Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. 13.If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction (parallel runways), each runway is identified by appending Left (L), Center (C) and Right (R) to the number — for example, Runways One Five Left (15L), One Five Center (15C), and One Five Right (15R). Runway Zero Three Left (03L) becomes Runway Two One Right (21R) when used in the opposite direction (derived from adding 18 to the original number for the 180 degrees when approaching from the opposite direction).<br /> 14.An instrument landing system (ILS) is a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), such as low ceilings or reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow.<br />15. The functions of AAI are as follows:<br />Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of international and domestic airports and civil enclaves.<br />Control and Management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO.<br />Construction, Modification and Management of passenger terminals.<br />Development and Management of cargo terminals at international and domestic airports.<br />Provision of passenger facilities and information system at the passenger terminals at airports.<br />Expansion and strengthening of operation area, viz. Runways, Aprons, Taxiway etc.<br />Provision of visual aids.<br />Provision of Communication and Navigation aids, viz. ILS, DVOR, DME, Radar etc.<br />16.A Flight Information Display system (FIDS) is a computer system used in airports to display flight information to passengers, in which a computer system controls mechanical or electronic display boards or TV screens in order to display arrivals and departures flight information in real-time. The displays are located inside or around an airport terminal. A virtual version of FIDS can also be found on most airport websites and teletext systems. In large airports, there are different sets of FIDS for each terminal or even each major airline. FID systems are used to assist passengers during air travel and people who want to pick-up passengers after the flight.<br />Each line on FIDS indicates a different flight number accompanied by:<br />the airline name/logo and/or its IATA or ICAO airline designator<br />the city of origin or destination, and any intermediate points<br />the expected arrival or departure time and/or the updated time (reflecting any delays)<br />the gate number<br />the check-in counter numbers or the name of the airline handling the check-in<br />the status of the flight, such as "Landed", "Delayed", "Boarding", etc<br />17. Air traffic controllers are the people who expedite and maintain a safe and orderly flow of air traffic in the global air traffic control system. The position of the air traffic controller is one that requires highly specialized skills. Controllers apply separation rules to keep aircraft apart from each other in their area of responsibility and move all aircraft safely and efficiently through their assigned sector of airspace. Because controllers have an incredibly large responsibility while on duty, the ATC profession is regarded around the world as one of the most difficult jobs today, and can be notoriously stressful depending on many variables (equipment, configurations, weather, traffic volume, human factors, etc.). Having said this, many controllers would cite high salary and their love of aviation and an early retirement as highly beneficial.<br />23. <br />Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata<br />Deccan Aviation: captain g r gopinath<br /> Kingfisher Airlines: Vijay mallaya<br />SpiceJet: kalanithi maran<br />Indigo:Rahul Bhatia<br />24<br />Mandatory instruction signs<br />No entry sign.<br />Mandatory instruction signs are white on red. They show entrances to runways or critical areas. Vehicles and aircraft are required to stop at these signs until the control tower gives clearance to proceed.<br />Runway signs – White text on a red background. These signs simply identify a runway intersection ahead.<br />Frequency Change signs – Usually a stop sign and an instruction to change to another frequency. These signs are used at airports with different areas of ground control.<br />Holding Position signs – A single solid yellow bar across a taxiway indicates a position where ground control may require a stop. If two solid yellow bars and two dashed yellow bars are encountered, this indicates a holding position for a runway intersection ahead; runway holding lines must never be crossed without permission. At some airports, a line of red lights across a taxiway is used during low visibility operations to indicate holding positions. An "interrupted ladder" type marking with an "ILS" sign in white on red indicates a holding position before an ILS critical area.<br />25. Air Traffic Flow Management (usually seen abbreviated as ATFM) is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or air traffic control capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently.<br />Because only one aircraft can land or depart from a runway at the same time, and because aircraft must be separated by a certain time to avoid collisions, every airport has a finite capacity; it can only safely handle so many aircraft per hour. This capacity depends on many factors, such as the number of runways available, layout of taxi tracks, availability of air traffic control, and current or anticipated weather. Especially the weather can cause large variations in capacity because strong winds may limit the number of runways available, and poor visibility may necessitate increases in separation between aircraft. Air traffic control can also be limiting, there are only so many aircraft an air traffic control unit can safely handle. Staff shortages, radar maintenance or equipment faults can lower the capacity of a unit. This can affect both airport air traffic control as well as en-route air traffic control centers.<br />27. An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft.<br />Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concourses. However, the terms "terminal" and "concourse" are sometimes used interchangeably, depending on the configuration of the airport.<br />Smaller airports have one terminal while larger airports have several terminals and/or concourses. At small airports, the single terminal building typically serves all of the functions of a terminal and a concourse<br />