying to become global corporations.” Therefore some of the research questionswhich seek attention are: Why companies choose celebrity endorsement as a promotionalstrategy? How companies select their endorsers? Are there any cultural dimension whichcompanies consider and value while endorsing any celebrity / character? How major companiesand global organizations take the advantage of celebrity endorsement while they are expandingin different nations? Do culture and consumer’s perception about known celebrities plays a vitalrole in advertisement and marketing? How different is Western and Eastern society and hencethe impact of celebrity advertising? Are consumers from different cultures having differentattitude towards consumption and processing of advertisements? Do companies select thecelebrities addressing ROI and cost benefit analysis? Moreover, the research questions are tryingto explain the problem of a specific nature in a broad spectrum. Some of the answers are therewith the consumers and some are undefined. Therefore, consumer’s perception plays a vital rolein the research, and descriptive research methods are chosen to conduct the research.3.2 Research Approach:While conducting a research it is very important to consider the research approach and speciallyin the field of management and social science when the research are done with a cause-effectrelationship, therefore the researcher test a huge amount of sample to gather data and lateranalysis of the data which ultimately gives the firm position about drawing a rational conclusionbased upon the findings. Denscombe (1998) suggests that qualitative and quantitative researchapproaches are very common methods in social science research. Moreover, Wiedersheim-Paul& Eriksson (1997) asserts that a research can be classified into 2 distinct types as qualitative andquantitative research. However, Denscombe (1998) states that there is a difference between
55qualitative and quantitative research because both the methods treats the data analysis indifferent ways, one with the use of statistical tools and is a scientific approach and the other isanalysis of the data gathered in a particular format to understand the human behavior and thereasons the govern those behavior. Denscombe (1998: 174) states that “the most elementarydistinction between the two approaches lies in the use of words of numbers as the basic unit foranalysis”.3.2.1 Quantitative Research:Aliaga & Gunderson (2002) in Muijs (2004) defines that quantitative research is a phenomenonwhere the researcher explains by colleting numerical data from the sample and later analysesthem by using mathematically based methods (statistical tools). Denscombe (1998) defines thatin quantitative research the data gathered from observations, reports and recordings etc aretransformed into quantifiable numbers which is measured in an order of a scale termed asnominal, rational and ordinal data. Quantitative research considers analysis of numbers as theprime criteria as numbers are suitable to carry out comparisons and correlations required for theresearch and while analyzing the data based on statistical tools it helps to control analysisprocess when the numbers are large. Therefore, quantitative research is valid when the researchis done on a large scale and the sample size entails large quantities and numbers (Ibid).Additionally, Blaxter et.al. (2001) in Bell (2005) suggests that quantitative data appear toprovide more precise data about the outcome of the research.3.2.2 Qualitative Research:Huberman & Miles (1994) suggests that qualitative research is carried out through an intensecontact with a particular ‘field’ or life situation. Huberman & Miles (1994: 6) states that “thesesituations are typical “banal” or normal ones, reflective of the everyday life of individuals,groups, societies and organizations”. According to Silverman (2004) qualitative research takesin to account a wide range of different contradictory activities which are related with the researchtopic. Moreover, Maxwell (2005) suggests that qualitative data analysis is a kind of data analysiswhich constitutes data in the form of language and texts. Language is one of the most importantfactors which effect the qualitative research as it carries significant expressions and these data’s
56can be easily changed into linguistic form through descriptions and field notes. Denscombe(1998) describes that qualitative research is favorable for conducting smaller and in depth studieswhen the sample size is limited. However, Yin (2003) suggests that qualitative research aims toreceive detailed information from the data gathered so the researcher can obtain a detailedunderstanding of the problem in matter.For this research regarding celebrity endorsement the researcher has chosen qualitative approachto deal with the problem of the research matter. As, the matter of study will engage consumersfrom 2 different culture (UK and India) therefore the opinion of normal and everyday consumersare vital aspect of the research. Qualitative approach will design the questionnaire which willenable the researcher to study in depth the consumer’s perception about celebrity endorsement indifferent cultures and also how they value it in their buying decisions. However, the opinion ofthe consumers will be collected in the form of questionnaire survey and while interpreting thedata, qualitative analysis will be produced. However, in order to give precise demonstration ofcertain segment of consumers and their attitudes quantitative data would be produced in the formof bar charts and graphs.3.3 Research Strategy:Research strategy is the way to approach the research for any given topic. It depends mostly onthe questionnaire formed for the research which will define which strategy would be best suitablefor investigating the research objectives. Yin (2003) suggests that there are 5 different situationswhere research strategies could be used. There are varieties of strategies but the best suited onesare the most applicable and recognized for specific type of research. Some of the situationsillustrated are experiment, survey, archival, analysis, history and case study. However, thereare both positive and negative elements of using each strategies and the researcher would choosethe appropriate strategy based on the situation analysis where he/ she is gathering data (Ibid).Yin (2003) also narrates further classification of the strategies which distinguishes them witheach other. These are as: • Form of research question • Control over actual behavioral events
57 • Focus on contemporary events.The table here demonstrates the different research strategies in relation to the 3 conditions laidout.Fig 10.1 Research Strategies for different situations:Source: Yin (2003: 5) Research Strategy Form of Research Control over actual Focuses on Questions behavioral events? contemporary events? Experiment How, Why Yes Yes Survey Who, what, where, No Yes how many, how much Archival analysis Who, what, where, No Yes / No how many, how much History How, why No No Case study How, why No Yes3.3.1 The Survey:McBurney & White (2007) suggests that surveys are vital research strategies used whilegathering scientific information. However, the purpose of survey is to gather information frompeople about their experience or opinion about any specific issue which is related to the research.Alternatively, there are surveys which tend to seek the judgment about people’s behavior fromany particular issue / event. In this research survey technique is used to gather information fromthe consumers about their opinion about celebrity endorsement and attempting to find out theeffect which the celebrity endorsement might have to the consumer’s buying attitude. Moreover,McBurney & White (2007: 237) states that “surveys provide an opportunity to examine thecorrelations among the participants’ responses and to look for possible patterns of cause andeffect”.
58Another, interesting aspect of using surveys as a research strategy is to dispel the myths. A casein relation is about women who suffer from ‘the empty nest syndrome’ whose children havegrown up and left home suffer a kind of depression. However, Rubin (1979) in McBurney &White (2007) suggests that after surveying 160 women for the above cause it is found out thatthe majority of women are actually feeling ‘a sense of relief ’ rather being ‘depressed’. In thisresearch the survey technique is used to study the behavior and attitude of the consumers aboutthe use of celebrities in advertising and marketing or products / goods and a comparative study isproposed to be done with consumers from UK and India to find out whether consumers havehigh affinity towards celebrity endorsement in different cultures or they are more concernedabout the effectively of the product. From cultural dimension it seems that 2 different cultureshave diverse attitudes about the same. Therefore, a survey research would entail us to determinethe real psychology behind the whole marketing agenda of companies / brands and conclude ajudgment whether the marketing strategy is feasible and worth investing.3.3.2 Designing of Questionnaire:However, in a survey research designing a questionnaire is the difficult task and a complexprocedure. Designing proper questionnaire is key to have accurate data collection from thesample selected and thereby formation of a good research. The first question to be asked by theresearcher is: What do I expect to accomplish? In many circumstances researcher design thequestionnaire without considering the purpose of the research. Moreover, in this research thesurvey questionnaire plays an important role as it is the only source of data collection from thesample selected. Proper, accurate and precise questions are always desirable for any researchconducted. [McBurney & White (2007)]According to McBurney & White (2007) survey questions are divided into 2 categories: open-ended and closed-ended questions. (Appendix Number 1 Questionnaire)Open-ended: These questions help the respondents to answer the questions in their own words.Close-ended: These questions limit the respondents in answering the questions in a pre-determined process selected by the researcher.
59However, both types have their own advantages and disadvantages. An open-ended questionpermits the respondents to answer the questions more accurately and reveals the reasoningbehind the answers. It is desirable to get new ideologies from the respondents which are notanticipated by the researcher by using open-ended questions, but they are hard to code as thequestions are in narrative form. Additionally, an open-ended question requires more effort fromthe researcher and is hard for less expressive respondents to answer. Coding of these questionscan be done for small number of surveys but for a huge sample it is a difficult task. However,some open-ended questions done in the preliminary process of the research helps to determinethe range of likely answers, which helps the researcher to standardize the questionnaire pattern inthe close-ended questions and is easily manageable for large number of sample. [McBurney &White (2007)]On the other hand close-ended questions are easier to code and analyze and there are few absurdresponses. In these questions the alternatives are pre-decided by the researcher and therespondents find it easy to answer and whether the respondents are articulate or not don’t affectthe research process. Disadvantages of close-ended questions are that the issues of the researchmay be too complex to reduce to small set of alternatives and respondents might not agree withall of them, which will hamper the process of accurate data collection. Moreover, close-endedquestions are likely to feed the probable answers to the respondents as the alternatives arespecified by the researcher. Additionally, there are chances of having errors if the respondentsmisinterpret the question or there is any mistake while coding the data. In both ways datagathered is undiscovered (Ibid).However, for an ideal research both types o questions are desirable as both have its advantagesand disadvantages. From research perspective both the questions should be mixed together in aquestionnaire design which gives the opportunity to the respondents to expand the answers ontheir own views and also selecting the accurate alternative in close-ended questions. This processhelps the data to code and analyze easily giving the opportunity for the respondents to choose thealternatives with a justified reasoning. In this research both open and close ended questions are tobe used for designing questionnaire and would be provide to the sample for data collection.3.3.3 Principles of questionnaire construction:
60There are certain basic principles of questionnaire design which are detailed below in a tabularformat which helps the researcher to avoid the major pitfalls during formation of questions.Address a single issue per item Primary concern is that the questionnaire items should be explicit. Each question should address a single matter with clarity.Avoid Biasness Write the question in a way that will avoid biasness about any specific matter / issue, especially which is researcher’s weakness. Avoiding biasness will give clear findings from the respondents.Make alternatives clear While making close-ended questions make sure that the alternatives selected are not repeated in other questions asked and should be distinctly different from others to avoid misinterpretation.Beware of the social desirability affinity Biasness often occurs when the respondents feel that one alternative is desirable and more socially acceptable than the other option which is known as social desirability. The challenge for the researcher is to construct the questions by using words that each alternative appears to be equally acceptable from respondents view point.Fig 11.1 Basic Principles of Questionnaire Design:Source: Adapted from McBurney & White (2007) and modified by Basu (2009)3.4 Data Collection Procedure and Analysis:According to Swanson & Holton (2005) there are 5 sources of substantiation which arecommonly used while conducting a survey research. They are Observation survey, Directobservation survey, Participant observation survey, Interviews survey and Questionnaire survey.
61 Fig 12.1 5 Sources of Evidence: Strength and Weakness:Evidence Strength WeaknessObservation survey Respondents are viewed by the Less involvement of the respondents, no researcher and mostly the activities guidance from the researcher about what of the sample are noticed. Useful in should the sample respond on. large scale research E.g. Consumers Difficult to gather data and time consuming, using London underground at 8:00 variety required, expensive. am to 10:00 amDirect observation survey Covers events in real time and also Time consuming, data gathering problem considers the context of the event. unless broad coverage, continuation of the Survey is done in a real situation. event, expensive.Participant observation survey (Same as above for direct (Same as above for direct observation) Bias observations) due to researcher’s manipulation of respondent’s behavior and attitude. More insight into personal behavior and attitudes of the respondents.Interview survey Targeted and focused mainly on the Biased due to error in questionnaire research topic. Provides in-depth construction. Interviewees answer what outlook of the subject interviewer wants to hear.Questionnaire survey Focused on the research topic. Helps Poor construction of questionnaire affects the in data collection from a large outcome of the research. Result in biased sample size. Helps in consumer findings. Lack of participation of the behavior studies and cross cultural respondents. research Source: Adapted from Swanson & Holton (2005) and modified by Basu (2009) As the research approach includes both qualitative and quantitative methods, though mostly qualitative analysis followed by quantitative data representation, therefore questionnaire survey has been selected as the method of data collection from the sample size. Moreover, in the research consumer behavior and attitude is studied based on 2 countries and questionnaire survey is best suited in this case. As the study is a cross cultural research so questions will be send out in the form of web link for distance respondents and for local respondents (UK) Ramada Ealing’s Reception has been chosen to distribute questionnaire to the participants. Other forms of survey techniques are not considered as the research is based on the effort of a single researcher with the
62fact to be considered that time and money both have value in doing an elaborate research.Additionally, the time period is also limited where the other forms (discussed earlier) are notcreditable.The data collected from the respondent sample would be analyzed based on a qualitative dataanalysis. The primary selection of the answers would be segregated based on the age groupwhere it would be easy for the researcher to form certain groups based on the answers andopinion which will give accurate data measured. Then it would be evaluated according to thetheories explained about celebrity endorsement and culture. Similarity and dissimilarity based onthe assumptions given in the literature of the research will be evaluated based on therespondent’s data. Critical analysis of the questionnaire survey will be done for both thecountries to draw conclusion out of the research hypothesis and give accurate findings of theresearch.3.5 Sample Selection:The selection of an appropriate sample is an essential element of any research. Moreover, socialresearch is often conducted in certain situations where a probability sample is not appropriatedue to the study of a vast majority, like studying homelessness and there is no specific list of allhomeless people nor it is possible to create such a list. Thus, there are many situations wheresocial surveys calls for non probability sampling. However, there are 4 types of non probabilitysampling base upon reliance on available subjects of the research, purposive (judgmental)sampling, snowball sampling and quota sampling. Babbie (2007)Moreover, in this research the sample which has been selected for research is based uponreliance and availability and in technical terms it is known as ‘convenience sampling’ orhaphazard sampling. This method doesn’t permit any control over the representatives of thesample and are extremely risky sampling method for social research. The sample is consideredjustified only if the researcher wants to study the characteristics of the people and whilegeneralizing any conclusion out of the data gathered caution must be taken. Conveniencesampling does not have any known probabilities of the sample selection and in consumerresearch convenience sampling is an approved way of sample selection. Babbie (2007)
63However, in this research about celebrity endorsement the survey study is done throughquestionnaire and the sample selected for the research is from 2 countries UK and India. As, theresearch is a comparative study between UK and India, the objective of the research is to seekjudgment from the consumers of 2 countries about the impact of celebrity endorsement and theirperception and processing of the celebrity endorsement while buying goods / products. However,certain elements of cultural dimensions of 2 countries are also nurtured in the research and theresearcher is seeking the answers from the respondents. The sample selected for the researchwould be consumers from UK and India. For UK survey, questionnaire would be distributed togeneral public in a hotel reception area (Ramada Ealing, Jarvis Hotels Ltd.) where is a point ofcontact with many people from various parts of UK, who visit the hotel on various occasions(private and business / leisure). Also the questions would be given to the employees of the hotelwho would account for UK sample and these people are considered prime as they are everydayconsumer in daily life. For, India the questionnaire would send to the participants of the surveythrough online community network sites like Orkut, Facebook, MySpace, emails etc. as theresearcher is presently residing in UK and it is difficult to gather information physically being inIndia. The questions will be sent out to the respondents through web link and response would bestored like raw data which will be analyzed later. Data would be pasted as print screens /diagrams.3.6 Research Principle:Wiedersheim- Paul and Eriksson (1999) defines that while writing a research project there are 2major aspects which the researcher has to consider and they are Validity and Reliability. Validityis described as the ability of a gadget to measure the data which is necessary. On the other handreliability refers to using the same procedures or techniques in the research which would give astable and consistent result. However, the way the measuring is conducted and the informationare processed affects the reliability of the research (Ibid).
64According to Yin (2003) in case of any pragmatic research there are 4 common tests which areused to determine the quality of the research. These are Construct Validity, Internal Validity,External Validity and Reliability.Construct Validity Ascertaining the correct operational measures for the concepts used in the research.Internal Validity Creating a casual relationship where certain circumstances lead to other situations.External Validity Establishing a domain where all the findings of the research can be generalized into.Reliability Signifying the fact that data collection procedures can be repeated, with the same results, which measures the operational efficiency of the researchHowever, in this research internal validity is not appropriate for the research as the nature ofresearch is not explanatory with a cause effect relationship. External validity seeks to form aspecific area where all the findings can be generalized and in a cross-cultural survey method it ishard to generalize the outcomes. As the survey is taken from both UK and Indian consumerstherefore there is no similarity between the 2 sample categories and the responses wouldcontradict with each other. Yin (2003)3.6.1 Construct Validity:Mallette & Duke (2004) suggests that a researcher should identify the topic of the researchwhether it is related to psychological, behavioral, social or educational aspect and deviseaccurate measurement strategy for the research which is also known as construct validity.However, Yin (2003) defines that there are 3 ways to improve the construct validity of theresearch. They are multiple source of evidence, maintaining a chain of evidence and keyinformation from the survey research which will entail the findings. We have used multiplesource of evidence in the data collection category. Even the samples are convenience samples
65with the advantage of having a easy selection, but the ‘goodness’ of the samples in terms ofrepresentative population is not evaluated. Anderson et.al. (2009) The data collection method isQuestionnaire survey for UK and Indian consumers. Though for Indian consumers onlinequestionnaire survey is done through web link. To establish validity of the research variousmodels related to celebrity endorsement and academic theories were discussed to construct theresearch base. The questionnaire survey has given us ample source of evidence from consumerswhich are valuable form of data and the sample of the survey has given us chain of evidence inrelation to the same research subject. The key information / findings were evaluated in the dataanalysis section and represented in charts and graphs format.3.6.2 Reliability:According to Fowler (2002) a survey research is an interaction between the researcher and therespondents. Mostly, surveys are self administered by the researcher and they make directcontact with the respondents through written questionnaire or words which are scripted on thecomputer in word document. However, in other forms of surveys the interviewer reads theresearcher’s questions / word to the respondents. In either ways the survey techniques are theetiquette of the interaction between researcher and respondents. Additionally, Fowler (2002)suggests that in order to get consistent data from respondents the following properties should beincluded in questionnaire. • Researcher’s point of the question and the answer process should be scripted properly enabling the respondents to answer consistently. • The meaning of the question should remain same for all respondents • The probable alternatives which consist of an accurate answer should be framed up and communicated consistently to respondents.In the research the respondents were given an overview about the subject matter in the beginningof the questionnaire which gives them background knowledge about the research area. Both openand closed ended questions were used in order to valid data from respondents. However, moreclose ended questions were asked to respondents to ease the process of answering and limitingthe parameter around the research area to avoid distraction.
663.7 Logistical and Ethical Consideration:However, the data collection technique of gathering data from Indian participants through onlinecommunity network might have biased effect on the research as these communities are mostlynew generation’s cyber friendship communiqué. A varied quality of respondents from Indianmass is required to construct a valuable sample and hence questionnaires would be send out toanonymous persons using their email address. Subsequently, while collecting data from the UKsample the reception has been selected as it is considered a point of contacting various peoplefrom UK and abroad visiting the hotel and a perfect place to get a combination of consumersample. Moreover, there is another fear of biasness due to the fact that while doing the research ithas been described that the research is a comparative study and i.e. both Indian and UK sampleare studied which might include Indian people staying in UK or UK people staying in othercountries for a long time. This will hamper the process of illustrating the cultural dimensionbased on Hofstede dimension as people have influence over other cultures. Therefore, the sampleis strictly limited to UK people living in UK only and same for Indian counterparts.As, per the ethical dimension is considered the name of the participants will be kept secret andwill be acknowledged under an age group category (alphabetical order) and is coded by theresearcher. Moreover, none of their personal comments about any celebrity endorsement andproduct will be revealed in the research and only the accurate data will be used for the research.With the online questionnaire, the name of the participants will be omitted and accumulation ofdata would be stored in the software used which will be received in a tabular or chart format. Allthe participants of the research will be asked to fill in a consent form for their willingness toparticipate which will eliminate chances of being forced but rather generous participation.(See Appendix 2 for UWL ethical consideration form)
673.8 Summary:Figure 13.1 summarizes the different methods which are been applied in the research in adiagrammatic flowchart. Source: Basu (2009) Author’s CreationResearch Methodology Flowchart Purpose of Exploratory Explanatory Descriptive Research Research Research Research Research Quantitative Qualitative Approach Analysis Analysis Research Strategy Survey Case Study Archival Analysis
68 Experiment History Primary Research Secondary ResearchData Collection Questionnaire Observation Direct ObservationMethod Survey Survey Survey Participant Interview Survey Observation SurveyData Analysis Questionnaire Critical Evaluation of Comparative Survey Analysis Survey with Theory Analysis and models CHAPTER 4 4. Data Analysis: Philosophy Research Positivist In the previous chapter the research approach and methodology used in the research is described in detail. This chapter will provide the reader about the detailed analysis of the data gathered by the research methodology approach. Miles and Humberman (1994) suggest that data analysis of a particular research consists of three divisions, data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. In this chapter, we are going to analyse the data based on each of our research questions with what is referred to as within the case analysis, where data from the respondents of the survey will be compared against the theory of celebrity endorsements and thereby proving the hypothesis of the research true / false based on the analysis. Also new addition of different aspects of consumer philosophy about celebrity endorsements and marketing would be enlightened. 4.1Data Collection Draft:
69The survey research conducted for the purpose of the research on celebrity endorsement andits influence on the consumers of India and UK has received responses from various peoplewith a varied age group and as on 30th September 09’ total 80 responses have been receivedfrom the voluntary participants to whom questionnaire was approached online / printed. Outof 80 responses received 47 of the respondents were male (60%) and 31 of them were female(40%) which is indeed a good participation of the chosen convenience sample. Though, 2 ofthe sample have not mentioned their gender and due to the time consuming nature of the datacollection procedure the researcher has to stop collecting data after 80 responses as theparticipation is entirely voluntary. Due to the same consequence the sample size has fallendown to 80 from estimated (100 numbers), with a deficit of 20 respondents. Male 47 60% Female 31 40% Fig 14.1 Population Participation of the research
70 Age division of the sample 60 50 40 30 AGE GROUP 20 10 0 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 No ageFig 15.1 Division of age group of the sampleThe number of participants of the research has been subdivided based on their age and 4 groupshave been created. According to the data gathered from the survey it has been observed thatparticipants within the age range (20-30) are higher in percentage to take part in the surveyfollowed by (30-40) age range and the rest as shown the figure 15.1 From the above figure itwould be assumed that celebrity endorsement of products / goods is a matter of interest for adultyoung consumers who are represented by the age group (20-30). The age group consists of bothmale and female population and participants from both India and UK. However, what isobserved from the initial participation graph that mostly young generation are influenced orattracted by the celebrity marketing agenda or they are forming opinion about this particularissue. The age group of (30-40) people are also taking active interest but as a matter of factcelebrity and young generation are having high association which might be positive or negativethat is analysed later in the report.4.2Data Analysis of Questions:In the consumer research survey about celebrity endorsements 14 questions were asked to theparticipants, out of which 4 questions were open ended questions, seeking suggestions from thesample respondents to illustrate their own views about the matter asked and justifying theiropinion with a logical explanation. Another 10 questions were close ended questions where the
71alternatives were given to the respondents to get the accurate data from the sample which is onlyconcerned about the research topic and to avoid deviation. In the first section of the analysisclose ended questions were analysed followed by the open ended questions. Moreover, a criticaldiscussion and correlation of both types of questions and literature will be analysed in theevaluation of the data.4.2.1 Analysis of Close Ended Questions:Q 1. What type of celebrities do you like in advertisements?Hollywood 236% 8Bollywood (Indian Cinema) 114% 1Soprts Personalities 229% 3Media Host 2 3%TV Personalities 7 9%TV Show presenters 1 1%Business Magnets 6 8%Politicians 0 0%Fig 16.1 Celebrities in advertisementsIn this specific question asked to the sample, the above results were shown where 36% of therespondents were keen to see Hollywood celebrities in the adverts followed by sportspersonalities (29%) and 14% of the sample wanted to see bollywood (Indian Cinema) actors /actress in the advertisements. As these are the major types of celebrities who are mostlypreferred by the sample researched, therefore it would be assumed that celebrities from thesemedia channels are having high propensity to be indulged into advertising campaign for variouscompanies to promote their products. A few percentages of votes were also received by TVpersonalities (9%) and business magnets (8%) which show that some of the consumers in today’s
72world are rational about the acceptance of celebrities and merely don’t like celebrities from thetinsel world of glamour.But on the other hand if we evaluate the ranking of the celebrities based on the consumer likingthen it would be argued that most of the participants of the research are within the age range of(20-30) who are more interested into media especially movies and sports. Subsequently, theresults shown that most of the consumers have given their voting for Hollywood and sportscelebrities whom they are attracted to or bear a special connection in terms of being a ‘fan’ andaccepting them as spokesperson for their consumable products. Due to the exposure of thesecelebrities in the media channels (TV, magazines, internet, etc) they are more famous in the eyeof general public and companies endorse these celebrities into product campaigns to enhanceattention of the consumers. This relates to the theory of ‘pros and cons’ of celebrityendorsements, where celebrities having high exposure in the mass public are having persuasionskills to attract consumers, the least to pay attention to the adverts which they endorse.Q 2. Where do you mostly watch advertisements?Television 42 53%Magazines 30 38%Newspapers 1 1%Posters 4 5%Public Displays 2 3%Boardings 0 0%Fig 17.1 Celebrities in media channelsIn this question where the consumers were asked to mention about media channels where theysee most advertisements. The result of the participating sample shows that 53% of the consumersview adverts on television followed by 38% in magazines and 5% in posters and 3% in publicdisplays. This statistics gives us the information that in spite of improvement in the field ofmedia technology and cyber addiction, most consumers actually sees and pay attention to advertsseen in the television. As a matter of common concern that most television programmes aresponsored by adverts and these adverts give the broadcasting channels to charge higher TRP to
73the companies based on the peak time of showing, which is often evening hours. Adverts viewedby the public either intentionally or unintentionally of these products garb the attention of theconsumers. Though, companies invest a lot on these advertising campaigns but the ROI on theseare high due to its maximum coverage and mass distribution at the same time throughout thecountry. Even tele-adverts are more attractive and appealing to the consumers as it shows thecreativity of the advertisements which engages a lot of consumers. Companies target theircampaigns to specific programmes which are more popular, giving them a wider circulation andmarketing of the product.On the other hand magazines also show a high proportion of coverage after television. Most ofthe magazines now a day are indulged into marketing of fashion products and other labelledbrands and especially target market oriented magazines like Elle, Vogue, Cosmopolitan etc aremore into the female group where as Men’s health and fitness, sports and financial magazines areinto male groups. Both types of magazines are highly prone to celebrity advertising andmarketers target these specific magazines to tap the audience from various genres withdiversified interest. Poster and public displays are also attractive mode of communication to theconsumers as in daily life these eye-catching celebrity adverts draw attention of the publics.Q 3. As a consumer do you think that celebrity endorsement influences buying behavior?Agree 568% 4Strongly agree 114%
74 1Disagree 114% 1Strongly disagree 2 3%Unsure 1 1%Fig 18.1 Celebrity endorsement influencing busying behaviour of consumersThis question measures the influence of celebrity endorsements in the buying patterns of theconsumers. Out of 80 participants sample 68% of the respondents voted that they ‘agree’ that acelebrity endorsement in advertising of products / goods does influences the buying attitude ofthe consumers. On the other hand 14% of the samples said they ‘strongly agree’ with the abovefact and 14% also ‘disagree’ with celebrity influence in buying behaviour. This statisticsconfirms the fact that consumers agree that celebrity association in the advertisements attractsthem towards the product but that doesn’t necessarily means that they buy the product, but itdoes appeals the consumers to certain extent. The proportion of consumers strongly agreeing anddisagreeing about the agenda reflects the phenomenon that consumers in today’s world are veryrational in their approach of buying and they do not blindly rely on celebrity endorsement, bututilize their own capacity of buying the product, which depends on their budget andrequirements.Q 4. Do you think celebrities are having a power of persuasion to convince consumers?Agree 570% 6
75Strongly agree 113% 0Disagree 911%Strongly disagree 0 0%Unsure 5 6%Fig 19.1 Power of persuasion of celebritiesIn this question the consumers were asked whether they think that celebrities have the power ofpersuasion to connive them in order to purchase goods / products. The result obtained from thesurvey shows that 70% of the participating population said they agree with the fact thatcelebrities do have certain persuasion skills followed by 13% who said they strongly agree withthe above fact. However, 11% of the respondents disagree with celebrity persuasion skills and6% of the samples are unsure of it. From the above statistics obtained it is very clear to mentionthat celebrities convey the message of the product / goods to the consumers and due to theirinfluence in the life of the normal people, consumers get affected. It can be justified by sayingthat that there are certain people who are sports fanatic or movie fans and they entertainthemselves by watching sports / movies. However, in this phenomenon of watching and makingconnection with that entertainment they get attracted to some specific characters either in sports /movies, whom they summon as a role model or favourites. When these favourite charactersendorse a product and consumers see the advertisement they immediately make a connectionwith the pre-determined image of the personality based on their favourite list. The wholephenomenon is a matter of ‘processing’ which the consumers does and thus celebrities get theadvantage to persuade them based on their characters disposition over individual people.Q 5. Which products do you think are ideal to have celebrity endorsements?Consumer goods 123% 8
76Branded cloths 341% 2Financial products 1 1%Service industry products 3 4%Watches 7 9%Motor / Car Industry 4 5%Cosmetic Products (Men & Women) 117% 3Electronics and Telecommunication 0 0%Fig 20.1 Products ideal for having celebrity endorsementIn this question the consumers were asked to give their own opinion about the type of productswhere celebrity endorsements could be best suited or consumers would prefer of see them. Fromthe responses gathered 41% of the respondents voted for branded cloths, followed by 23%consumer goods and 17% cosmetic products which are having higher votes than the rest. Fewvotes were also received by watches (9%), motor / car industry (5%), service industry (4%)and financial products (1%). Now the majority of the people agreed that branded cloths areideal to have celebrity endorsements because celebrity and fashion are the industry which runsparallel and there are many aspects of both the industries which compliment each other.However, celebrity image and fashion is also reflected in the brand image of cloths which givesconsumers value and convince them to pay premium price for the cloths. However, there areseveral branded cloths which are officially endorsed by celebrities and they do market theclothing line by giving the celebrity name. Like Armani and Beckham family are associatedalong with the Armani level and they became an image of the brand. Many people who likeDavid Beckham as a footballer or as a personality get associated along with the brand, thoughmany would not like Armani as a fashion brand. On the other hand consumer goods are alsovoted as a preferential choice by consumers to have celebrity endorsements. Specially, if we lookat the cosmetics (men & women) and other daily products, there are several items which areendorsed by celebrities in order to fetch the attention of the consumers. Behind this strategy,there is a notion that if celebrities are endorsing the products which are used by the consumers on
77a daily basis that would increase consumption and celebrities shadow the products as their ownpatent version, which catalyzes this process. Also in cosmetic products there is higher affinity ofconsumers to get celebrity endorsements because skin and complexion or (how people look?)makes a lot of difference in 21st century. The opinion from consumers gives the similar statistics.Q 6. When you see an advertisement what appeals you the most?Celebrity association 5 6%Actual product 118% 4Effectiveness of the 119%product 5Reliability of the product 113% 0Brand image 229% 3Value for money 115% 2Fig 21.1 Consumer appeals in terms of advertisementsWhen this question was asked to the consumers in the form of a survey, the feedback which wasreceived from the sample population is shown in the figure. Brand image constitutes 29% of thevotes which is the highest, followed by effectiveness of the product 19% and actual product18% are on the priority list from the consumers view point. However, value of money alsoconstitutes around 15% of the votes and reliability of the product 13% and celebrityassociation only 6% from the consumer statistics. From the above deduction of the statisticsabout the question it is quite clear that brand image is most important factor for the consumers toconsider while watching an advertisement and it appeals consumers. However, some data statesthat effectiveness of the product and the actual product are also important factors considered bythe consumers which initiates the buying process. But consumers are keen to know about the
78brand image of the product from the advertisements rather than evaluating ‘value for money’factor of the product. It might be an essential element to consider while purchasing the product,but as a first attempt to view the product brand image is more important to consumers.Subsequently, celebrity association is only having 6% of the total consumer voting which depictsthe fact that showcasing of a celebrity in an advertisement is not a big appreciation from theconsumers but the important bit is brand image, which is reflected and added along with thecelebrity image and broadcasted to the consumers. Other factors mentioned in the fig 21.1 areequally important for consumers to consider a product based on advertisement appeals.Q 7. Where do you see more celebrity advertisement?Cosmetics (Men & women) 28 35%Fashion 39 49%Grocery items 7 9%Entertainment 6 8%Financial services 0 0%Fig 22.1 Areas prone for celebrity advertisementIn the above question when consumers were asked about their opinion, ‘where they see morecelebrity advertisements’ the statistics obtained shows that fashion constitutes 49% of votesfollowed by 35% votes from cosmetics (men & women), grocery items 9% and entertainment8% of the total sample surveyed. Therefore, it would be assumed that most of the consumersprefer to see celebrity advertisements in fashion (clothing) as it is related to the glamour worldand clothing depicts a life style of an individual. Hence, following a celebrity in order to lookalike or build a personality like them is a common phenomenon among consumers. Moreover,cosmetics is also preferred by the consumers to have celebrity endorsements as most brandedcosmetic manufacturers endorse celebrities as their brand ambassador to promote a new line ofcosmetics. Additionally, celebrities’ looks after them very minutely cause of their profession,hence, these products are best suited for them to endorse. Even the consumers do get the notionthat in their everyday life they might not be as same as a celebrity, but in certain occasions they
79want to portray their superiority and reflect their personality and attitude which may have certainconnection with a celebrity of their choice. Grocery items and entertainment are less importantfor consumers to have celebrity endorsement as these products are used by them on a daily basisand most people would evaluate the requirement aspect of buying the products than merecelebrity association. In these areas consumers judge ‘value for money’ criteria before theirpurchase. Even entertainment got less votes cause for people there are various modes ofentertainment depending on their individual taste, hence celebrity is not a prime source ofselection.Q 8. Which celebrities do you prefer the most in advertisements?Models (male & female) 347% 7Actors (male & female) 452% 1TV personalities 118% 4Cartoon characters 7 9%Singers 3 4%Note: People may select more than one checkbox, so percentages may add up to more than 100%.Fig 23.1 Preference of celebrities in advertisements by consumersAccording to preference of consumer’s actors (male & female) and models constitutes thehighest percentage of votes. Most of the consumers prefer to see movie actors and actress in theadvertisements followed by models that are suitable for media industry and promotion. Needlessto mention that physical attractiveness is required in advertising campaign to give glamour to thepromotion and companies deliberately choose these people to highlight their product. Hence, it isvery common phenomenon for consumers to vote for them as they see these personalities moreoften in the advertisement and media campaign. Some consumers do have affinity towards TV
80personalities and anchors who are conducting a TV series and mostly consumers like thembecause of their personality and attitude which grabs their attention. Other characters are lessimportant from a consumer’s perspective to consider in an advertisement. Though, there aremany consumers who doesn’t like celebrity endorsements in advertisement and rely more on theactual product and its effectiveness, but the research is about celebrity endorsement and forsimilar reason the sample has been given a set alterative to choose from.Q 9. Do you like repetition of celebrities in advertisements?I like repetition 4 5%Dislike repetition 229% 3Wanted to see known faces 232% 5Doesnt makes difference 234% 7Fig 24.1 Percentage of repetition of celebrities in advertisementsFrom the above statistics gathered from the survey it clear that consumers attention towardscelebrity endorsement is not a prime factor as most of the votes 34% says that a celebrity advertdoesn’t makes any difference to them. Moreover, 32% of the participants suggest that, theywould like to see known faces on the screen which signifies that these known faces are noneother than celebrities who are popular in the media channel. Another portion of the sample 29%illustrates that they dislike repetition as they would like to see new faces into the advertisementas that engages them to look at the advert with the appearance of a new personality. Very smallamount 5% of the population suggests that they would like repetition. However, there is conflictbetween the opinion from consumers (wanted to see known faces) and (dislike repletion) thatsome of the consumers are having higher affinity to see known faces as they resemble thepersonality whom they like the most, but on the other hand some would like to see new faces as
81their opinion suggests known faces would diminish the potential attractiveness of theadvertisement and loose appeal from consumers.Q 10. How prone are you to celebrity advertisement in your purchase?
82High 6 8%Low 22 28%Medium 31 40%Average 10 13%None of the above 9 12%
83Fig 25.1 Consumers preference of celebrity advertisement in purchasingIn this specific question the consumers sample were asked to give insight about their purchasingdecisions based on celebrity advertisement. However, the statistics obtained from the samplesurveyed demonstrates the fact that 40% of the sample responded that they have mediumrelation to celebrity advertisement in their purchasing decisions. Additionally, 28% of the samplesaid that they have low affinity towards celebrity advertisements and purchase. This statisticsdepicts that most of the consumers are moderately affected by celebrity advertisements and thatdoes manipulates their purchasing decisions. However, that doesn’t signify the fact thatconsumers are bound to purchase products based on their liking to celebrity ads. It can beassumed that primarily, celebrity adverts initiate an attention for the product in the consumersmind and induce the consumers to think about the product in the ‘pre-purchase dissonance’phase. On the contrary some of the consumers are merely affected by the celebrity highlight inthe adverts and are having low affinity to celebrity association. They rather judge the productquality and effectiveness before any purchase. Moreover, only 8% of the consumers are highlyaffected by celebrity advertisements and they are the consumers who shop mostly due tocelebrity association, which is a small proportion compared to the rest of the sample surveyed.Out of the statistics 13% of the respondents have average tendency to purchase products basedon celebrity advertisements and 12% didn’t count themselves into the groups selected. Therefore,the majority of the consumers are moderately affected by celebrity advertisements in their ownpurchasing decisions. A picture is drawn out of the statistics that celebrity advertisementsinitiates purchasing behaviour of the consumers primarily in the initial phase of the buyingprocess which might merely end in a window shopping experience.Q 11. Rank the following characteristics of a CELEBRITY’ from (1-5) where 1 is mostimportant and 5 least important.Credibility, Expertise, Physical attractiveness, Personality, Popularity
84 30 25 Credibiity 78% 20 Expertise 75% 15 Physical attractiveness 76% Personality 77% 10 Populaity 71% 5 0 Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5Note: Rank 1 = most important, Rank 5 = least importantFig 26.1 Ranking of celebrity characteristics in an endorsementIn this question the participating sample of the consumers were asked to give ranking for thecharacteristics of the celebrities (Credibility, Expertise, Physical attractiveness, Personality,Popularity). From the feedback obtained from the sample, it has been evaluated that credibilityaccounts for 78% of the celebrity characteristics followed by 77% personality, physicalattractiveness 76%, expertise 75% and popularity 71%. Therefore, from the analysis of thecharacteristics ranking of celebrities from consumers view point, it is eminent that credibility isthe most important aspect what consumers are looking from a celebrity endorser. Credibilitydetermines the trustworthiness of the celebrity as an endorser and also consistency of the brandto portray the celebrity. When both the credible aspect compliments each other then theadvertising claims a success and enjoys having great pay off. Personality also forms animportant aspect of celebrity consideration from consumer’s view point as seen in the statisticsgiven in the graph followed by physical attractiveness and expertise. These are the ancillaryqualities which the consumers evaluate while considering a celebrity in an advertisement.Popularity counts the least cause the personality and credibility of the celebrity makes theperson popular in the media and in the mass. Therefore, while making a purchasing decisionconsumers are mainly looking at the credible aspect of the celebrity association and whether their
85reflection in the advertisement suits with the personality of the character. These phenomenonscatalyse the buying process and also the celebrity selection criteria by the consumers in a pre-purchase dissonance process.Moreover, there is another line graph outlined below which determines the qualities that are mostimportant to the consumers while selecting a celebrity. Based on the statistics obtained a linegraph is drawn which shows the important characteristics of the celebrity from a consumer’sview point. From the line graph statistics it is shown that credibility is the most important aspecthaving 55% votes, personality having 32% votes, physical attractiveness 22% and 20% andpopularity having 13%. All these characteristics are measured upon a scale from (most importantto least important) and the highest percentage is taken as a constraint to determine the scale oneach evaluation. The graphical representation shown below demonstrates the above fact. Fromthe line graph analysis the following outcome is shownMost Important (Credibility = 55%), Important (Popularity = 32%), Averagely Important(Physical attractiveness = 22%), Less than average important (Physical attractiveness = 22%and 20%), Less Important (Popularity = 13%)On each scale measurement the highest percentage is taken to determine the importance of thecharacteristics and thus the above result is obtained. Though, expertise has not been mentioned inthe line graph as the percentage obtained is less than the rest of the qualities and in fewoccasions’ physical attractiveness obtained more percentage than the rest. However, it is animportant characteristics for celebrity selection as mentioned in the earlier graph (75% votes),but in the line graph selection it has been outdated by the rest of the qualities.
86 60% Credibility, 55% 50% 40% Personaity, 34% Expertise, 32% Personaity, 32% 30% Credibility, 29% Physical Popularity, 27% attractiveness, 26%Physical Physical Popularity, 24% Expertise, 22% attractiveness, 24% Physical Expertise, 21% attractiveness, 22% 20% attractiveness, 20% Credibility, 17% Expertise, 14% Personaity, 15% 15% Popularity, Popularity, 13% Credibility, 12% 10% Credibility, 11%Expertise, 10% Physical Personaity, 11% Personaity, 9% attractiveness, 9% 0% Physical Credibility Expertise Personaity Popularity attractiveness Most important 55% 32% 26% 34% 27% Important 29% 22% 24% 32% 24% Averagely important 17% 21% 22% 15% 15% Less than average important 12% 14% 20% 11% 15% Less important 11% 10% 9% 9% 13%Fig 27.1 Line chart representation of the characteristics of celebrity from consumer survey
874.2.2 Analysis of Open Ended Questions:Q 1. As a consumer do you find yourself liking or buying products more if a celebrity ispromoting it? If yes name some products.(For the data received refer to Appendix Number 3)Out of the total number of respondents i.e. 80 respondents of the survey conducted, the results ofthe open ended question shows that 32 respondents said (Yes) in response to their answer and42 respondents said (No) in response to their answers. Some of the participants of the surveydidn’t answer the question. So we have only got 74 responses in total out of 80 participants ofthe entire survey. To get the actual percentage of participants liking or buying products based oncelebrity endorsement, we have done a percentage calculation based on the number of actualparticipant of this question and got the results of Yes / No for the above question. 1) Yes : 43.24% out of 74 participants 2) No : 56.75% out of 74 participantsThis percentage figure shows that most of the consumers are not interested in buying the productbased on celebrity advertisements and promotion. Even though they would like to consider theproduct to be evaluated based on their own requirement, but purchasing decision is entirelyrational for consumers. Even the margin of Yes vs. No is 13.51% which is not a massivedifference. It reflects that certain consumers are very much prone to celebrity adverts in theirpurchase but that is ultimately less than the percentage of consumers having ‘No’Q 2. As a consumer do you rely on celebrity endorsement of products / goods?(For the data received refer to Appendix Number 3)In this question the responses were receive from 78 participants out of 80 survey participants andout of that 22 participants said (Yes) and 56 said (No) Out of the total participants of the survey2 respondents didn’t answer the question. However, to make an analysis based on the yes and noof the respondents answer, a percentage evaluation is done based on the data gathered.
88 1) Yes : 28.20% out of 78participants 2) No : 71.79% out of 78 participantsThe percentage analysis of this question shows that consumers don’t rely on the celebrityendorsement of products / goods and 71.79% of the participants view makes the opinion morestrong. However, only 28.20% of the respondents said yes which shows that there are certaincustomers who rely more on celebrity advertisement and promotion before purchasing a product.They depict celebrity image as a brand standard and gets associated along with the advert. But ifwe look at the rational aspect most of the consumers are more inquisitive about their ownpurchasing decisions and eliminate the idea of celebrity reliance on their own purchase. Theysuggest that mostly their purchase is drifted by their need and requirement which iscomplimented by their budget and preference. Quality, reliability and effectiveness of theproduct form the base of decision making while purchasing.Q 3. Do you think culture plays an important role in the recognition of a celebrity?(For the data received refer to Appendix Number 3)This is one of the vital questions asked to the participants of the research as the hypothesis of theresearch is associated along with the response from the consumers. The main motive behind thisquestion was to seek opinion from the consumers that, whether celebrity recognition among theconsumers around the world is associated along with the local culture prevailing in the societies.This question will enable the researcher to form an opinion to the global companies about theirstrategy of celebrity selection and taking consideration of the cultural dimension of differentcultures across the globe while defining advertising / promotion / marketing strategy of a productcampaign.However, from the data gathered out of 73 respondents of the actual number of participants (80)of the research survey, 52 respondents voted Yes, 14 said No and 7 of them are Unsure aboutthe presence of culture in celebrity advertising. All the individual answers received in the form ofdata are presented in appendix 3 with color coding for each type. This will enable the reader tounderstand the difference and exhume the critical difference. Like other questions here as well aspercentage analysis is done to understand the consensus received.
89Therefore, out of 73 respondents 1) Yes : 71.23% out of 73participants 2) No : 19.17% out of 73 participants 3) Unsure : 9.58% out of 73 participantsThe percentage of the respondents voted yes is 71.23% compared to 19.17% of the respondentssaying no, which determines the fact that most of the consumers agree that culture does plays animportant role in the recognition of a celebrity. As celebrities are also part of our society andthey come from a specific culture of a country, therefore to get recognition from their owncountry people and culture is quite common. Moreover, as they portray a particular society andrepresents a community, therefore consumers belonging from those communities would have acoalition or biasness with the celebrity from that culture. Now, when in adverts the celebritiesfrom the similar culture and community are shown the consumers feel a sense of liking andadmire it, which initiates the attention of the advert into the consumer’s mind. In many cases dueto the celebrity and culture association consumers make a purchase, though it is not a rationalpurchase by the consumers. Thus, culture plays an important role for recognition of a celebrityand in commercial world it is very important that companies should understand the culturaldifference amongst various nations and domesticate their adverts in order to enhance globally. CHAPTER 5
905. Findings and Conclusions:In the previous chapter, the data gathered from the research approach with the help of datacollection technique i.e. survey is analysed in detail along with the questions which were askedto the participants of the research. From the sample researched some valuable justification aboutthe celebrity endorsement and consumer psychology has been drawn out and a critical analysiswas formed in relevance with the theory discussed in the research. According to Miles andHuberman (1994) conclusion is a fact which is drawn to an activity at the end of the research andit begins with data collection and is confirmed in the data analysis stage. In this chapter we aredrawing a conclusion of the entire research and summarising the findings which were analysed inthe data analysis section and the importance of this chapter lies in the establishment of newmodels of celebrity endorsement and consumer behaviour which will strengthen the globalmarketing and advertising activity for multinationals.5.1 Consumers and Companies Opinion about Celebrity Endorsements as aPromotional Strategy:From the data analysis of the primary data gathered from the consumers, it is evident to suggestthat celebrities are mere promotional tools which companies use to lure and attract consumerstowards their specific product / goods offerings. As a matter of common judgement consumersagree with the fact that celebrities draw a lot of attention in the advertisement, especially due thefact that they are famous and popular characters in the media channels. Their exposure in theworld of 21st century media (TV, magazines, newspapers, journals, internet etc.) has given thenenormous heights to capture a huge amount of audience from all over the world. Needless tomention, that this is caused due to our technological innovation to create the whole world a smallplace to live in. Thus, to become famous and popular in today’s world is not difficult. Now,another contradicting matter is, celebrities life span is very limited and it exists till the time thepersonality is famous in the media channels and appear in the mass audience. Media channels arethe creator of the celebrities and also they are behind their destruction. For companies to promotea product it is highly important to consider a celebrity based on their international coverage andrecognition. When a particular character is popular in a specific due to their contribution andremarkable achievement the media grabs their entire attention and promote them as a significantpersonality. This strategy initiates the companies to choose the celebrity from the current
91ongoing affairs. Because of the media attention towards these characters they are recognized bythe common people and attain the status of a celebrity. Thus for companies it is relativelyimportant to consider a celebrity who is active in the media channels and recognized. Therefore,they choose the celebrities based on their performance index. However, it is not essential thatcompanies will follow the same strategy as there are known brands and exclusive labels whoseendorsers are recognized by the people and media channels for a prolonged period of time. E.g.Tiger Woods and Tag Heuer, David and Victoria Beckham with Armani etc. are there in thecelebrity’s worlds that are associated along with a brand for a long period due to their popularityand recognition in the media and mass population. This forms a continuum among the brand andthe celebrity and ultimate they become the face of the brand.5.1.2 Repetition of Celebrities in Advertisements and Consumers Opinion:Another important aspect of the celebrity association and consumers perception relates with thenotion of having known faces appearing in the adverts of products / goods. It has been observedthat popular brands and international companies always endorse a celebrity for a long termstrategic objective and they choose celebrities from higher ends. Subsequently, they have toinvest a huge amount of finance in making a contract with these celebrities. However, companiesare looking for a continuum and ROI from these endorsement deals i.e. promotion and increaseof sales of the endorsed goods / products. Companies think that popular high end celebrities willlast in the media channel for a longer period of time due to their fame and recognition, but incontrast consumers do have a different opinion where a vast majority of the consumers doesn’tget affected from a known celebrity advertisement nor they have any preferential liking. Itdoesn’t matter to them what celebrity is endorsing the product, what matters is the effectiveness,reliability and requirement aspect of the product. Moreover, some of the consumers dislikerepetition of celebrities in the adverts and this is a valid area where companies should take astrategic look in order to avoid brand damage / dilution. The argument is that due to repetition ofknown celebrities the attractiveness and creativity of the advertisements fades away over time.When a person is repeatedly endorsing a product, from consumer’s perception and processingphase the appeal of the advertisement doesn’t motivates or instigate the consumers in the initialphase of advertisement processing. Moreover, it brings in bore drum and loss of attention in thatadvert as well as the product. In contrast, the view found from the consumers illustrate that most
92of them appreciate the creativity aspect of the commercial advertisement (from fashion toconsumer goods) more than the celebrity and that is more genuine cause of a real purchase.5.1.3 Celebrity Endorsement and Cultural Significance:From the consumer survey research about celebrity endorsement, some of the facts investigatedsupport the hypothesis that culture stands a base of celebrity selection in different cultures. As inthe research consumers from 2 countries (UK and India) were chosen to evaluate the importanceof cultural significance while selecting celebrities. It has been observed that 71.23% of theconsumers from both countries voted ‘YES’ and justified that culture has enormous importancein the formation and recognition of a celebrity. Moreover, celebrities are part of the same culturewhere all the consumers belong from. They are also normal people whose significant work inany specific field is being recognized by the society and people and thus they acclaim thesocietal hierarchy of celebrity. Additionally, this phenomenon is boosted by the efforts ofmodern media channels which makes them more significant and on ‘top of the news’. But theargument is that these celebrities come from a particular culture and a societal demography.Therefore, for consumers it is fundamental that they will support and recognize those charactersthat they are more acquainted with or feel a connection because of their culture and community.E.g. Sharukh Khan is more recognized in India as a Bollywood celebrity than UK and other partsof the world and his presence in all advertisement is not recognized as a repetition, ratherappreciated by the consumers and seen as high pay off’s for the companies.Similarly, Freddie (Andrew Flintoff) is recognized more in the UK as a cricketer and celebritysportsperson than other parts of the world and companies like ‘Suremen’ endorse him topromote their men’s line of toiletries. He is having a fame of recognition as a sportsperson in thewhole world but Britons generally consider him as a representative of their society and recognizehim as a celebrity in Britain. He is having more importance among the Britons than any otherpersonalities and thus companies endorse him to promote their product in UK specifically.5.1.4 Cultural difference between India and UK:
93From the research on consumer psychology and celebrity endorsement strategy a comparativestudy is done between the consumers of India and UK to draw a distinction between the attitudesof the consumers and the acceptance of celebrities in the promotional and marketing criteria forvarious brands / products offered by the companies. After the data analysis process there arecertain differences between the attitudes of the consumers in 2 countries were revealed in termsof celebrity endorsement strategy.India: Consumers from this country form the opinion that celebrities are used by the companiesand brands to promote their product and it is a ‘sheer marketing tactic’, which is a commonfact. However, some of the celebrities are worth endorsing the products because they areportrayed in the society as an ‘icon’ and there presence in consumer goods and products makesthe people of the nation proud about the personality’s achievement and recognition. Theyperceive that the celebrity is representing the whole country and enriching their culture. Thus,repetition of celebrities is seen often in the adverts made in India where bollywood celebrities arepredominant characters and are more likely to grab attention in the media.Moreover, from consumption aspect consumers in this country are also eccentric in nature andtry to rationalize their buying attitude by justifying the cause behind it. But, they like theconsensus of the society and gets attracted towards the bollywood celebrities. Argument is that inIndia, bollywood is such a big industry and a key media player that most of the consumers areexposed to Indian tinsel world of glamour than other parts of the world. Moreover, there is anattitude of patriotism is the consumers where they like the products to be promoted bypersonalities from their own country which makes connection with their lives and society.United Kingdom: In UK consumers are logical and individualistic in nature. There is no properway to demonstrate the attitude of the consumers as all of them have different way of perceivingthe celebrity endorsement strategy. Some criticize it as a marketing agenda and some say, ‘it forthe rich people’ as products having more endorsements are likely to be expensive than others.However, with the formation of EU (European Union) concentration of people from all overEurope is seen in UK, mostly due to the value of pound (£). Thus, products are available in themarket readily and there is a huge concentration of products from various parts of Europe andrest of the world. Only high end products (branded) are having celebrity endorsements in them.Consumers opinion says that mostly they find celebrity advertisement in fashion and cosmetics,
94specially in UK as that’s an area where celebrities makes connection with consumers in terms offashion consumption and beauty (men & women). Additionally, UK consumers like sportscelebrities more than glamour celebrities as sports have high significance in the UK society andculture. Though, some people like glamour world, but most criticize it as an indistinct area andseparate it out as a culture within the celebrity world, fashion and glamour industry.Most consumers in UK are rational about their purchase and they judge the requirement aspectbefore buying. Often consumers do a self assessment of the product and the market before actualbuying. Value for money is ‘thumb rule’ for consumers in UK as goods are expensive in themarket and they want the complete value of the investment. As, people are individualistic innature therefore, their own decision is more important than a mere celebrity promotion. For someit works as the purpose to serve window shopping. Hollywood celebrities are more recognizedby the consumers here as UK and US glamour world compliments each other.5.1.5 Meeting objectives of the Research:While conducting the research several barriers and hazards were felt by the researcher. Speciallywhile conducting a consumer survey in the reception area of a hotel it has been realized by theresearcher, hard to convince people to do voluntary participation. Selecting the sample havingabsolutely Indian or British consumers from their consumption practice i.e. consumers living inonly UK and India only was a difficult task. People’s participation delayed the data collectionprocess and slowed down the research pace. The research questionnaire served the purpose tostandardize the process of data collection and helped in achieving quality data from consumers(India & UK). Moreover, the interesting questions and the research topic engaged most of thesample to give proper answers to the questions asked which were used to analyze in the research.Using google documents as the tool to launch online questionnaire and their spreadsheets formathelps the researcher to gather the statistics efficiently and succinctly.Additionally, the questionnaire pattern of using both open and close ended questions hasorganized the data analysis section and helped in a detailed evaluation of the aims and objectivesof the research. Especially the question on cultural significance has revealed the preferentialcriteria of consumer’s regarding their choice of celebrity from the home culture and society.Thus one of the objectives to prove the influence of culture on consumer’s attitude and celebrity
95selection in varied nations was supported by the research approach. Additionally, the findingsdrawn out from the data analysis especially from the cultural part support the hypothesis of theresearch. In the conclusion it has been found that cultural differences in 2 countries are differentand thus the matter of acceptance in terms of celebrity endorsement is also different. This wasmentioned in the hypothesis of the research. But what is found that consumers from bothcountries are rational and logical about their consumption, but there is a bonding of their culturewhich compels them to obey the consensus acceptance (Both for UK and India) More in India aspeople put celebrities in a order of high status and they accept it because of the power of society.Limitations were measured particularly while approaching people about participation and lackof co-operation from the willing participants. Lateness in receiving data has reduced the samplesixe from 100 to 80 having a deficit of 20 numbers. Even, London being a cosmopolitan city hasmade it difficult to choose consumers who are solely base in UK. The same problem wereexperienced while approaching the Indian sample in online community as most of them are inyoung generation and to reach a varied age population was a difficult task being accomplished.Overall it has been a real life experience and a challenge to conduct a research by own. Time,finance and members within the research were lacking in the research and it is felt by theresearcher that a proper research should have enough time to collect data and a team is requiredto distribute the task in order to reduce the burden of the sole researcher.5.1.6 Implication for future Research:During the research it is found that there are few areas where further research can be carried outin the future. These areas are listed below:Since the research is limited to the consumers of 2 countries, therefore the possibilities to explorethe cultural significance in celebrity endorsement strategy for other countries were omitted.Moreover, the research is limited to a small number of samples which can be increased andvarious places in UK and India could be taken to form a sound sample size.The research was based completely on consumer’s perception and the companies view point isnot taken into consideration. Therefore, a comparative study between consumers and companiesabout the similar topic can be researched. Research methodology was limited to survey only
96which could have been enhanced to focus group interviews and case study of a particularcompany to broaden the spectrum of the research and investigate other areas. To establish arelationship between the marketing and advertising world this topic would have been a good areaof research and illustrate ‘how both the sectors work together for making a successfulcommercial advert’.5.2. Emerged Model of Celebrity Selection from the Research:From the whole research certain aspect of consumer’s perception about celebrity selection andendorsement strategy in the advertisement and promotion of products / goods are evaluated.Some key information’s were collected from the consumers to form a model of celebrityselection for companies endorsing them in their promotional campaign.
97Fig 28.1 Model of Celebrity Selection Source: Basu (2009) Author’s Creation Companies’ choice of celebrity endorsement as a promotional strategy The Meaning Transfer Model (Stage 1: Culture) Pros and Cons of Celebrity Endorsement Strategy Cultural Significance while choosing a celebrity Studying the cultural difference in the countries of operation Cultural dimensions as per Geert Hofstede Domesticating the advertisement as per consumers liking Companies’ way of selecting their celebrity endorsement The ‘No TEARS’ Approach (all factors) The Meaning Transfer Model (Stage 2: Endorsement) The TEARS Model (Trustworthiness, Expertise, Attractiveness, Respect, Similarity) Investment returns on celebrity endorsement (ROI) Event Study Methodology The ‘No TEARS’ Approach, Factor 5 (Cost of endorsement)
98Description of the Model:Stage 1: Companies’ choice of celebrity endorsement as a promotional strategyIn this section the company’s select this strategy as a promotional tool based on the (culture)stage of the ‘meaning transfer model’ discussed in the literature review section. Also theyconsider the model of ‘pros and cons of celebrity endorsement strategy’ for selecting the rightcelebrity for their promotional campaign.Stage 2: Cultural Significance while choosing a celebrityIn this section the companies study the cultural difference existing amongst various culturesacross the world in order to enhance market growth and successful product campaign. Theyfollow Hofstede’s cultural dimensions matrix to evaluate the cultural difference between thecountries of operation. By understanding the cultural significance of the specific society, thecompanies now try to domesticate their adverts based on the cultural values of the operatingnation.Stage 3: Companies’ way of selecting their celebrity endorsementIn this section the companies are looking at the actual endorsement and they consider the ‘NoTEARS’ model, ‘TEARS’ model and the ‘meaning transfer’ model (endorsement) stage toselect the appropriate endorsement campaign for their product showcasing the right celebritycharacter. (All discussed in literature review section)Stage 4: Investment returns on celebrity endorsement (ROI)In this section of the selection stage companies are looking at the ‘Event study methodology’for cost consideration of the celebrity endorsement contracts and the ‘return on investment’(ROI) evaluation. They also consider ‘cost of endorsement’ factor 5 of the ‘No TEARS’strategy in order to critically evaluate the financial viability of the project.5.3. Cultural difference among consumers in (India and UK) model:
99 Fig 29.1 Cultural difference among consumers in (India and UK) model Source: Basu (2009) Author’s CreationIN INDIA UNITED KINGDOM List of References: List of References: List of References: • Indian Consumers live in a Collectivist • UK consumers live in an Individualistic Society. List of References: Society. • Matter of acceptance in terms of celebrity • Matter of acceptance in terms of celebrity endorsement is easy. endorsement is hard. • List of References: Consumer’s decision making process is • Consumer’s decision making process is based on requirements and societal original and more driven by individual List of References: consent. needs. • List of References: Celebrity status is recognized higher in • Celebrity status is created by media the societal hierarchy and they have channel and their power is limited. Even controlling power. Media does up-lift that their authority and status is transferable as well. and depends on the situational impact on celebrity life-style. • Diversity among the cultural group is huge, thus consumers come from various • Diversity among the consumer group is ethnic background. E.g. Each state of limited based on region of concentration. India represents different cultural E.g. London is more diverse than other ethnicity and richness. Thus values and parts of UK. morals are different. • People are open mined in the society • People mentality is close minded (majority) (majority) • Education in UK is standardized in all • Education in India is sector based. Urban parts of the country. India has higher literacy % than rural India. • Power of Individual is more than the power of society. • Power of society is more than the power of Individual. 6. List of References:
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106Appendix Number 1 (Questionnaire)Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising of Products / Goods and ConsumerPerceptionThis research is about studying consumer behavior and attitude towards celebrity endorsementsin advertising of various products / goods available in the market. Celebrity endorsement hasbecome an integral part of the marketing strategy for companies and brands to promote theirproduct. This research would allow us to find out the consumers attitude towards celebrityendorsement and how they value it. Does celebrity endorsement affects the purchasing behaviorof consumers? Do they get attracted or influenced by any celebrity branding? How thisphenomenon is similar / different among different countries. Does culture plays a vital role in theacceptance of a celebrity? The research is a comparative study between the consumers of Indiaand United Kingdom, therefore peoples opinion from both cultures would be taken into account.Does recognition of a celebrity in a culture depends on the cultural dimensions of the country?The research would entail us to find out the cause behind the celebrity marketing strategy byvarious companies and would also suggest marketing alternatives (Cultural significance) basedon their operations in global scenario.NOTE: The participation in the research is entirely voluntary and all participants can withdrawtheir likelihood to be a part of the research. All information provided by the respondents wouldbe kept confidential and limited to the actual cause of the research. Feel free to take part in theconsumer research.Participants Name(Full Name)GenderMaleFemaleContact
107Information Email / Mobile NumberQ 1. As a consumer do you find yourself liking or buying products more if a celebrity ispromoting it? If yes name some products. Just write your own experience or preferenceQ.2 What type of celebrities do you like in advertisements?Select from the followingHollywoodBollywood (Indian Cinema)Sports PersonalitiesMedia HostTV PersonalitiesTV Show presentersBusiness MagnetsPoliticiansQ.3 Where do you mostly watch advertisements?Select from the followingTelevisionMagazinesNewspapersPostersPublic DisplaysBoardingQ.3 As a consumer do you think that celebrity endorsement influences buying behavior?Select the appropriate oneAgreeStrongly agreeDisagreeStrongly disagreeUnsure
108Q.4 Do you think celebrities are having a power of persuasion to convince consumers?Select from the followingAgree Strongly agree Disagree Strongly disagreeUnsureQ.5 Which products do you think are ideal to have celebrity endorsements?Select the appropriate of the closest oneConsumer goodsBranded clothsFinancial productsService industry productsWatchesMotor / Car IndustryCosmetic Products (Men & Women)Electronics and TelecommunicationQ.6 When you see an advertisement what appeals you the most?Select from the followingCelebrity associationActual productEffectiveness of the productReliability of the productBrand imageValue for moneyQ.7 As a consumer do you rely on celebrity endorsement of products / goods?Give a reasoning of your answer. (Yes / No) Why?Q.8 Rank the following characteristics of a CELEBRITY’ from (1-5) where 1 is mostimportant and 5 least important. Rank in the order of (1-5)
109 Physical Credibility Expertise Personality Popularity attractiveness Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5Q.9 Do you think culture plays an important role in the recognition of a celebrity?Give reasoning for your answer. (Yes / No) Why?Q.10 Do you like repetition of celebrities in advertisements?Select the followingI like repetitionDislike repetitionWanted to see known facesDoesnt makes differenceQ.11 Where do you see more celebrity advertisement?Select from the followingCosmetics (Men & women) Fashion Grocery items EntertainmentFinancial servicesQ.12 Which celebrities do you prefer the most in advertisements?Tick the most appropriate oneModels (male & female)Actors (male & female)TV personalities
110Cartoon charactersSingersQ.13 How prone are you to celebrity advertisement in your purchase?HighLowMediumAverageNone of the aboveQ.14 Any suggestions or recommendations you would like to mention from celebrityadvertising point of view? Write your own opinionThank You very much for your time and participation.University of Wales, Lampeter 2009.Please write your address and any honest opinion about the surveyAppendix Number 2University of Wales Lampeter / College of Technology LondonEthical Considerations FormStudent’s name: …Arittra Basu………… Registration number: ……28001438…….
111For all research involving other people as participants or accessing personal data, thefollowing must also be completed: 1. Who are the Participants?Please tick/give further details as appropriate: Y/N/further details Children under 18 N Children in care N Individuals with a learning disability N Individuals suffering from dementia N Prisoners N Young offenders (16-21 years old) N Individuals in Care Homes N Elderly persons Y ( Normal Consumers) Individuals without legal capacity to consent N Other Vulnerable Groups N Specific Ethnic Groups N Students Y Staff Y2. Approximately how many participants did you recruit, and how were they selected, and how were they invited to participate in the study? Participants for my research are from both UK and India. Consumers of UK lived in UK and Indian consumers lived in India solely. Approximately 150 samples are selected. UK participants are selected randomly based on the reception check-in area of Ramada Ealing Hotel which is a point of contact of various people from and within UK who visit the hotel for leisure/business purpose. Even staffs of the hotel are also included in the sample. For Indian sample email, online community network websites are the channel to contact the participants of the research due to the researcher’s location being in UK. The entire samples are chosen based on the criteria that they are solely Indian / UK citizen lived only in their respective countries.3. Is there any link with the investigator (client, friend, etc.)? If there is a link, detail what safeguards to preserve objectivity and to prevent conflicts of interest were put in place? Yes many of the participants of the research from the UK and Indian sample are within the friend’s network of the researcher. To safeguard the objectivity of the research and to keep the research bias less the participants are selected based on the researcher choice of keeping the sample restricted to their own countries, by which their wouldn’t be any cross cultural influence in their answers. Moreover, all the samples are contacted on a professional manner demonstrating the cause of the research and the subject matter rather using personal influence. All the samples are from varied age group to get a consensus answers from the consumer community which consists of all age group. This will avoid influence of any age group over the research topic and cause.4. Please describe briefly what happened to the participants (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, the anticipated nature or duration of each). For interviews please outline any proposed topics that were covered, when considering designing interview or questionnaires etc what measures did you take to be ethical?
112 The research is done through a questionnaire survey based in UK and for India it is done through using Google doc. which will form a web link and forwarding the link to the specific samples in their emails and online community network to gather data. For UK sample questionnaire were distributed to the residents of Ramada Ealing Hotel, London where people come from all over UK and also to the staff of the hotel who are UK citizens or staying in UK for a long time. They are requested to fill up the questionnaire and hand back in to the reception for collection by the researcher. For Indian sample the online survey records all the answers filled up by the participants and are gathered in a statistical technique inherited in the software. The whole process is less time consuming and participant’s friendly, encouraging them to participate in the survey.5. What risks, potential hazards, stress, discomfort or inconvenience to participants may have been present? What steps were taken to minimize any adverse impact of the research on participants? The sample selected for the research is convenience sample and thus it is difficult to evaluate the ‘goodness’ of the sample in terms of its representativeness of the population participation. People are generously asked to participate in the survey both online and distribution method, but the willingness varies from people to people. So, these are the basis potential hazards which the researcher might face while conducting the research. To minimise the adverse effects the participants are asked to fill the questionnaire on their own time and not in a rush so that they can input some valid judgement which would constitute a strong data for the research.6. Was written consent obtained? This is the normal expectation, therefore if your response is that you did not obtain written consent, please explain in detail. Yes. Consent letter from the General Manager of Ramada Ealing to conduct the research in the premises of the establishment is attached as appendix (4)7. Did you provide written information to participants indicating the nature and purpose of the research, that their participation is voluntary, that they may withdraw at any time, and providing contact details for further information about the study? Please provide a copy of any written information that you may have used. Yes. All the information about the research and a brief summary about the topic are stated in the beginning of the questionnaire to give insight about the subject matter of the research and are mentioned that it is a voluntary participation for the research work done by UWL MBA Student ID: 28001438. Questionnaire attached as appendix for reference (1)8. Please indicate what steps were taken to safeguard the anonymity and confidentiality of the participant’s records [whether the records are of paper, tape recordings, video recordings...], and confirm that the requirements of the Data Protection Acts will be complied with. All the participants are told that their names and details would be left confidential and only their input data would be grouped according to the age of the participants, where they would be put into a specific group and will be coded as alphabetic order and all their personal details will be strictly under the supervision of the researcher and later filed and not used in the analysis of the research. They have also got the option of writing their contact details for further assistance for future research programme but it is not essential, but their age and sex is.Once you have submitted your dissertation, it will be reviewed by the department’s ethics committee and yourtutors.
113Appendix Number 3Data collection of the open ended questionsQ. 1) As a consumer do you find yourself liking or buying products more if a celebrity ispromoting it? If yes name some products.Yes = Maroon color, No = Purple color
As a consumer do you find yourself liking or buying products more if a celebrity is promoting it ? If yes name some products.Yes, I do. Fashion Cloths, Cosmetics, Sport items. 114Like the products endorsed by flintoff, david beckham, sharukh khan, tiger woods. etcA celebrity promoting a product makes little difference to me.Yes some times.Like David Beckham endorsing Police sun glasses or Messi advertising for adidas shoes.no, not much . for me its just an information which i want to investigate more before making anypurchase decisions.Not necessarily, but my attention is certainly drawn to a product more if I like the celebrity, or evenif I dont. They are good way to grab attention. So I guess sometimes using a celebrity is like acatlyst to getting a product into my mind. If it is a celebrity I like I cant help but give the productextra thought, and if its a product that I buy it may reassure me of that product emotionally, notnecessarily rationally. For me its just purely an emotional reaction.Celebrity endorsement works in fashion for me. Especially like Vincent Gallo for Yves Saint Laurent/ H & M as he is a cool indie actor and it gave the brand more credibility in my eyes, especially foran average high street retailer like H&M who you would expect to use more obvious and cheesycelebs.Yes, products like Reymonds, Reed n Teylor, Sony, Apple and so on.Nono not reallyNot really interested into celebrity adds. I only look value for money into materials which Ipurchase. Some cricket stars like Sourav ganguly, schin tendulkar etc provokes my purchasingwhile shopping.....specially fizzy drinks and commodities...biscuits (britania tiger)NononoGillette Products, Sports wear specially shoes.No I do not go for a celebrity promoted productnonoDefinitely yes. Like Amitabh Bachchan for Reid & Taylor and for Dairymilk chocolate. AbhishekBachchan for Motorola. Akshay Kumar for Thums up, Sachin with Pepsi, Britania Biscuits and somany more.yes as it creates a curiosity in the product and the features associated with it.Sachin Tendulkar for Pepsi IndiaAkshay Kumar for Thums Upyes as for mine concern i think the celebrity promots the products based on the qualit and i lovethe quality can compromise priceYes...viz:Samsung, Tata Sky, Coco-cola-- by Amir KhanRoyal Stag-- by Saif Ali KhanBikes , Softdrinks Advt. by SportsmanetcnoD&GNikeGilletteYes, because I feel like, we can trust a product which the celebrity is promoting, as we trust thecelebrities and accept that the words spoken by them are true and genuine.Some of the products are: Lux Soap, Loreal products, Sony Vaio computers promoted byShahrukh Khan, etc.
115Appendix Number 4Email interactions between the student (Arittra Basu: UWL ID: 28001438) and supervisorMs Lipi Begum (College of Technology, London) and University of Wales, LampeterDear All June 16I am pleased to be your supervisor for MBA dissertation. I have attached your dissertationtimetables - you will only need to see me fortnightly at the allocated times and dates. You onlyneed to come on the dates and times allocated. I will mark you present for the dates you are notscheduled to come in, however if you miss your scheduled time then you will be marked absent.Any changes personal changes need to be notified in advance.I have attached dissertation layout outline (Which tells you how many estimated words for eachsection) , and template of summary of discussions sheets- most of this is in your handbook.Every meeting we will discuss your work and write down what we discussed in our summary ofdiscussion sheets, and we will also set targets for your work before the next meeting (seeplanning and efforts sheet attached). It is up to you to try and meet targets as best as you can anduse the meetings to ask questions, the better you meet targets the better planning it will show.You are given 10% for planning, so its important you make a record of all that you do.Also before and during your meetings I am available via emails, and often check work via emailsas you know, so if you have any queries before your meeting you can raise them via email.For now please work on the feedback from your proposals, think about the changes you need tomake and bring queries to your next meeting or email. CTL will send you your feedback soon.
116Your meetings will take place every fortnight between 2.15 and 4.15pm on Wednesdays (roomTBC) please see timetable attached for further details and print/save for your referenceRegardsLipi BegumHi Lipi, July 7I am very sorry to inform you that due to some unforeseen circumstances I am unable to attendthe session of dissertation workshop with you at 14:15 pm on 8th July 09.I have tried my level best to postponed the date but it has something to do with my own physicalproblem for which I have to meet the doctor in Whipps Cross Hospital at around 13:00 pmwhich will last until 14:30 pm and more. For this situation I am unable to attend the meeting butI am really tensed about loosing your valuable advice and suggestion about dissertation and I amnot willing to loose the meeting in no condition.Therefore, I would like to request you that if you would kindly allow me to come and see youafter 16:00 pm which will be very much convenient for me and I would be happy to discuss myprogress in the same. I have done a lot of work which you have given as a task in our lastworkshop and would like to talk more about the same. I am also sending you a copy of theprogress work and would like to seek some help regarding the approach whether it is OK or not.Please Please Please consider this case as a matter of great concern as I am begging my apologyfor not making it out on the stated date as per the university schedule. But in no condition Iwould not like to suffer my dissertation by loosing academic advice and suggestion. Please paykind attention to the above subject and make a judgment. I am looking forward to hear from yousoon. Sorry again for short time notice.Regards,Arittra BasuMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, July 8Dont worry, I will mark you in, and will read your work so far and give you feedback - you canuse the feedback as part of planning and progress and put into the planning sheets we fill outeach week. Unfortunately I have a meeting with CTL after 4pm today and have to dash offafterwards. If you like you can come in tomorrow between 4.15 and 5.15 - I will be in staff roomor room 301. If you cant make that and you feel my feedback on work so far is sufficient enoughfor you to carry on without guidance, then I will either see you at your next meeting or you cancome in next week.RegardsLipi
117Hi Arittra, July 8The work so far reads well. And I am looking forward to you completing your introduction withfacts and figures to frame the research problem. So you need to complete the facts and currenttrends of celebrity endorsement bit - try and focus on comparing India with UK as this is yourfocal point. More emphasis can be placed on India as you are trying to highlight the currenttrends for celebrity endorsement in India and how it is unique to other countries, and you willdemonstrate that by comparing UK.For next meeting I would like:Final draft of introductionClear aims and objectivesHypothesis if anyRationale for research.RegardsLipiHi Lipi, July 9Thank you for your help. I am glad that you have taken out some time fro your busy schedule tore arrange a meeting with me regarding the dissertation. Though, I wont be able to see you after16:00 pm today, but I am willing to see you sometime on Monday the coming week as I amfree that day. I am working on the mentioned areas and would like to discuss more with you oncewe see each other for the dissertation workshop. I am doing the task assigned by you for the nextmeeting 23 rd of August 09.Please let me know if you have some spare time on Monday so that I can see you on that day.Regards,Arittra BasuMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, July 9I am away on Monday, but you can send me an email or drop by to CTL on Tuesday between2.15 and 4.15pm room 220 or staff room, or Wednesday usual time, or Wednesday and Thursdaybetween 4.30-5pm in room 301 or staff room. Hope we can arrange a mutual time, otherwiselet’s stay in touch via email and see you at your next meeting.RegardsLipi
118Hi Lipi, July 14I am coming to see you in college today @ 15:30 pm in 220 or in staff room. I have done thedraft and sending you via email and also bringing in the copy for further discussion.ArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arritra July 14That is fine, please send me attachments.RegardsLipiHi Lipi, July 14I am coming @ 16:00 to the college to see you and I am also sending you the draft which I justmade now. Please have a look and comment, on that.ThankyouArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, July 14It looks great so far. Make sure to put the Year reference beside all main body references. Alsoyou can support some of your discussion with relevant celebrity endorsement images ( againmake sure to reference accordingly). Your introduction should amount to about 2000 - 2500words.Next step is to write down aims and objectives, your rationale for research (i.e personal interestand positionality for doing research, maybe 300 words) and start writing up literature review.See you 4.30pmRegardsLipi
119 Jul14I meant see you 4pm, I have to leave by 4.15pmRegardsLipiHi Lipi, July 22Today is my meeting with you @ 14:15 pm. Would it be possible for you to see me around 10:30am or 12:00 pm instead of 14:15 pm. I have a company training in my work place, but I haverequested my manager that I might not come due to my meeting with you today. Though sheinsisted me to try and let her know whether I can or not. I have finished the Introduction part andsending it to you via email for checking. Just starting up with Literature review now. My trainingschedule time for today is from 2:30 pm to 3:30 pm.....so I was wondering what would beprobable solution for this? Help..........!!!Regards,Arittra BasuMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, July 22You can come at 10.30, I will be in room 301, you may have to wait around as I will be in class,but Ill try and see you for a while. Although I think its better if I send you email feedback fornow, and will mark you in. If you still need face to face feedback then I can see you tomorrow at4pm either in room 301 or staff room. Let me know what suits. I am going to class so may not beable to reply. So see you at 10.30, or tomorrow, otherwise you can come next week with othergroup and we can stick to email feedback for now. Will send you feedback later.RegardsLipiHi Lipi, July 22I will see you tomorrow at 4 pm in room 310 or in the staff room as I have to attend the trainingas its part of the company regulations. Tried to speak to my line manager but she was insistingme to come over. Anyway, I am sending you the draft of the completed Introduction and later ontoday will start with the literature review. So, please have a look and we will discuss moretomorrow about the same. Please advice any corrections which I will have to do in this part.Regards,ArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438
120Hi Arittra, July 22Your introduction looks good and you have discussed why the need for the research. Somesuggestions would be that you have applied theory to parts of your introduction and I wouldrecommend you leave the theory for literature review and focus on the current affairs forintroduction. So avoid explaining theory e.g attribution theory, secondary association and someof the quotes from the shimp book. The theories and more academic quotes can be used tosupport literature review. Your introduction should be around 2000-2500 words and literaturereview around 6500- 7-000 words.RegardsLipiHi Lipi, Aug 3Before our meeting I am sending you the draft copy of the work which I have done so far. Dontknow whether it is going in right direction, but I have used all relevant theories in conjunctionwith the topic of my dissertation in the Literature Review. Let me know how it sounds to you.Regards,ArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Lipi, Aug 5thats fine ......will do the same as directed by you and see you @ 2:15 tomorrow.Regards,ArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Lipi, Aug 14Here is the draft of the work which we both discussed in the previous meeting. As we havediscussed about the cultural dimension and its illustration in the research about India and UK, Ihave done the same in the literature review as directed by you.So, I am sending you a copy of the same to review the subject and get thevaluable feedback from you. Looking forward to hear from you ASAP.
121Regards,ArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, Aug 14It reads very well, and your discussion on cultural dimensions is good, only thing I would say isthat the evidence you have to show India as collectivist is based on your own subjective factswhich will require some objective facts on the matter to add scope and depth.RegardsLipiHi Lipi, Aug 15I am on the process to add some more about the association theory model in relation to what isaccepted in India and UK, also going to add the financial implications which companies do whileselecting celebrity endorsement, then forming a proposed structure of research based on my ownmodel which should be applied by the companies. Will send you the draft before the 19thof august as thats the date for our next meeting.Regards,Arittra BasuMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Lipi, Aug 18I hope that jaishree already spoken to you that, she is coming in 14:15 tomorrow in place of mineand I am coming in place of her at 14:30 pm...Hope this is going to be ok with you. She calledme yesterday to make the changes in the schedule. See you tomorrow with some more work.ArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438HI Arittra Aug 18Thats fine. I have emailed Jaishree.Regards
122LipiHi Lipi, Aug 19Here is the work updated till now. Please see and I will take the feedback from you @ 14:30 pmtodayArittraMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, Aug 19It looks good. Regarding the cultural dimensions framework I noticed you have used your owncreation of what you think UK and India are in terms of cultural dimensions, this is okay, but myworry is that there is no theoretical or factual support, which is required to add depth and scopeto your literature review, and it is also an important element to your research. This is the onlything you need to develop regarding literature review. Now I prefer to move on from that andwill ask you to start designing your methodology and conducting it even. Shall we say you willdesign your questionnaire by next meeting and even start conducting? and whilst you are waitingfor respondents you can start writing up methodology and improving that bit on literature review.I think we have focused too much on literature review and we need to move on to moreimportant things i.e primary research and gathering findings.RegardsLipiHi Lipi, Aug 27Im not sure about the date of the next meeting. Could you please confirm me the dates ifpossible. Additionally, I have already spoken to my HR Manager and GM about seekingpermission to conduct a survey based on the employees and the customers who are check-in thehotel on a daily basis. Thereby I can actually have a good sample size for my research and I canhave a nice data analysis for UK consumers. As, most of the customers in our hotel are from UK,so as the employees so it would be a nice place to gather data. Do I have to get a consent formsigned by the HR and GM of my work place to conduct the research and also need to sign themthe ethical consideration form. Please let me know. The questionnaires are still on the processand as soon as I finish with the draft I will send you a copy. However, for Indian consumers I amsending the questionnaire to my friends are others through email and community networkingwebsites by which I can gather a good number of sample from India for my research. In that way
123it would be nice to analyze in the data analysis section where i can form a good formation of thefinding of the research.Let me know how it sounds and other details which I might need to consider while conductingthe research .Regards,Arittra BasuMBA Dissertation StudentUWL : 28001438Hi Arittra, Aug 27Yes you need at least verbal permission from the HR managers etc, no need to get them to signethics form or anything. However the respondents may ask proof of ID or legibility to doresearch so for that reason you may need to show your i.d or even a permission letter. So its upto you. If you can get one, then why not, it just adds credibility.Your next meeting is next Wednesday 2nd September same time same place.Using community networking sites is okay, you may want to do your questionnaire on GoogleDocs (you can ask one of your friends or Kevin in library how to do that), Google docs is anonline questionnaire building tool. This way you can send people the URL and they can fill inonline, plus the software analyses the data for you so it saves you time and hassle later in termsof trying to analyze the data and put into bar charts and graphs yourself.RegardsLipiHI LIPI. Sep 2HERE IS THE UPDATED WORK. WILL SEE U IN CTLArittra BasuMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Dear Students, Sep 4A basic checklist for methodology (see dissertation examples for further scope)
124 1. The research strategy and methodology: Have you: • Mentioned the research philosophy /paradigm i.e positivist, intrepretivist, ontological etc...that your research follows. • Mentioned the sampling techniques, and whether the study is qualitative or quantitative and why? – define the methods. • Defined and explained choice of methodologies – looked at advantages and disadvantages of methodologies chosen i.e. questionnaire, case study, interviews etc... • Discussed and defined validity, external and internal validity aspects in relation to your chosen methodologies and own research • How you will analyze your data once it is collected i.e. bar charts, graphs, excel, spss, tables etc…. 2. Logistical and ethical consideration. Discuss how you will you gain access to respondents, premises, information? Are there ethical considerations? – fill out UWL ethical and logistical considerations form to support. Diagrams and flow charts can be used to present your methodology. You can look at the theory of alternate perspectives e.g quantitative vs qualitative or say positivist vs intrepretivist however the main aim is to briefly discuss the alternate perspective but to elaborate on the perspective your research follows, or the one you are using. To avoid listing theories apply your research to the theory and adapt it to your research. So discuss what you will be using and why more so and then support with theory. Regards, LipiHi Lipi, Sep 11I have already completed the Research methodology section i.e chapter 3 and Im sending youthe draft copy of the whole work. In the mean time I am constructing the questionnaire forthe research which I will forward you by tonight. It’s almost done and needs some alternation.When I will forward you the entire set of questionnaire please check and advice me whether itsOK or not. Also I’m going to publish the same questions in the web link through Google.doc.I am very tensed at the moment after Jills meeting and need your support very much. Hope thework which I have done is OK.Looking forward to hear from you.
125Regards,Arittra BasuMBA Marketing PathwayDissertation under progressUWL ID: 28001438Hi Arittra, Sep 11It looks very good compared to the last one, and I can say even almost complete. You need tomention the research philosophy in the beginning i.e positivist, and apply that to your diagram atthe end. You have covered all areas and the only thing is you havent defined the type ofsampling you are using from a theoretical perspective despite critically discussing it (this is whatJill quizzed you on so make sure you define the appropriate types and justify its validity andreliability to your research despite any limitations). Also please refer to relevant appendix for theUWL ethical and logistical considerations form (which needs to be filled out thoroughly) tosupport ethical section.You can either discuss data analysis techniques as part of your methodology after data collectionor before presentation of findings. I suggest in methodology. Here you need to discuss how youplan to analyze and present your data i.e. google docs, bar charts, graphs excel etc...and why.Your meeting with Jill went well, but she did raise some fair points, after all she wanted to seeyour planning and knew you had just reached the sampling and primary data stage so wanted toquiz you on it so that you plan accordingly. Dont let the meeting stress you and stop you in yourstride, let it motivate you, as am sure it has :-)Keep going, so far so goodRegardsLipi
126 Name: MBA Dissertation (Planning and Effort Sheet) Timetable of Events Record of meetingsDate: 24/06/09Summary of Discussion:Better approach to the research and refining the proposal. Suggestion about various journals and researchpapers, libraries to be visited etc.Work required by next meeting: 1. Final draft of introduction 2. Refine aims and objectives 3. Rational behind the researchDate of next meeting: 8/07/09Date: 8/07/09Summary of Discussion:Discussion about the topic of the research, introduction, literature review, referencing, looking at variousmodels, aims and objectives, rationale for the researchWork required by next meeting:Finalize introduction, aims and objectives, rationale, gathering information for literature review.Date of next meeting: 22/0709
127Date: 05/08/09Summary of Discussion:Discussion about literature review and implementation of the models used. Refining the models used inliterature review and better diagrammatic description. Discussion of cultural dimension in literature review, apractical implications for organizations about the culture and financial implications. India and UK differenceabout celebrity endorsements. Use simple terms for methodology and short introduction reference.Work required by next meeting:To complete final draft of literature review. Start thinking about methodology.Date of next meeting: 19/08/09Date: 19/08/09Summary of Discussion:Final discussion reframing of literature review section. Discussion about the research approach and strategy.Work required by next meeting:1st draft of methodology and design questionnaire.Date of next meeting: 19/08/09Date: 2/09/09Summary of Discussion: amendments to literature review, Research methodology is going to be descriptiveapproach. Applying theories of methodologies to the research problem. Survey collection methods, samplingmethods, validity and reliability, charts and diagrams, using google docs etc.Work required by next meeting:Complete questionnaire design and send out questionnaire (face to face) emailWrite up methodologyDate of next meeting: 23/09/09
128Date: 23/09/09Summary of Discussion:Discussion about the data analysis process and evaluation of the entire raw data collected from the sample.Work required by next meeting:Complete presentation of findings, organized open ended questions, start writing 1st draft of critical analysisand think about conclusions.Date of next meeting: 07/10/09Date: 07/10/09Summary of Discussion:Final discussion about the findings and conclusion. Draft design of the recommended models and finalpresentation of the dissertation.Work required by next meeting:NilDate of next meeting: nil
129Appendix Number 4Letter of permission from the General Manager of Ramada London Ealing(See the printed copy)