The Civil War


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The Civil War

  1. 1. Mid-term The (North) American Civil War Crossroads of Freedom Text Book by Professor McPherson Arash Saysan
  2. 2. The Pendulum of war 1861-1862 p1 •  American civil war, the eleven states of the confederacy’s government in Richmond were in control of 750,000 square miles national region. •  War began with Confederate possession of Fort Sumter. •  The south needed only protect. •  Abraham Lincoln’s wish to have the United States as a whole nation. •  To get to “Union of all the states” Union had to invade Confederacy which it was very difficult and appeared to be impossible. •  Union arms did win some battles and lost some in 1861. •  “Christmas 1861 U.S. government released Mason and Slidell” •  Let down and shame feeling and also financial panic in the North. •  General George B. McClellan takes command of the Army of the Potomac after the defeat at Bull Run, •  “The Young Napoleon” George B. McClellan he was talented, energetic and only 34 years old. •  “The caution and defensive mindedness that McClellan infused into the Army of the Potomac persisted for almost three years”
  3. 3. The Pendulum of war 1861-1862 p2 •  One February 25 in Alabama, Union military got the control of one of the the richest agricultural and iron producing regions of the Confederacy. •  Big effects and influences of the New York Times in both North and South. •  “The fall of Fort Macon in North Carolina and Fort Pulaski downriver from Savannah in April depressed Southern morale further. But all of these losses paled in comparison with the surrender at the end of April of New Orleans, the Confederacy’s principal port and largest city.”
  4. 4. Taking off the kid Gloves June –July 1862 p1 •  First success of the Union military in 1862 in the Shenandoah Valley. •  The union commander General Nathaniel P. Banks, political man selected because of his military skills and also because of his political influences. •  Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson known as “Stonewall” on the other side. •  Jackson became most renowned and feared commander in the south. •  One of the Jackson’s main victories took place at W inchester on May 25 when Confederates drove Banks’s routed into Maryland. •  Jackson’s victories were huge for southerners and created lots of hope in their people. •  Thomas J. Jackson……………..Nathaniel P. Banks •  •  “Banks’s misfortune that he faced Confederate •  General Jackson”
  5. 5. Taking off the kid Gloves June-July 1862 p2 •  Wounding of Johnston and his replacement by Robert E. Lee. When confederate attacked on McClellan’s army five miles east of Richmond on May 31. •  One thing that Lee’s as a commander did of what he selected the army of Northern Virginia was to make stronger the earthwork defense ringing Richmond. •  McClellan faced 200,000 enemy troops ( the maximum number Lee would be able to bring against him was 90,000, the largest Confederate army ever assembled) and needed to be support and get stronger before he could take the offensive. •  Lee brought most of his army north of the Chickahominy River and also Jackson troops from the valley for an attack on the Union right on June 26. •  “Confederate success in the Shenandoah Valley and the Seven Days Battles reopened the question of foreign recognition of the Confederacy. Many in Britain and France regarded these battles as confirmation of their belief that the north could never subdue the South.” •  Cotton famine was beginning to hurt workers in Britain and France. •  Economic Facts one of the big reason that mad a big conviction grow in British and France. That the only way for starting import and reopen the factories was to end the war. And ending the war means the Confederate independence.
  6. 6. “The Federals Got a very Complete Smashing” August –September 1862 p1 •  Good news for Union of Western Theaters to offset bad news in Virginia during July and August. •  “Union forces in Tennessee and Northern Mississippi experienced even greater embarrassment.” •  Lots of damages to the Union which caused by more than Psychological. “Our Cavalry is paving the way for me in middle Tennessee and Kentucky,” wrote General Braxton Bragg in late July. •  “Bragg’s army advanced into middle Tennessee, forcing Buell to break off his own campaign against Chattanooga and rush northward to defend Nashville.” •  More focus on Virginia and Maryland by Eastern States.
  7. 7. “The Federals Got a very Complete Smashing” August –September 1862 p2 •  Malaria, dysentery, typhoid during sickly season on the Virginia Peninsula subtracted more men from the Army of the Potomac. •  McClellan asked the government, send me reinforcements. •  Pope’s and McClellan Army clashing with Lee and Jackson on the other side in mid August. •  “Just before sunset on August 28 one of Pope’s divisions found Jackson.” •  These were dark, dismal days in the North- perhaps the darkest of many such days during the war. •  Lee’s Victory at Manassas and the invasion of maryland.
  8. 8. Showdown at Sharpsburg p1 •  “Walter Taylor declared on September 7 that “ now is the time for Maryland or never. After this if she does not rise, hush up “My Maryland.” A South Carolina soldier had “no dout that we will get 50000in this state. •  “Richmond newspaper proclaimed That “the our of Maryland’s deliverance, long deferred, has come at last. The “pride, the self-respect, and the sympathies of Maryland link her with the cause of the south …” •  Reports of that many of the Maryland men were joining Lee’s army, which it was not right. •  “The stress, exhaustion, and illness produced by campaigns were the were the principal causes of straggling.” •  Farmers move to north of the Susquenhanna River, News papers reports of “the greatest excitement” in Harrisburg and Philadelphia. Calling out 50,000 militia, “all the church and court-house bells rang for the people to assemble for drill.” treasury funds shipping to new York.
  9. 9. Showdown at Sharpsburg p2 •  Lot of events on September 14 •  confederate was in terrible on September 14-15 night, Southern losses that day was almost a quarter of all troops. •  “Excellent spirits” on McClellan Soldiers and their victory at South Mountain. •  On the 16th McClellan sent his most forceful corps commander, “Fighting Joe” Hooker, across the Antietam northeast of Sharpsburg. •  McClellan plans and troops arrangement on Sharpsburg and crossing the Antietam on September 16 by Hooker’s vanguard . •  Hooker’s some divisions fought alone. •  “McClellan finally ordered Sumner’s II corps to cross the creek and assault the Confederate position in what became known as the West Woods.” •  Lot of fights and killing of many soldiers.
  10. 10. The Beginning of the End p1 •  Badly hurt of Northern Virginia Army but was not destroyed the way Lincoln wanted, many of their soldiers and commanders killed or wounded. •  Lee unable to think about his preferred strategy at least for another eight month •  Great Hazard on the Confederate. •  Lee informed Jefferson Davis on September 25, “did the army exhibit its former temper and condition,” but “ the hazard would be great and a reverse disastrous. I am, therefore, led to pause.” •  “The battle and the confederate retreat did great things for morale in the Army of Potomac- even though some soldiers wondered why McClellan had not renewed the attack before the crippled rebels could escape.” •  General John Gibbon wrote “ their retreat shows how complete our victory was.”
  11. 11. The Beginning of the End p2 •  Improving the military situation and Urging a proclamation of emancipation by Lincoln •  Five days after Antietam Lincoln called a special meeting for postpone issuance of an emancipation. “ I think the time has come now” Lincoln said •  changing the character of the war •  “Symbolic power of the proclamation changed the war from one to restore Union into one to destroy the old Union and build a new one purged of human bondage” •  Big influences of Antietam and Emancipation Proclamation on America and Europe