Bp oil spill


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On 20 April 2010, the semi-submersible exploratory offshore drilling rig Deepwater Horizon exploded after a blowout; it sank two days later, killing 11 people. This blowout in the Macondo Prospect field in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a partially capped oil well one mile below the surface of the water. Experts estimate the gusher to be flowing at 35,000 to 60,000 barrels per day (5,600 to 9,500 m3/d) of oil.

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Bp oil spill

  1. 1. BP OIL SPIL The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the BP oil disaster or the Macondo blowout)[ is an oil spill in gulf of mexico. It is the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. The spill stemmed from a sea-floor oil gusher that resulted from the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. The explosion killed 11 platform workers and injured 17 others.On July 15, the leak was stopped by capping the gushing wellhead after releasing about 4.9 million barrels (780×103 m3) of crude oil.
  2. 2. DEEPWATER HORIZON DRILLINGRIG  The Deepwater Horizon was a 9-year-old semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling unit a massive floating, dynamically positioned drilling rig that could operate in waters up to 8,000 feet (2,400 m) deep and drill down to 30,000 feet (9,100 m).  It was owned by Transocean, operated under the Marshallese flag of convenience and was under lease to BP from March 2008 to September 2013.  At the time of the explosion, it was drilling an exploratory well at a water depth of approximately 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in the Macondo Prospect, located in the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 of the Gulf of Mexico in US.
  3. 3. DEEPWATER HORIZON EXPLOSIONDuring March and earlyApril, several platform workers andsupervisors expressed concernswith well control. At approximately 9:45 pm onApril 20, 2010, methane gas fromthe well, under high pressure, shotall the way up and out of the drillcolumn, expanded onto theplatform, and exploded. Eleven workers were never founddespite a three-day Coast Guardsearch operation, and are presumedto have died in the explosion.Efforts by ships failed &deepwaterhorizon sank on April 22,2010.
  4. 4. VOLUME AND EXTENT OF OIL SPILLAn oil leak was discovered onthe afternoon of April 22 when alarge oil slick began to spread atthe former rig site. According to the Flow RateTechnical Group the leakamounted to about 4.9 millionbarrels (205.8 million gallons)of oil exceeding the 1989 ExxonValdez oil spill as the largestever to originate in U.S.-controlled waters and the 1979Ixtoc I oil spill as the largest spillin the Gulf of Mexico.
  5. 5. SPILL AREA AND THICKNESSThe oils spread was initially increasedby strong southerly winds caused by animpending cold front.By April 25, the oil spill covered580 square miles (1,500 km2) and wasonly 31 miles (50 km) from theecologically sensitive ChandeleurIslands.An April 30 the spill quicklyapproached the Delta National WildlifeRefuge and Breton National WildlifeRefuge.On May 19 both the National Oceanicand Atmospheric Administration andother scientists monitoring the spillwith the European Space AgencyEnvisat radar satellite stated that oil hadreached the Loop Current.
  6. 6. OIL SIGHTINGS & UNDERWATER PLUMEOil began washing up on the beaches ofGulf Islands National Seashore on June 1.By June 4, the oil spill had landed on125 miles (201 km) of Louisianas coast, hadwashed up along Mississipi and Alabamabarrier islands. On June 9, oil sludge began entering theIntracoastal Waterway through Perdido Pass.On June 23, oil appeared on PensacolaBeach . On June 27, tar balls reached GulfPark . the first appearance of oil inMississippi. Early in July, tar balls reached Grand Islebut 800 volunteers were cleaning them up.On August 19, scientists reportedconclusive evidence of a deep plume 22 miles(35 km) long.
  7. 7. Well integrity was notestablishedHydrocarbons entered the wellundetected and the well lostcontrol.Hydrocarbons ignited onDeepwater HorizonBlowout preventer did not sealthe well.
  8. 8. The British Petroleum followedfour strategies to plug the leakBLOW OUT PREVENTERCONTAINMENT DOMETOP KILL PROCEDURESTATIC KILL PROCEDURE
  9. 9.  The exact cause was gas-kick andblowout resulting in an uncontrolledupward surge of oil and gas flow to thesurface. The blowout preventer (BOP) issupposed to stop this happening. The BOP, the size of a five-storeybuilding, consists of a series of high-pressure valves, designed to preventsuch a surge or kick from damaging thedrilling operation.In this particular BOP, built by USfirm to specifications byTransocean, there are five ram-type &annular preventer valves.
  10. 10. WHY DID BOP FAIL ? The gas kick was so catastrophic itpushed fragments of cement debristhrough the BOP so fast that it wasdamaged and could not activate.The other possibility is that the BOPwas faulty in the first place. The leak had been spotted in one ofthe BOPs control pods.The last line of defence in a BOP isusually the blind shear ram. Thisdevice, activated hydraulically, usespiston-driven blades to cut the pipe, thusstopping the flow & it did not work. possibility is that the hydraulicmechanism of the blind shear ram failed.
  11. 11. CONTAINMENT DOMEThe second technique, placinga 125-tonne (280,000 lb)containment dome (which hadworked on leaks in shallowwater) over the largest leak site.Piping the oil to a storage vesselon the surface.The above procedure failedwhen gas leaking from the pipecombined with cold waterformed methane hydrate crystalsthat blocked the opening at thetop of the dome
  12. 12. TOP KILL PROCEDUREIn the procedure, special drillingfluid known as mud is pumped intothe well, forcing the oil back down.The aim was to pump mud from aship into the blowout preventer.Drilling the mud pumped fromthe surface.Goes into blow out preventerIf the pressure and densitysufficient,oil and gas flow stops.Well then filled with cement.The above procedure failed as themud in blowout preventer was notable to withstand the pressure ofoil.
  13. 13. STATIC KILL PROCEDUREThis procedure was last attempt to plug the leak.To lower a cap over the blowout preventer to capture the leakingoil and funnel it to a surface vessel.The riser pipe is cut and Lower Marine Package(LMRP) is loweredon to the surface of Blowout preventer.T he LMRP was removed and replaced with a tightly fitting stackWith the sealing cap fitted the valves or rams was turned offand flow of oil was stopped,test conducted to ascertain the leak wassuccessful.Transocean Driller II relief well on May 2 and GSF DevelopmentDriller II started drilling a second relief on May 16.Next procedure drilling mud through the blowout preventer intothe well & reservoir known as ‘’Static kill’’.Process continued with pumping cement into the well throughBOP by the relief wall positioned on sea bed.The oil gusher was sealed and BP declared as success.
  14. 14. PROTECTING THE COASTLINE AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTSThe three fundamental strategies foraddressing spilled oil were ;To contain it on the surface, away from themost sensitive areas. o dilute and disperse it in less sensitiveareas.to remove it from the water.
  15. 15. STRATEGIES TO REMOVE THE OILContainment boomSkimmingDispersalIn-situ burningBranch structureElla G
  16. 16. Boom is a floating barrier made up oftubular links to contain, deflect or holdback oil floating on water .The response included deployingmany miles of containmentboom, whose purpose is to either corralthe oil, or to block it from amarsh, mangrove, shrimp/crab/oysterranch or other sensitive area.Booms extend 18–48 inches (0.46–1.2m) above and below the water surface.More than 100,000 feet (30 km) ofcontainment booms were initiallydeployed to protect the coast and theMississippi River Delta. By the next day, that nearly doubledto 180,000 feet (55 km).
  17. 17. Skimming is one of many processes beingused by BP to limit the impact of the oilleaking in the Gulf of Mexico. The skimmer uses a floating boomsystem to sweep oil across the watersurface, concentrating the oil to make theskimming process more effective andefficient. Skimmers use a variety of methods tomechanically separate oil from water. Theseinclude the use of belts, rotating discs andropes. The recovered oil is stored and later willbe processed into fuel. Skimmers are highly effective in calmwaters, but less efficient in windyconditions or choppy waters.
  18. 18. Chemical dispersantsaccelerate the dispersalprocess, although they mayhave significant side-effects.Corexit EC9500A and CorexitEC9527A have been theprinciple dispersantsemployed.The dispersants are usuallysprayed from airplanes.Dispersants helps inreducing the oil slick on thetop surface of water.
  19. 19. In this method, oil that hasbeen corralled in a u-shapedfireproof boom is safely andcarefully set on fire.This technique is applied onlywhen the oil film thickness isadequate to sustain combustionand when the weather and waterconditions are good. In-situ burning can be usedonly with appropriate agencyagreement on a case-by-casebasis when its use is safe, andfeasible for the spill’slocation, time, and prevailing
  20. 20. As part of continued enhancementof the response, plans areprogressing to further leverage thesuccess of the branch structure inplace in Louisiana, which allows theresponse to be managed moreeffectively from the front lines.Each branch has a clear purpose—to defend the shoreline, safely andquickly carry out any clean-upactivities. To provide the focal point forintegration with the localcommunity—in effect, developingand executing an integratedresponse plan.
  21. 21. The Ella G is a supply vessel thathas been reconfigured with thelatest skimmer and centrifugetechnology into a flexible oil spillresponse platform.Combining innovation withcutting-edge technology, it is thefirst step toward a new generation ofoil spill response. The Ella Gs four centrifugedevices provide the potential toclean up to 800,000 gallons of oilywater a day and her deck capacity is273,000 gallons. The Ella G is 280 feet in lengthwith a beam of 64 feet and canoperate in deep water and roughseas
  22. 22. ECOLOGYThe spill threatens environmentaldisaster due to factors such as petroleumtoxicity, oxygen depletion .Eight U.S. national parks are threatened. More than 400 species that live in theGulf islands and marshlands wereaffected, including the endangeredKemps Ridley turtle, the Green Turtle, theLoggerhead Turtle, the HawksbillTurtle, and the Leatherback Turtle. In the national refuges most atrisk, about 34,000 birds have beencounted, including gulls, pelicans, roseatespoonbills, egrets, terns, and blue herons.A comprehensive 2009 inventory ofoffshore Gulf species counted 15,700.
  23. 23. On May 2 the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration closedcommercial and recreational fishing inaffected federal waters between themouth of the Mississippi River andPensacola Bay. The closure initially incorporated6,814 square miles (17,650 km2).[By June 21NOAA had increased the area underclosure by (225,290 km2), orapproximately 36% of Federal waters inthe Gulf of Mexico, and extending alongthe coast from Atchafalaya Bay, Louisianato Florida. On May 24 the federal governmentdeclared a fisheries disaster for the statesof Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana.Initial cost estimates loss to the fishingindustry were $2.5 billion
  24. 24.  On May 25 BP gave Florida $25 million to promoteits beaches, which the oil had not reached, and thecompany planned $15 million each forAlabama, Louisiana and Mississippi.The Bay Area Tourist hotels have cut rates andoffered deals such as free golf.Also, cancellation policies have changed, andrefunds have been promised to those where oilarrives. Revenues remain below 2009 levels due to thespecial deals. By June many people were cancelling vacationswhile they could do so, fearing the arrival of oil onthe beaches. U.S. Travel Association estimated that theeconomic impact of the oil spill on tourism acrossthe Gulf Coast over a three-year period could exceedapproximately $23 billion, in a region that supportsover 400,000 travel industry jobs generating $34billion in revenue annually
  25. 25. On June 15, Executive Director forLouisiana Environmental Action Network(LEAN) said on MSNBCs that peoplealong the Gulf Coast were getting verysick, with symptoms ofdizziness, vomiting, nausea, headaches, and chest pains, not only from the firstresponders to the crisis, but residentsliving along the coast as well. By June 21, 143 oil spill exposure-relatedcases had been reported to the LouisianaDepartment of Health and Hospitals(DHH). since the crisis began; 108 of those casesinvolved workers in the oil spill clean-upefforts, while thirty-five were reported bythe general public
  26. 26. US declared BP OIL SPIL as A Spill ofNational Significance (SONS) is definedas, "a spill that, due to itsseverity, size, location, actual or potentialimpact on the public health and welfare orthe environment, or the necessaryresponse effort, is so complex that itrequires extraordinary coordination offederal, state, local, and responsible partyresources to contain and clean up thedischarge" and allows greater federalinvolvement.Established a website to track and providethe public with information on the Gulf spill.Implemented procedures to track responseresources requested and deployed to the Gulf.
  27. 27. Implemented procedures to trackresponse resources requested anddeployed to the Gulf.Applied methodology to analyze andmitigate the impacts on local readinessand back fill equipment and personnel.Participated in the EmergencyManagement and Assistance Compactrequest for resources from state to state. US Congress committee has agreedmeasures that would ban BP from newoffshore drilling for seven years.BP has agreed to pay thecompensation amounting to$20Billion.
  28. 28. MOBILIZATION AND DEPLOYMENT26,516 people2,626 vessels835 skimmers65 aircrafts1,781,253 feet of cumulative boom deployedContainment827,025 barrels of oily liquid skimmed265,450 barrels in controlled surface burnsClaims and PaymentsOver $8 billion spent to date154,000 payments made$399 million paid to claimants$20 billion claims escrow fund$100 million unemployed rig workers fund$500 million establishing Gulf Coast ResearchInitiative
  29. 29. BP have taken a pre-taxcharge of $32.2 billion and haveplans to sell up to $30 billion ofassets, creating a smaller, buthigher quality, upstreambusiness. BP is now focused onefficiency, quality andintegration in thedownstream, whilemaintaining a disciplinedapproach to alternative energy.