• Like


Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.



Published in Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Evidence
  • 2. What is Evidence?
    • A term commonly used to describe the supporting material in persuasion.
    • 3. Gives an objective foundation to your arguments, and makes them more than a mere collection of personal opinions or prejudices.
    • 4. Evidence needs to be carefully chosen to serve the needs of the claim and to reach the target audience
    • 5. Evidence plays an important role in many academic disciplines, including science and law, adding to the discourse surrounding it.
    • 6. All good arguments must be supported by a strong foundation of evidence.
    • 7. The amount of evidence you need depends on the degree of controversy of the claim you are trying to support and your credibility as an advocate.
  • Determining the amount of evidence needed for 3 types of audiences:
    1. Friendly Audience
    • they already support the advocates position
    very little evidence is needed as support.
    2. Neutral Audience
    • are waiting to see what type of support can be
    provided in order to move them over to one side or the
    other. The quality of evidence used is important.
    3. Hostile Audience
    • Opposed to the advocate’s point of view. A great
    deal of high-quality evidence is needed .
  • 8. 5 Types of Evidence:
    Precedent Evidence
    Statistical Evidence
    Testimonial Evidence
    Hearsay Evidence
    Common Knowledge Evidence
  • 9. Types of Evidence cont…
    Precedent Evidence : is an act or event which establishes expectations for future conduct.
    2 Forms:Legal & Personal
    • Legal- is one of the most powerful and most difficult types of evidence to challenge. Courts establish legal precedent.
    • 10. Personal- Occurs as a result of watching the personal actions of others in order to understand the expectations for future behaviors.
    Statistical Evidence: Consists primary of polls, surveys, and experimental results from the laboratory.
    Testimonial Evidence: is used for the purpose of assigning motives, assessing responsibilities, and verifying actions for past, present and future events.
    3 Forms: Eyewitness, Expert-witness, & Historiography
    Hearsay Evidence : can be defined as an assertion or set of assertions widely repeated from person to person, though its accuracy is unconfirmed by first hand observation.
    Common Knowledge Evidence: this type of evidence is most useful in providing support for arguments which lack real controversy.
  • 11. Credibility of Evidence:
    On order to tell us one how you know something, you need to tell them where the information came from.
    4 ways credibility of the evidence can be enhanced by:
    1) Specific Reference to Source: Does the advocate tell you enough about the source that you could easily find?
  • 12. Credibility of Evidence cont…
    2)Qualifications of the Source: does the advocate give you
    reason to believe that the source is competent
    and well informed in the area in question?
    3)Bias of the Source: even if expert, is the source likely to be biased on the topic?
    4) Factual Support: does the source offer factual support for the position taken or simply state personal opinions as fact?
  • 13. 2 Ways of Using Evidence:
    1) Establish Conclusive Proof for your Position: using
    evidence in such a way that the law will not permit
    it to be contradicted, or that it is strong and
    convincing enough to override objections to it.
    2) Establish Circumstantial Proof for your Position:
    This is where the various types of evidence are used to form a link strong
    enough to prove a point. Using the different types of evidence as support gives
    the argument the strength needed to establish the accuracy of the argument.
  • 14. 5 Tests of Evidence:
    • 1)Recency:Is the evidence too old to be current relevance to the issue?
    • 15. 2) Sufficiency: Is their enough evidence to justify all of the claims being made from it.
    • 16. 3) Logical Relevance: Does the claim made in the evidence provide a premise which logically justifies the conclusion offered?
    • 17. 4) Internal Consistency: Does this source make claims that are contradicted by other claims from the same source.
    • 18. 5) External Consistency: Are the claims made by this source consistent with general knowledge and other evidence?
  • Conclusion:
    Evidence is the building block of an argument.
    Evidencedetermines the accuracy of an argument.
    Evidenceis more available to us, from more sources, in a variety of formats than ever before.
    Works Cited: Marteney, Jim. Sterk Jack, Communicating Critical Thinking. Copy write 2007.