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Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
Evidence
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Evidence

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  • 1. A term commonly used to describe the supporting material in persuasion. Gives an objective foundation to your arguments, and makes them more than a mere collection of personal opinions or prejudices. Evidence needs to be carefully chosen to serve the needs of the claim and to reach the target audience Evidence plays an important role in many academic disciplines, including science and law, adding to the discourse surrounding it. All good arguments must be supported by a strong foundation of evidence.  The amount of evidence you need depends on the degree of controversy of the claim you are trying to support and your credibility as an advocate.
  • 2.  1. Friendly Audience  they already support the advocates position very little evidence is needed as support.  2. Neutral Audience  are waiting to see what type of support can be provided in order to move them over to one side or the other. The quality of evidence used is important.  3. Hostile Audience  Opposed to the advocate’s point of view. A great deal of high-quality evidence is needed .
  • 3.  Precedent Evidence  Statistical Evidence  Testimonial Evidence  Hearsay Evidence  Common Knowledge Evidence
  • 4.  Precedent Evidence : is an act or event which establishes expectations for future conduct. 2 Forms: Legal & Personal o Legal- is one of the most powerful and most difficult types of evidence to challenge. Courts establish legal precedent. o Personal- Occurs as a result of watching the personal actions of others in order to understand the expectations for future behaviors.  Statistical Evidence: Consists primary of polls, surveys, and experimental results from the laboratory.  Testimonial Evidence: is used for the purpose of assigning motives, assessing responsibilities, and verifying actions for past, present and future events. 3 Forms: Eyewitness, Expert-witness, & Historiography  Hearsay Evidence : can be defined as an assertion or set of assertions widely repeated from person to person, though its accuracy is unconfirmed by first hand observation.  Common Knowledge Evidence: this type of evidence is most useful in providing support for arguments which lack real controversy.
  • 5.  On order to tell us one how you know something, you need to tell them where the information came from.  4 ways credibility of the evidence can be enhanced by: 1) Specific Reference to Source : Does the advocate tell you enough about the source that you could easily find?
  • 6. 2) Qualifications of the Source: does the advocate give you reason to believe that the source is competent and well informed in the area in question? 3) Bias of the Source: even if expert, is the source likely to be biased on the topic? 4) Factual Support: does the source offer factual support for the position taken or simply state personal opinions as fact?
  • 7.  1) Establish Conclusive Proof for your Position: using evidence in such a way that the law will not permit it to be contradicted, or that it is strong and convincing enough to override objections to it.  2) Establish Circumstantial Proof for your Position: This is where the various types of evidence are used to form a link strong enough to prove a point. Using the different types of evidence as support gives the argument the strength needed to establish the accuracy of the argument.
  • 8. 5 Tests of Evidence: 1) Recency: Is the evidence too old to be current relevance to the issue? 2) Sufficiency: Is their enough evidence to justify all of the claims being made from it. 3) Logical Relevance: Does the claim made in the evidence provide a premise which logically justifies the conclusion offered? 4) Internal Consistency: Does this source make claims that are contradicted by other claims from the same source. 5) External Consistency: Are the claims made by this source consistent with general knowledge and other evidence?
  • 9. Evidence is the building block of an argument. Evidence determines the accuracy of an argument. Evidence is more available to us, from more sources, in a variety of formats than ever before. Works Cited: Marteney, Jim. Sterk Jack, Communicating Critical Thinking. Copy write 2007.

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