Ancient koranic Manuscripts of Sana’a and Divine Downfall
Muslims often lie and claim that both Old Testament and New Testament are
corrupted and seriously changed. They say, for a Holy Scripture to be
authoritative, it has to be preserved without any changes at all, and point to
their Qur’an, which claims to have been revealed word by word and letter by
letter to Muhammad by Allah. Qur’an claims, ‘no change there can be in the words
of God’ (10:64) and, ‘there is none that can alter the words (and decrees) of
But then how ridiculous the ‘doctrine of abrogation’ is, by which later
revelations cancel previous ones, as Qur’an (2:106) confirms, ‘revelations… We
abrogate or cause to be forgotten’. Also, a Hadith (6:558) from Sahih Bukhari
confirmed that Muhammad forgot many verses. Again Sunaan ibn Majah, (3: 1944)
recorded that after Muhammad’s death some revelations were eaten by a goat. How
divine words can be eaten, changed, cancelled or abolished, in spite of Allah’s
specific claim in 10:64 and 6:34?
Are not all these claims of Allah self-contradictory? But amazingly; these plain
truths do not bother the Muslims at all. Probably, if we can present another
“authentic” Qur’an which is different from existing standard form, Muslims will
give way to logical thinking.
The devastating truth is that a large number of ancient Qur’anic manuscripts,
dating from first century of Hijra were discovered in the Great Mosque of Sana’a
(Yemen) which significantly differs from the present standard one. Carbon dating
system confirmed that these Qur’ans are not forged one by religious rivalries.
Moreover these Qur’ans were discovered by Muslims, not infidels.
Probably this is the most embarrassing event in Islamic history of 14 centuries.
The Great Mosque of Sana’a is one of the oldest Mosques in Islamic history. The
date of building goes back to 6th year of Hijrah when Muhammad entrusted one of
his companions to build a Mosque at Yemen, which was extended and enlarged by
Islamic rulers from time to time.
In 1972, during the restoration of this Great Mosque (heavy rain had caused the
west wall of the Mosque to collapse), laborers working in a crown space between
the structure’s inner and outer roofs, stumbled across a amazing grave site,
which they did not realize at that time because of ignorance. Mosques do not
accommodate graves, and this site contained no gravestone, no human remains and
no funeral relics. It contained nothing more, in fact, apparently looking an
unappealing mountain of old parchment and paper documents, damaged books and
individual pages of Arabic text, fused together by rain and dampness for over a
The ignorant laborers gathered up the manuscripts, pressed them carelessly into
some 20 potato sacks, and set them aside on the staircase of one of the Mosque’s
minarets, where they were locked away. The manuscripts would have been forgotten
once again, were it not for Qadhi Isma’il al-Akwa, then the President of Yemeni
Antiquities Authority, who realized the potential importance of the find.
Al-Akwa sought international assistance in examining and preserving the
fragments, because no scholar in his country was capable of working on this rich
find. In 1997, he managed to interest a visiting non-Muslim German scholar, who
in turn persuaded the German government to organize and find a restoration project.
Soon after the project began, it became clear that the “paper grave” is a
resting place for, among other things, tens of thousands of fragments from close
to a thousand different codices of the Qur’an, the Muslim holy scripture. Muslim
authorities during early days cherished the belief that worn out and damaged
copies of the Qur’an must be removed from circulation leaving only the
unblemished editions of the scripture for use. Also such a safe place was
required to protect the books from looting or destruction if invaders come and
hence the idea of a grave in the Great Mosque in Sana’a, which was a place of
learning and dissemination of the Qur’an and was in existence from the first
century of the Hijrah.
Restoration of the manuscript has been organized and supervised by Gerd R. Puin
of Saarland University, Germany. Puin is a renowned specialist on Arabic
calligraphy (the study of fine and artistic handwriting) and Qur’anic
paleography (the study of ancient writing and documents). For ten years he
extensively examined those precious parchment fragments. In 1985, his colleague
H. C. Graf V. Bothmer joined him.
Carbon-14 tests date some of the parchments to 645-690 AD. Their real age may be
somewhat younger, since C-14 estimates the year of the death of an organism
(parchment is animal skin), and the process from that to the final writing on
the parchment involves an unknown amount of time. Calligraphic dating has
pointed to 710-715 AD. Some of the parchment pages seemed to date back to the
seventh and eighth centuries, or Islam’s first two centuries, perhaps the oldest
Qur’an in existence.
In 1984, the House of Manuscripts (Dar al Makhtutat) was founded close to the
Great Mosque, as part of a cooperation project between Yemeni and German
authorities. An enormous endeavor began to restore the Qur’anic fragments.
Between 1983 and 1996, approximately 15,000 out of 40,000 pages were restored,
specifically 12,000 fragments on parchment and manuscripts dating back to the
seventh and eighth centuries.
Until now, only three ancient copies of the Qu’ran are found. The one preserved
in the British Library in London, dates from the late seventh century and was
thought to be the oldest one. But the Sana’a manuscripts are even older.
Moreover, these manuscripts are written in a script that originates from the
Hijaz - the region of Arabia where prophet Muhammad lived, which makes them not
only the oldest to have survived, but one of the earliest authentic copies of
the Qur’an ever. Hijazi Arabic is the script (Makkan or Madinan) in which the
earliest Qur'an was written. Although these pieces are from the earliest Qur'an
known to exist, they are also palimpsests (manuscripts on which the original
writing has been effected for re-use).
The rare style of fine and artistic handwriting had fascinated both Puin and his
friend Bothmer but more surprise was waiting for them. When these ancient
Qur’ans were compared with the present standard one, both of them were stunned.
The ancient texts were found to be devastatingly and disturbingly at odds with
the existing form. There are unconventional verse ordering, small but
significant textual variations, different orthography (spelling) and different
artistic embellishment (decoration).
It scattered the orthodox Muslim belief that the Qur’an as it has reached us
today is quite simply “the perfect, timeless, and unchanging Word of God”. It
means Qur’an has been distorted, perverted, revised, modified and corrected, and
textual alterations had taken place over the years purely by Human hands.
The sacred aura surrounding this Holy Scripture of Islam, which remained intact
for over 14 centuries is gone with this astonishing discovery and the core
belief of billion plus Muslims that the Qu’ran is the eternal, unaltered word of
God is now clearly visible as a great hoax, a totally downright falsehood. Not
only this; the Qur’anic claim that nobody can alter the words of God is also a
fake. Qur’an is supposed to be, if we borrow words from Guillaume (1978, p. 74),
“The holy of holies. It must never rest beneath other books, but always on top
of them, one must never drink or smoke when it is being read aloud, and it must
be listened to in silence. It is a talisman against disease and disaster”.
Muslims call the Qur’an ‘Mother of Books’ and believe no other book or
revelation can compare (Caner & Caner, 2002. p.84). However, it’s all gone now.
The end result of whole Islamic struggle for fourteen centuries is a big zero.
As if it is not enough, many manuscripts showed the sign of palimpsests, i.e.,
versions very clearly written over even earlier washed off versions. The
under-writing of palimpsest is, of course, often difficult to read visually, but
modern tools such as ultraviolet photography can highlight them. It suggests
that the Sana’a manuscripts are not the only variants, but, even before that,
Qur’anic text had been modified and re-written on the same paper. It means,
Allah’s claim (Q 56: 77-78; 85:21-22) that original text is preserved in heaven
on golden tablets, which none can touch except angels is also a fairy-tale.
Puin after extensively studying these manuscripts came to the conclusion that
the text is actually an evolving text rather than simply the word of God as
revealed in its entirety to Muhammad (Warraq, 2002, p. 109). He is thrilled, “So
many Muslims have this belief that everything between the two covers of the
Qur’an is just God’s unaltered word. They like to quote the textual work that
shows that the Bible has a history and did not fall straight out of the sky, but
until now the Qur’an has been out of discussion. The only way to break through
this wall is to prove that the Qur’an has a history too. The Sana’a’s fragments
will help us to do this.”
Puin even concluded (cited Taher, 2000), “It is not one single work that has
survived unchanged through the centuries. It may include stories that were
written before the prophet Mohammed began his ministry and which have
subsequently been rewritten”.
During their research, as Puin (Lester, 1999) recalls, “They [Yemeni
authorities] wanted to keep this thing low profile, as we do too, although for
different reasons. They don’t want attention drawn to the fact that there are
Germans and others working on the Qur’ans. They don’t want it made public that
there is work being done at all, since the Muslim position is that everything
that needs to be said about the Qur’an’s history was said a thousand years ago.”
In fact, Puin and his colleague Bothmer knew for sometime during their study
that Qur’an is an evolving text but they wisely understood the possible
implications of their findings and kept quiet. If Yemeni authorities come to
know about this discovery, they may even refuse them further access. This is
actually what Puin called ‘different reasons’. So both sides kept quiet, and
those two scholars carried on their research unabated.
Puin’s findings also confirm Wansbrough’s assumption on Qur’anic text. During
the seventies Wansbrough concluded that Qur’an evolved only gradually in the
seventh and eighth centuries after a long period of oral transmissions and
different sects used to argue furiously with each other on the genuineness of
the revelations. The reason that no Islamic source material from the very
beginning of Islam never survived is because it never existed. In fact Puin
admitted ‘rereading Wansbrough’ during the course of analyzing the Yemeni
fragments (Warraq, 2002. p. 122).
Puin's other radical theory is that pre-Islamic sources have entered the Qur’an.
He argues that two tribes it mentions, As-Sahab-ar-Rass (Companions of the Well)
and the As- Sahab-al-Aiqa (Companions of the Thorny Bushes) are not part of the
Arab tradition, and the people of Muhammad's time certainly did not know about
them. He also disagrees that Qur’an was written in the purest Arabic. The very
word Qur’an itself is of foreign origin. Contrary to popular Muslim belief, the
meaning of "Qur’an" is not recitation. It is actually derived from an Aramaic
word, ‘Qariyun’, meaning a lectionary of scripture portions appointed to be read
at divine service. Qur’an contains most of the biblical stories but in a shorter
form and is "a summary of the Bible to be read in service".
Bothmer has painstakingly finished taking more than thirty-five thousand
microfilm pictures of the fragments by 1997 and brought the pictures back to
Germany (Warraq, 2002. p. 109). It means now Bothmer, Puin and other scholars
will finally have a chance to scrutinize the texts and to publish their findings
Puin is interested to write a book on this in the future, but already wrote
several short essays on their findings in various science magazines, where he
pointed out several aberrations between the ancient Qur’an and the present
standard one (cited Warraq, 2002. p. 739- 44). In refuting the sacredness of
Qur’an, Puin wrote, “My idea is that the Qur’an is a kind of cocktail of texts
that were not all understood even at the time of Muhammad. Many of them may even
be a hundred years older than Islam itself. The Qur’an claims for itself that it
is ‘mubeen’, or clear. But [contrary to popular belief] if you look at it, you
will notice that every fifth sentence or so simply does not make sense…the fact
is that a fifth of the Qur’anic text is just incomprehensible. If the Qur’an is
not comprehensible, if it can’t even be understood in Arabic, then it’s not
translatable into any language. That is why Muslims are afraid. Since the Qur’an
claims repeatedly to be clear but is not—there is an obvious and serious
contradiction. Something else must be going on”.
The extraordinary discovery of Puin had fascinated Andrew Rippin, a Professor of
religious studies and a leading expert on Qur’anic studies. Rippin (cited
Warraq, 2002. p.110) concluded, “The impact of the Yemeni manuscripts is still
to be felt. Their variant readings and verse orders are all very significant.
Everybody agrees on that. These manuscripts say that the early history of
Qur’anic text is much more of an open question than many have suspected. The
text was less stable and therefore had less authority, than has always been
Rippin’s observation was superb. During the period of early Caliphs, Islam grew
as political movement and not as a religious movement. A book like Qur’an was
required to keep the Muslims in unity. Qur’an is just like a ‘status symbol’ of
Islam, without which Islam would have died during the time of Muhammad only.
Qur’an is purely manmade. Some sort of Divinity was attached to the Qur’an so
that it can command some respect because it could not stand on its own worth.
This way, in acknowledging the claims of the Qur’an as the direct utterance of
the Divinity, the early manipulators had blocked all the criticism, which can
otherwise expose it. Qur’an itself prohibits criticism in the verses 5:101 and
5:102. We do not know when religious blindness crept in, but undoubtedly, the
early Muslims after Muhammad were more liberal than the present generation we
are seeing today. The authenticity of many verses had been called into question
by the early Muslims themselves. Many Kharijites, who were followers of Ali in
the early history of Islam, found the Sura recounting the story of Joseph
offensive, an erotic tale that cannot belong to the Qur’an (cited Warraq, 1998.
Warraq (1998, p. 14) has the same view as Rippin, “Muslim scholars of the early
years of Islam were far more flexible in their position, realizing that parts of
the Qur’an was lost, perverted and that there were many thousand variants which
made it impossible to talk of ‘the’ Qur’an”.
There is another proof that Qur’anic messages were distorted in the early days
of Islam and nothing like ‘The’ Qur’an does exist any more. Inscriptions of
several Qur’anic verses are decorated on the Dome of Rock of Jerusalem, which is
most probably the first Islamic monument meant to be a major artistic
achievement, built in 691 CE (Whelan, 1998, pp 1-14). These inscriptions
significantly differ from the present standard text (Warraq, 2000, p. 34).
Mingana (cited Warraq, 1998. p.80) lamented, “The most important question in the
study of the Qur’an is its unchallengeable authority”. This is the only reason;
critical investigation of the text of the Qur’an is a study which is still in
its immaturity. As Rippin (1991, p. ix) lamented, “I have often encountered
individuals who come to the study of Islam with a background in the historical
study of the Hebrew Bible or early Christianity, and who express surprise at the
lack of critical thought that appears in introductory textbooks of Islam. The
notion that ‘Islam is born in the clear light of history’ still seems to be
assumed by a great many writers of such texts.’”
Cook and Crone (1977, p. 18) concluded, “[The Qur’an] strikingly lacking in
overall structure, frequently obscure and inconsequential in both language and
content perfunctory in its liking of disparate materials and given to the
repetition of whole passages in variant versions. On this basis, it can be
argued that the book is the product of a belated and imperfect editing of
materials from a plurality of traditions.” Crone (cited Warraq, 1998, p. 33)
elsewhere wrote, “The Qur’an has generated masses of spurious information”.
But in case of Bible, it is different, as Rodhinson (1980, p. viii) observed,
“[For Bible] the scientific attitude begins with the decision to accept
something as fact only if the source has been proved reliable”. Muslims wrongly
interpret the honesty Christians display about some variant readings of the
Bible as weakness (Ali & Spencer; 2003. p. 76-9). Christians, like Hindus, want
to see their Holy book through scientific and historical point of view. When old
Biblical manuscripts, parchments or ancient Hindu manuscripts are discovered,
Christian and Hindu scholars almost climb over each other’s shoulder to gain an
early access to them. Such findings cause great excitement to them. But sadly,
no such excitement exists in Islam. Christians and Hindus are eager to see more
and more light shed on the earliest manuscripts of their scriptures, while
Muslims resist, often with strong determination. The contrast is really
striking. While both Hindu and Christian faiths are strongly backed up by
archeological and historical evidence; so far neither any archeological
exploration was allowed in Mecca and Medina, nor there is any prospect in the
future (Peters, 1986. p. 72-4).
Muslim criticism of Qur’an is very rare and almost nonexistent as Sina (2008, p.
6) lamented, “Muslims are genuinely incapable of questioning Islam”. Recently
the ex-Muslim websites are doing some remarkable work on this. Ultimately, these
enlightened people will successfully free their Muslim brothers and sisters from
the Islamic prison. Otherwise whatever criticism is done on Qur’an are all by
the Christian scholars. But Muslims should not take the Christian criticism as a
mark of religious opposition. Christian scholars have done much more criticism
of their own religion than Islam (Sproul & Saleeb, 2003. p. 17; Spencer, 2007,
But once the Sana’a findings are published in details, Islam will not be the
same as it was for fourteen centuries. Islam is definitely going to take a
strange position. Many Muslims will cast doubt on Qur’anic sacredness and the
very ‘romantic’ concept of the Qur’an will gradually disappear and then a very
interesting development can be observed. The first question which will appear in
their mind is - which version is superior. But then, it is not possible to
choose a Qur’an and discard the other by preference. Because the Muslim belief
also confirms that who denies a single verse of the Qur'an denies the entire
revelation. This is a logical impossibility and since scientific research had
already spoken out the truth; many Muslims will seek a way out of this nonsense
and will try to free themselves from the tyrannical oppression of living in a
While discussing Muslim’s apathy to science, reason and natural law, Jaki (cited
Spencer, 2002, p. 127) wrote, “What is occurring in the Muslim world today is a
confrontation, not between God and devil… but between a very specific God and
science which is a very specific antagonist of that God, the Allah of the
Qur’an, in whom the will wholly dominates the intellect”. The Sana’a discovery
will just add fuel to the fire. Today the Muslim world is beset with
frustration. Islam is supposed to be the final revelation and Muslims are
supposed to be the “ Best of Mankind”, but the reality is just opposite. Muslim
nations are poorest in the world (Ohmyrus, 2006, p. 128). A time will come when
the religious authorities will be asked by the common Muslims to refute the
critics by logic, science and reason, not by the brutal force or Fatwa. As
Parvez Manzoor wrote, “Sooner or later [we Muslims] will have to approach the
Qur’an from methodological assumptions and parameters that are radically at odds
with the ones consecrated by our tradition” (Warraq, 2002, p. 123)
But the Sana’a manuscripts will also provoke another question. If Qur’an is a
lie, how the lie survived for so many centuries? The reason is that the Divinity
attached to Qur’an is not ‘A Small Lie’, but ‘The Big Lie’. The big lies are
very powerful, and it always has a psychological effect on the listeners. The
bigger the lie, the more believable it is. Adolf Hitler wrote in Mein Kamph
(1925), “The broad mass of a Nation will fall victim to a big lie than to a
small one.” Big lies are extraordinarily convincible because it offsets the
scale of the listener’s commonsense, as Sina (2008, p. 179) explained, an
ordinary person does not dare to tell a big lie thinking that it would not be
believed and he would be ridiculed. Since there is no one who had never told a
lie in his life, small lies are often detectable sooner or later. But the big
lies are so strange that it often startle the listener. When the lie is
gigantic, the average person is left to wonder how anyone can have the courage,
the impudence to say such a thing.
Big lies always work wonder in politics. As George Orwell (cites Sina, 2008, p.
179) said, “Political language … is designed to make lies sound truthful and
murder respectable and give an appearance of solidity to pure wind”. Today when
the divinity of Qur’an is scattered by the Sana’a manuscripts, the spiritual
nature of Islam is also exposed. Islam is nothing but a pure Arab political
movement. The Divinity was attached to Qur’an, when Arabs started conquering the
surrounding nations and Islam was imposed on them by force. Arabs not only
imposed Islam on others but also imposed this irrational belief of Qur’anic
divinity to the minds of their victims, so that once Arabs are gone, the
conquered people cannot come out from this mental enslavement and return back to
their original faith. It is a rare political skill. Many companions of Muhammad
clearly knew that Qur’an was a fake, but they remained with their prophet to
share the booty and to enjoy the women. We all know, after Muhammad’s death,
several Arab tribes returned back to their original belief and idolatry flourished.
With much shock to the Muslims; modern study on Psychology had spoken out the
truth that Muhammad was an imposter, a madman who was suffering from
Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Narcissists are such self-absorbed persons
who are pathological liars. It means, either they are unaware of their lies or
feel completely justified and at easy in lying to others. Their mental condition
is such that they have that rare capability to believe their own lies (Vaknin,
1999, p. 24).
And, yes, Adolf Hitler, who knew of the power of Big lie and misguided millions
of Germans, is also recognized as a Narcissist. Today Hitler is the most hatred
historical figure in Germany. Like a mathematical certainty Muhammad will earn
the same fate. But we really do not know, how many million people will die
before we can put Muhammad in dustbin with his Allah, Qur’an and Islam
altogether. For Hitler it was National Socialism (another name of Nazism) and
for Muhammad it was Islam, but deep down, both were two sides of same coin – a
Sina (2008, p. iv, 260) commented, “Islam is like a house of cards, sustained by
lies. All it takes to demolish is to challenge one of those lies holding it
together. It is a tall building, erected on quicksand; once you expose its
foundation, the sand will wash away and this mighty edifice will fall under its
own weight” and again, “Islam stands on a very shaky ground. It rests on nothing
but lies. All we have to do to demolish it is to expose those lies and this
gigantic edifice of terror and deception will collapse.”
Let’s see, once the sacred aura of Qur’an is gone, what other lies are exposed.
First; if there are two or more versions of Qur’an, then there must be equal
number of Allahs. So if only two Qur’ans are authentic, is Islam any longer
monotheism? How to decide, which Allah gave which Qur’an? If there is only one
Allah, then which Qur’an is authentic?
Second; if we still believe that one Qur’an is authentic, then how Allah allowed
the others to survive?
Third; is it true anymore that Qur’an (10.64) says Allah’s words do not change -
this is indeed the mighty achievement? If yes, what more than one Quran is doing
now? If not, how this false revelation is recorded in Qur’an? Did Satan put it?
Final; Bukhari (4.52.233) recorded “Unbelievers will never understand our signs
and revelations.” But we see, for understanding the Sana’a Qur’an, the Yemeni
authorities invited German scholars because there was no one in Yemen capable of
working on this rich find.
No wonder Sina (2008) concluded, “No matter how you look at Islam it turns out
to be a foolish religion.”
Muslims have sold their soul to Muhammad, but can they logically clear the above
doubts? The Sana’a episode had put them in such an awkward position, that even
circular reasoning or absurd logic will not help. Is not it time for prudent
Muslims to give a second thought to their cherished faith? Instead of trying
hard to reason out the above doubts, is not it more sensible to agree that a
billion plus Muslims had been fooled by a vulgar imposter named Prophet
Muhammad? Is not it time for Muslims to care for what is true? As poet Thomas
Gray (cited Sagan, 1997, p. 12) wrote, “… where ignorance is bliss, “Tis [It is]
folly to be wise”.
To protect the Qur’an from more humiliation, Yemeni authorities already debarred
Puin and Bothmer from further examination of those manuscripts. In fact, now
they do not allow anyone to see those manuscripts anymore except some very
carefully selected non-Qur’anic parchments, which are at display at the ground
floor of Dar al-Makhtutat Library. But this is not going to help. The bird is
already out of the cage and it is useless closing the door now. More than
thirty-five thousand microfilms are out of Yemen before the authorities came to
know and already several duplicates are made. The present author is sure that at
this very moment, in some undisclosed location in Germany, a group of experts
are endlessly working on the microfilms and Puin is burning enough midnight oil
to complete his book, which, once published, will hammer another nail in the
coffin of Islam. Islam is in real danger now.
Obviously, by realizing the Divine downfall within sight, many Muslims are
disturbed and offended. The fundamentalists will not accept Puin's and Bothmer’s
work as having been done with academic objectivity, but see it as a deliberate
attack on the integrity of the Qu’ranic text (Taher, 2000). Naturally, those two
German scholars will be at forefront of their rage. Puin fears a violent
backlash from orthodox Muslims because of his "blasphemous" theory, which he
says, he cannot take lightly. By remembering the Salman Rushdie affair he wrote,
“My conclusions have sparked angry reactions from orthodox Muslims. They've said
I'm not really the scholar to make any remarks on these manuscripts”. If Puin's
views are taken up and trumpeted in the media, and if there are not many Muslims
being rational about it, then all hell may break loose. There will be some
hostile response and riots causing much death and destruction, may be another
fatwa from Khomeini and surely some hollow threats from our camera-loving Bin
Laden, and his ideological brothers. But can they stop the truth from spreading?
UNESCO has shown genuine interest in the Sana’a manuscripts ever since the
Memory of the World programme is started. In 1995, the Organization also
produced a CD-ROM in Arabic, English and French illustrating the history of the
collection containing both Qur’anic and non-Qur’ani material. The CD-ROM offers
651 images of 302 Qur’anic fragments, indexed by script, frames, etc, a general
introduction to the Yemenite manuscripts collections and a brief description on
the evolution of Arabic calligraphy (Abid, 1997).
Ursula Dreibholz, a preservation expert who worked on the Sana’a project for
eight years as the chief conservator is much frustrated by seeing the lack of
concern of Yemeni authorities to protect those manuscripts by using modern
technology (1983, pp. 30-8). Neither the security devices are correct, nor is
adequate attention being given to the manuscripts to avoid further deterioration
(1996, pp 131-45). In fact, Dreibholz (1999, pp 21-5) said that it was her
greatest concern to create a safe and reliable permanent storage system for the
restored fragments. Also, there is poor storage hardly any protection from
insects and water. Most importantly, the real problem is the lack of a fire
prevention or detection system, keeping in mind the truly catastrophic fires
that have destroyed important libraries and artworks around the world throughout
history. The Yemeni authorities said neither they have money nor means to
install such fire protection systems. She does not understand the genuine reason
behind the apathy of Yemeni authorities.
Here Muslim fundamentalists can see a silver lining in the cloud. No one knows
when a devastating fire will break out ‘accidentally’ and destroy all the
Qur’anic manuscripts, which are really causing such heartburn to them. After
all, for saving Islam, Qur’an must be saved for which Muslims will go any
length. If necessary they will burn the Qur’an to save it from logical analysis.
Their devotion to stupidity is really that high. Probably, Yemeni authority’s
unwillingness to install such fire protection systems is an initial preparation
for such an act in the future. Never underestimate the destructive capability of
the brainless bigots.