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Skelatal systerm by Arfan Ahmed Shourov
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Skelatal systerm by Arfan Ahmed Shourov

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Skelatal systerm

Skelatal systerm

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Skelatal systerm by Arfan Ahmed Shourov Skelatal systerm by Arfan Ahmed Shourov Presentation Transcript

  • Skeletal System Prepared by Arfan Ahmed Shourov Radiant pharmaceutical Ltd
  • Skeletal System
  • Skeletal System Composed of the body’s bones and associated ligaments, tendons, and cartilages Functions 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Hematopoiesis 5. Reservoir for minerals and adipose tissue
  • Functions 1. Support framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs 2. Protection For delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain 3. Movement Bones act as levers for muscles
  • Functions 4. Hematopoiesis Blood cell formation- 5. Reservoir for minerals and adipose tissue calcium & phosphate
  • Bone Classification 206 named bones in the human body Each belongs to one of 2 large groups: 1. Axial skeleton (80 bones) : Forms long axis of the body. Includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. 2. Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) : Bones of upper & lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach them to the axial skeleton.
  • Bone Classification 4 types of bones: 1. Long Bones:    Much longer than they are wide. All bones of the limbs except for the patella (kneecap), and the bones of the wrist and ankle. Consists of a shaft plus 2 expanded ends. Example: metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula, Femur Femur
  • Bone Classification 2. Short Bones:  Roughly cube shaped.  Bones of the wrist and the ankle. Example: carpals, tarsals
  • Bone Classification 3. Flat Bones  Thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved. Example: rib, scapula, skull, sternum scapula
  • Bone Classification 3. Irregular Bones Have weird shapes that fit none of the 3 previous classes. Vertebrae Example: vertebrae, some facial bones,, hip bones 2 skull bones ( sphenoid and the ethmoid bones). vertebrae Hip bones
  • Bone Structure All bones consist of a dense, solid outer layer known as compact bone and an inner layer of spongy bone – a honeycomb of flat, needle-like projections called trabeculae.
  • Bone cell Types Osteoblast Osteoclast Osteocyte Bone forming cells. Bone resorption cells. Mature bone cells.
  • Bone cells 1.Osteoblasts: Bone-building cells. Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix. Initiate the process of calcification. Found in both the periosteum and the endosteum
  • Bone cells 2. Osteoclasts Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes (a type of white blood cell). Cells that digest bone matrix – this process is called bone resorption and is part of normal bone growth, development, maintenance, and repair.
  • Bone cells 3. Osteocytes: Mature bone cells. Osteoblasts that have become trapped by the secretion of matrix. No longer secrete matrix. Responsible for maintaining the bone tissue.
  • Bone structure Bone Matrix: Consists of organic and inorganic components. 1/3 organic and 2/3 inorganic by weight. Organic component consists of several materials that are secreted by the osteoblasts: Collagen fibers and other organic materials These (particularly the collagen) provide the bone with resilience and the ability to resist stretching and twisting.
  • Bone structure Inorganic component of bone matrix Consists mainly of 2 salts: calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide. These 2 salts interact to form a compound called hydroxyapatite. Bone also contains smaller amounts of magnesium, fluoride, and sodium. These minerals give bone its characteristic hardness and the ability to resist compression.