Airport master plan
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Airport master plan Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Airport Master Planning NotesCEE 4674 Airport Planning and Design Dr. Antonio A. Trani Associate Professor of Civil Engineering Virginia Tech Virginia Tech 1 of 47
  • 2. Purpose• Planning concept to develop the ultimate version of an airport• Includes aviation and non-aviation related sectors• Specific Goals• Provides guidelines for future development of the airport• To develop physical facilities of an airport• To account for land use impacts and airport noise compatibility standards• To establish access requirements• Schedule priorities in the development process Virginia Tech 2 of 47
  • 3. Who Participates? Coordinated effort between groups of people• Groups involved in master planning• Airlines• Airport authorities• Engineering team• Environmental groups• Financial groups• City council (community) NOTE: Get the community involved Virginia Tech 3 of 47
  • 4. Master Plan Check List• Organization and study groups• Inventory of existing facilities• Forecasts of future aeronautical demand• Capacity and delay analysis• Facility requirements and concept development (phases and alternatives)• Airport site selection (or infrastructure site selection if the airport is in place)• Environmental procedures analysis (noise and water pollution) Virginia Tech 4 of 47
  • 5. Master Plan Check List• Operational simulations (capacity and delay analyses)• Airport plans (ALP)• Plan implementation Virginia Tech 5 of 47
  • 6. Factors Considered in Airport Site Selection • Operational capacity (airspace issues, obstructions) • Capacity potential (land available, weather conditions) • Ground access (distance from city centers, existing highways, etc.) • Development costs (terrain, land acquisition, cost, soil conditions, utilities, etc.) • Environmental consequences (noise, impact on flora and fauna, air quality, endangered species) • Socioeconomic factors (relocation of people, changes in employment patterns, impact on industry, taxes, etc.) • Consistency in area wide planning (impact on land use, effort on metro/regional plans, etc.) Virginia Tech 6 of 47
  • 7. Data Requirements (a list)• Demand and traffic data• Passengers (historical annual, monthly and hourly passengers)• Aircraft (annual, monthly and hourly movements)• Cargo (annual, monthly and hourly tonnage of cargo)• Environmental data• Local regulations• Local development plans• Existing land uses• Local transportation plans Virginia Tech 7 of 47
  • 8. Data Requirements• Local and national noise regulation• Physical data• Market an modal share of access modes• Meteorological data (winds, rain, snow and low visibility phenomena records)• Topographical information (10 m. contours or better)• Detailed information on existing facilities (check out the old master plans)• Flora and fauna Virginia Tech 8 of 47
  • 9. Data Requirements• Aeronautical data Holding stacks, approaches, and climb out procedures Navaids Airways• Financial information Revenue/expenses Debt structure Capital expenditures Assets and liabilities Legal limitations Virginia Tech 9 of 47
  • 10. Data Requirements Costs• Construction• Detail costs• Finishing costs• Equipment costs Virginia Tech 10 of 47
  • 11. Outputs of the Master Planning Activity Document(s) that detail the development of the airport including future expansion/construction of the airport Possible complementary documents:• Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)• Regional air transportation needs• Regional economic impact study Virginia Tech 11 of 47
  • 12. Sample Master Plans Virginia Tech 12 of 47
  • 13. Los Angeles International Airport• Large hub airport• Busy ATC tower operations and complex airspace around LAX• 30.8 million emplanements per year (1999)• 779,000 aircraft operations per year (equivalent to and average of 2,135 operations per day)• Four parallel runways (>10,000 ft. long)• Many noise complains• Master plan costs > 10 million (10 engineering firms involved) Virginia Tech 13 of 47
  • 14. Los Angeles International Airport Virginia Tech 14 of 47
  • 15. Sample Master Plan (LAX)• An excellent example of how a complex airport master plan is developed.• A good example on how the airport authority communicates to the community via the World Wide Web (WWW)• See sample screens below or go to:• http://www.lax2015.org/ Virginia Tech 15 of 47
  • 16. LAX Master Plan Contents• Table of Contents• Executive Summary• Preface• CHAPTER 1 - Air Transportation in the Los Angeles Region• CHAPTER 2 - Existing Conditions Working Paper• CHAPTER 2 - Appendices A through Q• CHAPTER 3 - Forecasts of Aviation Demand• CHAPTER 4 - Facility Requirements• CHAPTER 5 - Concept Development (Volume 1)• Concept Development (Volume 2 ) Virginia Tech 16 of 47
  • 17. LAX Master Plan Contents• APPENDIX A - Flight to gate assignments• APPENDIX B - Unconstrained Airside options Simulation assumptions and results• APPENDIX C - 2nd Iteration terminal option• APPENDIX D - Scattergood fuel farm relocation feasibility study• APPENDIX E - Executive summary• APPENDIX F - 1996 Baseline airside simulation assumption and results• APPENDIX G - Chapter5 Appendices G through H• APPENDIX H - Aircraft operations profiles Virginia Tech 17 of 47
  • 18. LAX Master Plan Contents• APPENDIX I - Passenger activity profiles (2,385 KB)• APPENDIX J - Constrained airside alternatives simulation assumptions and results• APPENDIX K - Supplemental information provided for the Draft EIS/EIR• APPENDIX L - Model update information• APPENDIX M - Description of automated people mover systems• APPENDIX N - LAX Expressway• APPENDIX O - Assess cargo and Ancillary facilities Virginia Tech 18 of 47
  • 19. LAX Master Plan Contents• APPENDIX P - Preliminary property acquisition and relocation plan• APPENDIX Q - Westchester southside development• APPENDIX R - Detailed Simmod reports for air quality purposes Virginia Tech 19 of 47
  • 20. LAX Master Plan Timeline October, 1994 LAX Master Plan is initiated to address long-term issues of airport capacity, ground access and environmental impacts. Three Phases in the Master planning process:• December, 1995 Phase I of the LAX Master Plan is completed. Research phase determines demand for air service by 2015 could reach 98 million annual passengers and 4.1 million annual tons of cargo.• February, 1996 Phase II of LAX Master Plan is initiated. Facility requirements are assessed and a total of 30 concepts are developed and reviewed by LAWA Virginia Tech 20 of 47
  • 21. LAX Master Plan Timeline• December, 1996 Four airport development alternatives are unveiled.• June-July, 1997 LAWA and the FAA issue Notice of Preparation/Notice of Intent to prepare EIS/EIR, followed by a series of public meetings to help define the scope of the EIS/EIR.• August, 1997 - As a result of public input, two of the original four alternatives are eliminated.• October, 1998 Phase III of the Master Plan is underway. A new third alternative is developed in response to issues raised during the initial scoping process and subsequent public input. Virginia Tech 21 of 47
  • 22. LAX Master Plan Timeline• June,1999 - A new four-runway alternative is added to the Master Plan. The new alternative is introduced to better balance the needs of the flying public, the business community, and the airports neighbors. Under the new plan, LAX would accommodate 8 million fewer passengers annually than the other alternatives under study and 400 fewer daily flights.• 1999-2000 - Environmental impact assessments are completed. An Airport Layout Plan and implementation plan for the preferred alternative is developed.• January,2001 - The Draft EIS/EIR and Draft LAX Master Plan are released. An unprecedented 180-day public comment period commences. Virginia Tech 22 of 47
  • 23. LAX Master Plan Timeline• June,2001 - Public Hearings will be held to provide opportunity for the public to voice their comments on the Draft documents. Virginia Tech 23 of 47
  • 24. LAX Alternatives Do nothing (No action alternative)• Up to 79 million annual passengers (MAP) by 2015. Alternative A - North Runway + Terminal Mods.• Up to 98 MAP and approximately 2,700 daily operations by 2015. Alternative B - South Runway + Terminal Mods.• Up to 98 MAP and approximately 2,700 daily operations by 2015. Alternative C - Terminal and Access Improvements• Up to 89 MAP and 2,300 daily operations by 2015. Virginia Tech 24 of 47
  • 25. Current Situation (1999) Virginia Tech 25 of 47
  • 26. Airports in the Los Angeles Basin Virginia Tech 26 of 47
  • 27. No Action (Do-nothing) Alternative• No new improvements will be made at LAX before 2015, with the exception of any projects that are already planned at the airport.• No major vehicle access improvements would occur.• Capacity and operating constraints would only allow for future annual passenger growth to 79 million annual passengers (MAP) by 2015• Accommodation of only 3.1 million annual tons (MAT) of cargo by 2015 and approximately 2,300 daily operations. Virginia Tech 27 of 47
  • 28. No Action (2005-2015) Virginia Tech 28 of 47
  • 29. Alternative A - Added Runway, North• This alternative adds a new runway on the north airfield approximately 400 feet north of the existing runways.• The efficiency and safety of the taxiway/taxilane structures on both the north and south airfields would be improved.• A new west entrance and terminal with additional aircraft gates, rental car facilities and parking would be added.• A people mover would provide passenger access from a new parking garage and the west terminal to new concourses west of the Tom Bradley International Terminal and all other terminals.• Cargo facilities would be expanded in the southeast corner of the airport. Virginia Tech 29 of 47
  • 30. Alternative A - Added Runway, North• The improvements included in Alternative A would enable LAX to accommodate 98 MAP, 4.2 MAT of cargo and approximately 2,700 daily operations by 2015.• Major vehicle access improvements would include the LAX Expressway, which would draw traffic off of the San Diego (405) Freeway.• The expressway would connect to an airport ring road to provide direct access to terminals and cargo areas, thus reducing traffic on the freeway and local streets.• The light rail Green Line would be extended into the airport to provide non-automobile, direct service to LAX. Virginia Tech 30 of 47
  • 31. Alternative A - Added Runway, North Virginia Tech 31 of 47
  • 32. Alternative B - Added Runway, South• This alternative adds a new runway to the south. The existing southern runways would be relocated north in order to increase the lateral spacing between all three runways.• The efficiency and safety of the taxiway/taxilane structures on both the north and south airfields would be improved.• A new west entrance and terminal with additional aircraft gates, rental car facilities and parking would be added.• A people mover would provide passenger access from two new parking garages and the west terminal to new concourses west of the Tom Bradley International Terminal and all other terminals. Virginia Tech 32 of 47
  • 33. Alternative B - Added Runway, South• Cargo facilities would also be expanded.• Completion of the improvements included in Alternative B would allow LAX to accommodate 98 MAP, 4.2 MAT of cargo and approximately 2,700 daily operations by 2015.• Major vehicle access improvements would include the LAX Expressway, which would draw traffic off of the San Diego (405) Freeway.• The expressway would connect to an airport ring road to provide direct access to terminals and cargo areas, thus reducing traffic on the freeway and local streets.• The light rail Green Line would be extended into the airport to provide non-automobile, direct service to LAX. Virginia Tech 33 of 47
  • 34. Alternative B - Added Runway, South Virginia Tech 34 of 47
  • 35. Alternative B - Added Runway, South Virginia Tech 35 of 47
  • 36. Alternative C - No Additional Runway• No new runways to the airfield at LAX.• The outboard northern runway would be relocated and the inboard northern runway would be lengthened to accommodate larger aircraft.• Taxiways/taxilanes would be added to the two northern and southern airfields to improve safety and operational efficiency.• A new west entrance and terminal with additional aircraft gates, rental car facilities and parking would be added.• A people mover would provide passenger access from new parking facilities and the west terminal to new concourses west of the Tom Bradley International Terminal and all other terminals. Virginia Tech 36 of 47
  • 37. Alternative C - No Additional Runway• Cargo facilities would be expanded to meet the needs of LAX through 2015.• LAX could serve 89 MAP, 4.2 MAT of cargo and approximately 2,300 daily operations by 2015.• Major vehicle access improvements would include the LAX Expressway.• The expressway would draw traffic off of the San Diego (405) Freeway and connect to an airport ring road to provide direct access to terminals and cargo areas, thus reducing traffic on the freeway and local streets.• The light rail Green Line would be extended into the airport to provide non-automobile, direct service to LAX. Virginia Tech 37 of 47
  • 38. Alternative C - No Additional Runway Virginia Tech 38 of 47
  • 39. Alternative C - No New Runway Virginia Tech 39 of 47
  • 40. Sample Master Plan (LAX) Virginia Tech 40 of 47
  • 41. Sample Master Plan (LAX) Virginia Tech 41 of 47
  • 42. Airport Noise and the Master Plan• An Important output of the Master Plan process if the evaluation of environmental impacts• Noise is a major problem in the expansion of existing airports• Noise is perhaps the most systematic constrain at enhancing the capacity of airports in the world• Some airports have taken 30-40 years to evolve due to noise constraints Virginia Tech 42 of 47
  • 43. Virginia Tech Airport• Small rural airport• Non-tower operations (no ATC system resident at the airport)• 17,000 operations per year• 4,550 ft. runway (serves 100% of the aircraft population below 12,500 lb.)• Few noise complains• Master plan costs = $100,000 (URS-Greiner) Virginia Tech 43 of 47
  • 44. Virginia Tech Airport (Current Layout) Source: 1995 Virginia Tech Airport Master Plan Virginia Tech 44 of 47
  • 45. Virginia Tech Baseline Scenario• Represents the level of activity recorded between August 1999 and August 2000• 16,972 operations• 56% of the operations are instruction flights• Only 5% of the flights are night time operations• 11 representative aircraft• Modeled gyrocopter and local helicopter operations Virginia Tech 45 of 47
  • 46. INM 6.0a Results (Baseline Scenario)Baseline Noise Contour Results for BCB Airport (Average Day).DNL Level Population Area of Contour Area of Con- Area of Affected (km2) tour Contour (mi2) (acres) 25.0 90634 261.456 100.949 64607.1 30.0 77926 138.433 53.449 34207.5 35.0 51368 49.682 19.182 12276.6 40.0 12642 18.035 6.963 4456.6 45.0 4206 6.809 2.629 1682.6 50.0 868 2.784 1.075 688.0 55.0 862 1.062 0.410 262.3 60.0 0 0.382 0.147 94.3 65.0 0 0.115 0.044 28.4 70.0 0 0.034 0.013 8.5 75.0 0 0.001 0.000 0.2 Virginia Tech 46 of 47
  • 47. Baseline Scenario Noise Contours 35 40 DNL Contours 55 45 60 50 65 70 50 35 Virginia Tech 47 of 47