Mid-term The (North) American Civil War
Crossroads of Freedom
Text Book by Professor McPherson
The Pendulum of war 1861-1862 p1
• American civil war, the eleven states of the confederacy’s
government in Richmond were in control of 750,000 square
miles national region.
• War began with Confederate possession of Fort Sumter.
• The south needed only protect.
• Abraham Lincoln’s wish to have the United States as a
• To get to “Union of all the states” Union had to invade
Confederacy which it was very difficult and appeared to be
• Union arms did win some battles and lost some in 1861.
• “Christmas 1861 U.S. government released Mason and
• Let down and shame feeling and also financial panic in the
• General George B. McClellan takes command of the Army
of the Potomac after the defeat at Bull Run,
• “The Young Napoleon” George B. McClellan he was
talented, energetic and only 34 years old.
• “The caution and defensive mindedness that McClellan
infused into the Army of the Potomac persisted for almost
The Pendulum of war 1861-1862 p2
• One February 25 in Alabama, Union military got the control of one of the the richest
agricultural and iron producing regions of the Confederacy.
• Big effects and influences of the New York Times in both North and South.
• “The fall of Fort Macon in North Carolina and Fort Pulaski downriver from Savannah
in April depressed Southern morale further. But all of these losses paled in
comparison with the surrender at the end of April of New Orleans, the Confederacy’s
principal port and largest city.”
Taking off the kid Gloves June –July 1862 p1
• First success of the Union military in 1862 in the Shenandoah Valley.
• The union commander General Nathaniel P. Banks, political man selected because of
his military skills and also because of his political influences.
• Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson known as “Stonewall” on the other side.
• Jackson became most renowned and feared commander in the south.
• One of the Jackson’s main victories took place at W inchester on May 25 when
Confederates drove Banks’s routed into Maryland.
• Jackson’s victories were huge for southerners and created lots of hope in their
• Thomas J. Jackson……………..Nathaniel P. Banks
• “Banks’s misfortune that he faced Confederate
• General Jackson”
Taking off the kid Gloves June-July 1862 p2
• Wounding of Johnston and his replacement by Robert E. Lee. When
confederate attacked on McClellan’s army five miles east of
Richmond on May 31.
• One thing that Lee’s as a commander did of what he selected the
army of Northern Virginia was to make stronger the earthwork
defense ringing Richmond.
• McClellan faced 200,000 enemy troops ( the maximum number Lee
would be able to bring against him was 90,000, the largest
Confederate army ever assembled) and needed to be support and
get stronger before he could take the offensive.
• Lee brought most of his army north of the Chickahominy River and
also Jackson troops from the valley for an attack on the Union right
on June 26.
• “Confederate success in the Shenandoah Valley and the Seven Days
Battles reopened the question of foreign recognition of the
Confederacy. Many in Britain and France regarded these battles as
confirmation of their belief that the north could never subdue the
• Cotton famine was beginning to hurt workers in Britain and France.
• Economic Facts one of the big reason that mad a big conviction grow
in British and France. That the only way for starting import and
reopen the factories was to end the war. And ending the war means
the Confederate independence.
“The Federals Got a very Complete Smashing” August –September 1862 p1
• Good news for Union of Western Theaters to
offset bad news in Virginia during July and
• “Union forces in Tennessee and Northern
Mississippi experienced even greater
• Lots of damages to the Union which caused
by more than Psychological. “Our Cavalry is
paving the way for me in middle Tennessee
and Kentucky,” wrote General Braxton Bragg
in late July.
• “Bragg’s army advanced into middle
Tennessee, forcing Buell to break off his own
campaign against Chattanooga and rush
northward to defend Nashville.”
• More focus on Virginia and Maryland by
“The Federals Got a very Complete Smashing” August –September 1862 p2
• Malaria, dysentery, typhoid during sickly season on the Virginia Peninsula
subtracted more men from the Army of the Potomac.
• McClellan asked the government, send me reinforcements.
• Pope’s and McClellan Army clashing with Lee and Jackson on the other
side in mid August.
• “Just before sunset on August 28 one of Pope’s divisions found Jackson.”
• These were dark, dismal days in
the North- perhaps the darkest of many
such days during the war.
• Lee’s Victory at Manassas and
the invasion of maryland.
Showdown at Sharpsburg p1
• “Walter Taylor declared on September 7 that “
now is the time for Maryland or never. After this if
she does not rise, hush up “My Maryland.” A
South Carolina soldier had “no dout that we will
get 50000in this state.
• “Richmond newspaper proclaimed That “the our
of Maryland’s deliverance, long deferred, has
come at last. The “pride, the self-respect, and the
sympathies of Maryland link her with the cause of
the south …”
• Reports of that many of the Maryland men were
joining Lee’s army, which it was not right.
• “The stress, exhaustion, and illness produced by
campaigns were the were the principal causes of
• Farmers move to north of the Susquenhanna
River, News papers reports of “the greatest
excitement” in Harrisburg and Philadelphia.
Calling out 50,000 militia, “all the church and
court-house bells rang for the people to assemble
for drill.” treasury funds shipping to new York.
Showdown at Sharpsburg p2
• Lot of events on September 14
• confederate was in terrible on September 14-15
night, Southern losses that day was almost a
quarter of all troops.
• “Excellent spirits” on McClellan Soldiers and
their victory at South Mountain.
• On the 16th McClellan sent his most forceful
corps commander, “Fighting Joe” Hooker,
across the Antietam northeast of Sharpsburg.
• McClellan plans and troops arrangement on
Sharpsburg and crossing the Antietam on
September 16 by Hooker’s vanguard .
• Hooker’s some divisions fought alone.
• “McClellan finally ordered Sumner’s II corps to
cross the creek and assault the Confederate
position in what became known as the West
• Lot of fights and killing of many soldiers.
The Beginning of the End p1
• Badly hurt of Northern Virginia Army but was
not destroyed the way Lincoln wanted, many
of their soldiers and commanders killed or
• Lee unable to think about his preferred
strategy at least for another eight month
• Great Hazard on the Confederate.
• Lee informed Jefferson Davis on September
25, “did the army exhibit its former temper
and condition,” but “ the hazard would be
great and a reverse disastrous. I am,
therefore, led to pause.”
• “The battle and the confederate retreat did
great things for morale in the Army of
Potomac- even though some soldiers
wondered why McClellan had not renewed
the attack before the crippled rebels could
• General John Gibbon wrote “ their retreat
shows how complete our victory was.”
The Beginning of the End p2
• Improving the military situation and Urging a proclamation of emancipation by Lincoln
• Five days after Antietam Lincoln called a special meeting for postpone issuance of an
emancipation. “ I think the time has come now” Lincoln said
• changing the character of the war
• “Symbolic power of the proclamation changed the war from one to restore Union into one to
destroy the old Union and build a new one purged of human bondage”
• Big influences of Antietam and Emancipation Proclamation on America and Europe