SAPA identified 13 skills; So SAPA is the primary source of reference particularly for research in SPS. Almost 23 SPS were identified by the above mentioned sources and among them 12 as BSPS and 11 as the ISPS
There are two reasons why only physical science chapter were selected rather than life science or earth science.firstly…..
Each selected chapter and activities of TP wereanalyzed by other two raters independently. who are experienced and having advanced understanding of science process skills, as well as knowledgeable about research on science process skills and teaching and learning.. If any disagreement, each rater must provide evidence-based arguments for their judgments which are used to resolve their ratings process with the researcher and other rater
To identify the process skills from the activity, this study follows the direction of the activity. This method of SPS identification from activities has been followed by other researchers(eg. Riris,2004; Exploratorium ,2006; Rezba,2007). Example of the process skill identification
The highest percentage of BSPS concentrate on observation, whilst the maximum percentage of ISPS focus on experimenting(G-10), interpreting data(G-11) and operational definitions (G-12)
The highest percentage of BSPS concentrate on observation, whilst the maximum percentage of ISPS focus on experimenting(G-10), interpreting data(G-11) and operational definitions (G-12)
Analysis of Elementary Science Teaching Package Activities in Bangladesh: A focus on Science Process Skills in Physical Science
Presenter : Md. Mazharul HaqueMain Supervisor : Assoc. Prof. SHIMIZU KinyaSub-supervisor : Prof. IKEDA Hideo& Prof. BABA Takuya
Objectives of the studyThe research aims :1.To identify the science process skills(SPS) in the TeachingPackage(TP) activities across elementary levels from gradethree to five.2. To describe the characteristics of SPS development inelementary Science TP activities.2
Findings for objective 1 Among the 13 SPS studied for this research, 12 were found in the TPactivities. There is no reflection of time-space relationship in physicalscience in any grade level. Observing, communicating, inferring and predicting are mostly involvedin the activity in all grade levels. Other basic science process skills(BSPS)and integrated science process skills (ISPS) were less emphasized.Findings for objective 2 There are no learning hierarchy of SPS reflected with in the TP activityof the elementary grade levels. There was a pattern of emphasizing theBSPS in the activities all grade levels while less emphasis were given inthe ISPS on the activities studied. ISPS were not increasingly promoted from the 3rd grade III to the 5 thgrades.3
BackgroundAlthough Bangladeshi primary curriculum is a competency based,JICA (2009),PSPMP(2001),UNICEF(2009) have identified manyproblems in the curriculum, text books and in the teachinglearning process.1.Too much memorization Primary science curriculum focuses extremely on memorizingterms and their meanings, but pays less attention toconceptual understanding, and scarcely to applying scientificknowledge(PSPMP,2001;JICA,2009) Traditional and dominant way of teaching tends to focus onmemorizing facts and teachers use a teacher centered approachwhile teaching (PSPMP,2001;UNICEF,2009;JICA,2009).4
Background(cont..)2.Less emphasis on process skillsPrimary curriculum, textbook and teaching –learning in Bangladesh isnot paying much attention to the science process skills which lay afoundation for further study of science(JICA,2009).3.Lack of activityLack of activities in the text book to develop student’s scientificthinking skills (JICA,2009)4.Gap between curriculum ,textbook and its implementationThere exists a wide gap between the curriculum, textbook and itsimplementation system (JICA,2009;PSPMP,2001)To overcome some of those problems Teaching Package(TP ) has beendeveloped jointly with Bangladesh and JICA experts and distributed toprimary schools in Bangladesh .TPs are now considered as one of theimportant educational materials (teacher’s reference materials) forprimary science teaching in Bangladesh5
Background(cont..)Overview of Teaching Package61.TP is consisting of “analysis of unit”, “lesson Plan”, “teaching materials "and“evaluation”.2.TP lesson plan has given much attention to include number of science activitiesand as well as how to develop children’s ability to think critically by themselves.Lesson Title: Existence of AirLearning OutcomesActivities1. Show pupils empty bottle or let pupils catch air with a plastic bag, andthen ask:“What do you think is inside, nothing or something?”2. Let pupils think that:① If air is nothing, how do we know it?② If air is something, how do we know it?3. Let pupils press a closed mineral water bottle or the plastic bag and feelsomething resisting from inside against pressing from outside.“It seems something is inside a bottle, doesn’t it?”4. Show them simple experiment with water basin with water, clearcontainer and paper. But before experiment, let them make the points toobserve clear.“When a piece of paper is set at the bottom of contai ner and keep itupside down and push it underwater, what happens?”1. Crumple a pieceof paper and push itinto the bottom of aclear container. Setit upside down.2. Push it into waterslowly.3. Bring it out of thewater and see whathappen to the paper,dry or wet.
Research Problem However, TP has not been evaluated in terms of thedevelopment of Science Process Skills(SPS) Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a research about SPS and itsrepresentation in TP in Bangladesh.7
Significance of the Research The result of this study is expected to be an input to teachereducators, teachers and curriculum developer and otherstakeholders about the SPS in TP and the areas needing revisionand to describe the characteristics of SPS development inelementary Science TP activities.8
Literature ReviewWhat literature says about scienceprocess skills Science –A Process Approach (SAPA )defined SPS as a set of broadlytransferable abilities, appropriate to many science disciplines and reflectiveof the behavior of scientists. SAPA identified the 13 SPS and arranged into alearning hierarchy and grouped them into two types-basic and integrated.(Padilla,1990) According to SAPA the BSPS provide a foundation for learning the ISPS(Tobin & Capie, 1980;Padila,1990; Lumbantobing, 2004). SPS are hierarchical. Learning hierarchy refers to the progressivedevelopment within each process skills. At the earliest stage, Process skillsare discrete. They become increasingly interrelated as science courseprogresses.(Gagne,1965; Finlley, 1983 ; Akinbobola & Afolabi, 2010)9
Literature ReviewWhat literature says about scienceprocess skills BSPS involve lower thinking skills and are commonly developedin the lower grades. ISPS higher order thinking skills andinvolve many basic skills and are commonly developed in thehigher grades (Lumbantobing,2004). SAPA recommended introducing BSPS from Kindergarten upto Grade III and ISPS in Grades IV-VI (Tobin & Capie, 1980).10
Literature ReviewWhy SPS are important? SPS are necessary for meaningful learning science concepts and mustbe developed to the students (Harlen,1999;Ango,2002; Duran &Ozdemir,2010). ...... increased the students’ achievements and scientific creativities(Aktamis,2008) ….... and logical thinking abilities are correlated(Padila,1983) ……….. are specific competencies for problem solving. SPS could highlypromote students ‘ problem-solving abilities (Lumbantobing,2004) …..emphasized the intellectual value rather than the value ofmemorizing scientific facts or principles. SPS are the building-blocksof critical thinking and inquiry in science (Ostlund,1992)11
Review of the related ResearchResearchtitle/AuthorResearch Methods Component of SPS considered Summary of findingsProcess Skills in theElementary ScienceComparative Study on thecurriculum and Textbooksbetween Indonesia andJapan(Lumbantobing,2004)Data source:elementary sciencetextbooks of Indonesia andJapan (grade 3 to grade 6).Content analysisInstrument: Definitions of13 SPS13SPS with in 2category. BSPS and ISPS:observing, classifying, measuring, usingspace/ time relations, communicating,inferring and predicting. 6 ISPS: formulatinghypotheses, defining operationally,controlling variables, and interpreting data,experimenting, and formulating models.SPS were not hierarchically involvedin the Indonesian textbookactivitiesIndonesian text book activitiesin all grades are primarily emphasizingbasic skills. Japanese elementaryscience textbook activitieshierarchically promoted BSPS andISPS. In the lower grade(grade 3)emphasis more BSPS and activities inthe upper grades (grade 4-6)emphasismore ISPS.Analysis of SPS in WestAfrican Senior SecondarySchool Certificate PhysicsPractical Examinations inNigeria(Akinbobola ,2010)Data source: PhysicsPractical Examinationsquestions. Instrument:Definitions of SPS.14 SPS with in 2 category. BSPS: observing,measuring, comparing, contrasting, drawingcalculating, recording , communicating andISPS:experimenting,investigating,formulating models, deducting, graphing,interpreting and manipulatingThe number of BSPS is significantlyhigher than the ISPS and SPS are notrepresented properly in the practicalexaminaton. Study recommended toinclude more ISPS related questions inthe Exam.The inclusion of scienceprocess skills in Yemenisecondary school physicstextbooksAziz & Zain (2010)Data source: secondaryschool physics textbooks(from grade10-12)Content analysis.Instrument: Definitions ofSPS8 BSPS: observing, measuring,classification, quantification, predicting,inferring, relationships, communicating and5 ISPS : hypothesizing, controllingvariables, defining operationally,interpreting data, experimenting.There are some inconsistency inrepresenting the SPS in the contents ofthe physics text books. A number ofSPS neglected in the text books. Thehighest percentage of BSPSconcentrate on observation, whilst themaximum percentage of ISPS focus onexperimenting(G-10), interpretingdata(G-11) and operational definitions(G-12)12
The Conclusion of Literature Review It is revealed that 13 SPS with in the category of BSPS and ISPS are very commonin above reviewed sources. Seven most common BSPS are observing, classifying, measuring, predicting,inferring, communicating, Time -space relationship Six most common ISPS are Controlling variables, interpreting data, definingOperationally, Formulating Hypothesis, Experimenting and making models. SPS are hierarchical. SPS are hierarchically organized with in the structure oftwo level hierarchies of BSPS and ISPS BSPS involve lower thinking skills and are commonly developed at the lowergrades. BSPS lay foundation for ISPS. ISPS are commonly emphasized at theupper grades. Only two studies (Lumbantobing, 2004; Aziz and Zain, 2010) have explicitlyinvestigated curriculum materials in the light of what extent the SPS included,how SPS are presented in the materials through content analysis. Both studiesanalyzed the contents/activities by using the conceptual definition of SPS.14
Research Framework15BSPS involvelower thinkingskills and arecommonlydeveloped inthe lowergrades.ISPS developbased onBSPS. ISPSarecommonlydeveloped inthe uppergrades.Number ofSPS in theTPActivitiesAndPattern ofrepresentation of SPSin the TP ineach gradelevel(G III-V)Based on the literature review a research framework in this study was formulated as shownin Figure below and used for exploring SPS in the TP activities.CATEGORY:BSPS(7)ObservingClassificationMeasuringPredictingInferringCommunicatingTime-spacerelationshipCATEGORY: ISPS(6)FormulatinghypothesisControlling variable,Experimenting,Interpreting dataDefiningoperationally andFormulating modelCategorized13 SPS:-BSPS-ISPSAnalysisof TPActivitiesto identifythe SPSSPSareHierarchical
Research Method16Data source Data for the present study has been collected from physical science part ofthe Teaching Package (Grade 3-5)-Grade-III was published in 2007,-Grade-IV was published in 2008-Grade-V was published in 2009 The selected TP was published by the Directorate of Primary Educationapproved by Ministry of Primary and Mass Education(MoPME) Physical Science comprises approximately 50% of the chapter of the scienceteaching package of each grade and Physical Science contains most of thehands on activities. 563 Activities of 61 lesson plans from 8 chapters are analyzed from Grade IIIto Grade V.
Research MethodData Collection and Activity Analysis Procedure17Step-1Every line in a lesson planactivity is carefully examinedand underlined especiallydirections for the activitieswhere skills are mentioned.Step-2:Identify the component of SPStentatively. The tentativelyselected component of the SPShas been marked as “0” signand place it under theappropriate column of the SPS.Step-3:Reliability forIdentification of SPS.Step-4:-Take record of theidentified skills accordingto lesson plan, chapter,grade and components.-Total the frequencies ofskills according to lessonplan, chapter, grades andcomponentsEvery identifiedSPS checked withthe process skillsconcept(definitions ofprocess skills)Activities of TP wasanalyzed by other 2rater independentlywho studied on SPS.In the present study, researcher followed the following steps
Research MethodExample of analyzed TP Activity18Example Of TP ActivityLesson Plan 2/10Lesson Title: Existence of AirActivities1. Show pupils empty bottle or let pupils catch air with a plastic bag, and then ask:“What do you think is inside, nothing or something?”2. Let pupils think that:① If air is nothing, how do we know it?② If air is something, how do we know it?3. Let pupils press a closed mineral water bottle or the plastic bag and feel something resisting frominside against pressing from outside.“It seems something is inside a bottle, doesn’t it?”4. Show them simple experiment with water basin with water, clear container and paper. But beforeexperiment, let them make the points to observe clear.“When a piece o f paper is set at the bottom of container and keep it upside down and push itunderwater, what will happens?”Activity1. Crumple a piece of paperand push it into the bottomof a clear container. Set itupside down.2. Push it into water slowly. 3. Bring it out of the water andsee what happen to the paper,dry or wet.Observing,InferringObservingPredicting
Research MethodData Collection and Activity Analysis ProcedureSelected Part of the Activity toidentify the SPSBasic word/questionto identify the SPSand underlinedComponent of SPS Check with theScience process skillsconceptBSPS ISPSO Cl M P I ComSTRHypCVEx ID Do FmExample -1if an activity include that “Whena piece of paper is set at thebottom of container and keep itupside down and push itunderwater, what will happens?”Prediction:What will happen…..?2. What do you thinkhappen…….?3. Which will….- - - o - - - - - - - - - Because, “predictionis a forecast of what afuture observationmight be”.Example-2If the activity included that“bring it out of the water and seewhat will happen to the paper,dry or wet?Observing:1. See what happen2. Let students toobserve..o - - - - - - - - - - - - Observing using theirsenseExample-3“Why didn’t the water touch thepaper in the first activity?”“Why did the paper get wet inthe second activity?”Inference:1. Why didn’t thewater touch the paperin the first activity?”- - - - o - - - - - - - - An inference is astatement that attemptsto interpret or explaina set of observations.Example-4Share the observation among theclass.Share the observationamong the class.- - - - - o - - - - - - - Communicating is toexpress thoughts in waysthat others can understand.19
ResultsSPS in the Activities of Grade IV TP2101020304050Grade-IV2472046 5 11 141FrequencyProcess skillsEleven (10) SPS were identified through the analysis of the. Based on the above results, it isfound that communicating, observing and inferring are mostly involved in the grade IVTP activities. On the other hand, there was no room for the process skills using time spacerelationship, defining operationally and formulating model in the activities analyzed.
ResultsSPS in the Activities of Grade V TP2205101520253035404550Process skillsFrequency37Grade-V331711 9851 3 3 1A total of 11 SPS has been identified in G- V TP activities. Based on the above results, it isfound that observing, communicating , inferring and predicting are mostly involved inthe grade V TP activities. On the other hand, there was no existence of using space- timerelationship and defining operationally in the activities across the chapters in physical sciencein grade V.
ResultsPattern of Science process skills across thegrades level(Grade III-V)2405101520253035404550Grade- 3Grade-4Grade-5PercentageProcess skillsSPS does not hierarchically exist within the three grade levels.
ResultsGrade wise pattern of distribution ofScience Process Skills(BSPS and ISPS)250%20%40%60%80%100%Grade-III GradeIV GradeVBSPSISPS90% 93%81%10% 7% 19%ISPS were not increasingly promoted from grade3-5. Overall, a pattern of emphasizing theBSPS in all grades and the ISPS are less emphasized in the TP activities
Conclusion Among the 13 SPS examined in this study for this research, 12 were found in the TPactivities . There is no space for time-space relationship in Physical Science in anygrade level. Only BSPS Observing, communicating, inferring and predicting are mostly involvedin the activity in all grade levels. Other BSPS and integrated science process skills(ISPS) were less emphasized. There are no learning hierarchy of SPS reflected with in the TP activities of theelementary grade levels. A pattern of emphasizing the BSPS in the activities allgrade while less emphasis were given in the ISPS the activities studied. When these TP activity analysis results regarding BSPS and ISPS were comparedwith curriculum and textbook. It was found that both text book and curriculumfailed to include most of the BSPS and ISPS. Although, TP activities included moreBSPS and ISPS than the curriculum and text book but TP still failed to include orless emphasized some important BSPS and ISPS . This might be due to the lack ofcontents and activities in the textbook and curriculum that cause those problems.Because, TP developed based on the text book contents.27
Recommendations• More SPS related contents and activity needs to be added to the science TP atall levels in order to help students to be developed SPS.• TP activity should promote the hierarchy of process skills.TP activities in thegrade three should focus more on basic skills. Similarly, TP activities of thegrade four and five should focus more on promoting integrated skills.• Curriculum developers, textbook writers, teachers, Teaching Package and otherTeacher’s Guide developers should also address this concern.• And its implementation in the relevant areas of primary teacher’s professionaldevelopment following initiatives can be taken such as Subject based training,Sub-cluster training, Lesson study .28
Aktamis, H.,&Ergin,O.(2008). The effect of scientific process skills education on students scientific creativity, science attitudes and academicachievements. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning & Teaching,9(4), 4. Akinbobola, A.O. (2006). Analysis of Science Process Skills in West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Physics Practical Examinations inNigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 5(4), 234-240. Aziz, M. S. &Zain,A.N.(2010).The inclusion of science process skills in Yemeni Secondary school Physics text books. EuropeanJjournal of PhysicsEducation,44-50. Bilgin, I.(2006).The effect of hands-on activities incorporating a cooperative learning approach on eight students‟ science process skills and attitudestowards science. Journal of Baltic Science Education,9(1), 27-36. Esler,W. K.(2001).Teaching Elementary Science: A Full Spectrum Science Instruction Approach Wadsworth Thomson Learning Finley,F.N.(1983).Science Processes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 20(1 ), 47-54 Gagne,R. M.(1965). “Psychological Issues in Science-A Process Approach”,In the Psychological Basis of Science-A Process Approach.Washington DC:Commissionon Science Education,AAAS. Harlen, W. (1999). Purposes and Procedures for Assessing Science Process Skills. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 6, 129-145. Helgeson, S. L.( 1989). Problem solving in middle school science.In What Research Says to the Science Teacher. National Science Teachers Association 5,13–34 JICA.(2009). Study on Bangladesh primary mathematics &Science curriculum and Text books:Grade1to 5Math &Grade 3to 5 science. Ostlund, K. L. (1992). Science process skills-Assessing Hands on Student Performance. Dale Seymour Publications Padilla, M. (1990). The science process skills. Research Matter to the Science Teacher, No. 9004. Rezba, R. J., Sprague, C., Fiel, R. L. & Funk, H. J. (2007). Learning and assessing science process skills (3rd Ed). United States of America: Kendal/HuntPublishing Company Tobin,K.& Capie,W.(1980).Teaching Process Skills in the Middle School.School Science and Mathematics.80,590-600. Lumbantobing,R. (2004). Comparative Study on Process Skills in the Elementary Science Curriculum and Textbooks between Indonesia and Japan.広島大学大学 院教育学研究科紀要, 第二部, 第53号, 31-38.29References
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