BodyShocks - from subspace to outer space

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BodyShocks - from subspace to outer space by Dr. Sarah Jane Pell
Life Science & Humanities Seminar, 23 Jan 2007
School of Anatomy & Human Biology,
University of Western Australia hosted by SymbioticA: the art and science laboratory on the impacts of the extreme environments of underwater and outer space on the human body and mind.

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  • Welcome Thank you This seminar considers the physiology, biophysical interactions and the associated performance behaviors when humans explore and occupy extreme environments.
  • There are well documented likenesses and Sub space (underwater environments) and outer space (from low earth orbit to beyond) Many people have explored and inhabited –at least for a short time – these “other worlds” which are located above and below the atmospheric cradle that we call home. By describing the body changes according to environmental factors such as gas species and their partial pressures, temperature, gravity, decompression and barophysiology, and human (and biotech) activity. The intention is to examine the shocks to the body in these two spaces and how they may be mitigated by adaptation, intervention, protection and/ or invention.
  • Comprehensive echocardiography and Doppler examinations are provided for prospective astronauts. Pre-, in- and postflight medical evaluations are performed in support of the Medical Operations role of maintaining the safety and health of crewmembers. Normal testing includes operational tilt tests, stand tests, heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac rhythm, cardiac function (ultrasound), blood volume, plasma catecholamine levels, orthostatic intolerance, and changes in blood volume after flight. In-flight hardware is evaluated and developed to support the science and to monitor crew health. Examples include the American Echocardiograph Research Imaging System and hardware for the Human Research Facility such as an ultrasound device, pulse oximeter, lower body negative pressure device, Holter monitor, continuous blood pressure device, and the respiratory impedance plethysmograph.
  • Significant cardiovascular changes are associated with space flight. Outcomes can include: Disturbances in cardiac rhythm. Postflight faintness upon standing, because of drop in blood pressure. (orthostatic intolerance). Reduced exercise tolerance Reduced circulating blood volume Changes in vascular function Greater susceptibility to orthostatic intolerance in women than men Without the effects of gravity, scientists can study the flow of blood inside astronauts' bodies. In this way, they are learning about the blood circulation system and various medical conditions that are caused by different patterns of blood flow. The results of this research are helping medical scientists on Earth who are dealing with strokes and heart disease. Vascular Structure Changes During Space Flight Under extended exposure to microgravity, vascular system remodels its structure. Structural changes respond to hemodynamic changes: Blood pressure Blood flow Changes intended to maintain constant normal and shear stresses in blood vessels
  • The fluid shift phenomena of space flight. On Earth, gravity exerts a downward force to keep fluids flowing to the lower body. In space, the fluid tends to redistribute toward the chest and upper body. At this point, the body detects a "flood" in and around the heart. The body rids itself of this perceived "excess" fluid. The body functions with less fluid and the heart becomes smaller. Upon return to Earth, gravity again pulls the fluid downward, but there is not enough fluid to function normally on Earth.
  • Just as liquids in containers behave differently in microgravity, so do fluids in astronauts' bodies. Our bodies contain blood and other fluids necessary for life. In microgravity, an astronaut's blood is in free fall, as is every other part of the astronaut's body and surrounding environment. As the heart pumps blood around, there is no longer any downward pull on the blood toward the astronaut's feet. The blood tends to pool around the upper part of the body. You can see the effects in astronaut's faces. They become puffy from all the fluids that normally would be pulled down away from the head. Subsequently their legs become very skinny: and the astronauts develop chicken-shaped bodies
  • It is important to note that the flow of blood in the body is directly influenced by gravity. When a person is standing, gravity helps pull the blood downward to the lower extremities. Without gravity, blood tends to remain closer to the heart. The force of gravity also makes it more difficult for the blood to flow upward to return to the heart and lungs for more oxygen. Our bodies have evolved to deal with the ever-present downward force of gravity; our leg muscles function as secondary pumps to help in the process of venous return which is blood flow back to the heart, also referred to as cardiac input). During walking or other leg movements, the muscles contract, forcing blood up through the veins of the calf toward the heart. The valves in the veins are arranged so that blood flows only in one direction This mechanism effectively counteracts the force of gravity WE can simulate this mechanism using a lower body negative pressure vessel –shown above or a wearable compression version called a penguin suit.
  • EVERY REACTION OF FORCE CREATES AN EQUAL & OPPOSITE REACTION, THEREFORE MOVEMENTS ARE PERFORMED VERY GINGERLY TO AVOID UNWANTED ACCELERATIONS IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION = The goals and objectives of the Exercise Physiology Laboratory (EXL) are four fold: 1) to support preflight, inflight, and postflight medical operations and physical fitness testing requirements, 2) to assist in the development of astronaut physical conditioning programs, 3) to evaluate and validate exercise countermeasure equipment, procedures, protocols, and conditioning programs related to the maintenance of crew health and performance during Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions, and 4) to understand the effects of microgravity upon human performance during and after exposure to microgravity and space flight. Areas of research interest include cardio-respiratory functional capacity, musculoskeletal strength development and maintenance, orthostatic intolerance, biomechanics of movement, bone metabolism, and thermoregulation. Laboratory personnel also evaluate in-flight exercise responses and activity patterns as a way of evaluating and validating exercise countermeasure concepts. Basic research investigations are conducted through NASA Research Announcements, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, and the Countermeasures Evaluation and Validation Project peer-review processes. Instrumentation in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory includes: metabolic gas analysis systems, heart rate and blood pressure monitoring systems, treadmills, cycle ergometers, rowing machines, resistance exercise dynamometers, electromyography recording system, and computers, cameras, and instrumentation to conduct biomechanical analysis.
  • Scientists have discovered that our constant fight against being pressed against the floor actually helps build up bone material. Both muscles and bones need to be used (worked) to maintain their condition. In free fall, there is no more pressure and the bones in the lower part of astronauts' bodies begin to lose calcium. Scientists are working hard to find out how this process works, and how to reverse the deterioration of the bone material. Astronauts in microgravity develop osteoporosis-like conditions 20 times faster than normal. It seems that our bodies use the pressure from fighting gravity to grow calcium and when free fall takes the pressure away, you lose calcium. Scientists are looking for ways to learn more about calcium. The Canadian Space Agency teamed up with a private company to build a space aquarium that can be used to study plants and animals in a water environment. One Canadian scientist studied how calcium forms a giant scallop's shell in microgravity. By comparing on-orbit results with ground-based studies, he hoped to find clues that might teach us more about calcium growth and loss. An American researcher sent sea urchins into space to see how calcium loss affected them. When they came back to Earth, she examined their skeletons and cells for clues that might help scientists understand what causes calcium loss in animals and humans. Scientists have found that fish swimming in microgravity will orient their bodies to light. As they swim, they keep the source of light above them.
  • The brain and other body systems interpret this increase in blood and other fluids as a "flood" in the upper body. The body then reacts to correct this situation by getting rid of some of the "excess" body fluid. Astronauts become much less thirsty than normal, and the kidneys, with the help of the endocrine system (which produces and delivers biochemical messengers, hormones, throughout the body), increase the output of urine. Both actions decrease the overall quantity of fluids and electrolytes (ions such as sodium and potassium) in the body, and lead to a reduction in total circulating blood volume. Recall that the heart enlarged somewhat when more blood moved into the upper body. Now, however, once the fluid levels are decreased and the heart does not have to word against gravity, the heart shrinks somewhat in size.
  • About 50% of astronauts suffer what is called " space adaptation syndrome ", or space motion sickness. Scientists have connected this problem to the sensory systems in the body used for balance. These include our vision system, and two other systems which are less familiar. One is called our proprioception system; this is a network of motion sensors in our muscles and tendons that tell us where our limbs are in space and how they are moving. The other system is called the vestibular system -a complex array of sensors inside our inner ears that we use to detect the direction of gravity and motions of the head. Scientists have found that fish swimming in microgravity will orient their bodies to light. As they swim, they keep the source of light above them. – About 66% of space travelers will experience symptoms of SMS (mostly "Moderate" or "Mild" ; about 10% "Severe"); some overlap with Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS) – First symptoms occur in minutes – SMS rarely exceeds 2 days – The problem is generally brought on by head movements in pitch and roll – Symptoms are not significantly reduced on a reflight – The current favorite drug treatment is IM injection of promethazine, rather than the use of scopolamine or other prophylactic medications
  • Medical Events in Flight – Neurologic Consequences • Space Motion Sickness (SMS) • Headache – most common symptom (67% of astronauts) • Impaired cognitive performance – aka “Space Fog” or “Space Stupids” • Perceptual Effects and Illusions - EVA acrophobia, Visual reorientation illusions (VRIs) • Performance Effects of Microgravity – Sensorimotor control errors (dysmetria) – Oculomotor effects (Visual blurring, visual scene oscillation)
  • In 0-G, the otolith organs of the vestibular system are stimulated by head translation movements only, not by head tilt
  • The vestibular system provides information specific to one or more sensorimotor subsystems. We are interested in this cross sensory process, specifically the changes in the strategies used for coordination among subsystems or for those strategies supporting performance of natural, goal-directed behaviors. In particular, we feel that there may be several strategies selected for use during the process of adaptation to microgravity. Prime among these strategies are: (1) the reduced use of head movements during the early phases of a space flight mission, (2) the reliance on either an internal coordinate system (intrinsic) or environmental coordinates (extrinsic) during different phases of space flight for spatial orientation, and (3) compensation for the changing role of proprioceptive information during flight. These strategies, we believe, can be evaluated using goal-directed head and eye coordination tasks. Therefore, the primary objective of the Gaze Laboratory is to investigate the emergence or alteration of goal-oriented strategies required to maintain effective gaze when the interactive sensorimotor systems required for this function have been modified following exposure to the stimulus rearrangement of space flight.
  • The absence of gravity during space flight leads to adaptive changes in central nervous system function. The Neuroscience Laboratories investigates the effects of space flight on the human nervous system, with particular emphasis on posture and gait function, eye-head coordination, perception, space motion sickness and vestibular-autonomic function. The central focus of the laboratory is the development of countermeasures to mitigate the space flight related changes in nervous system function associated with adaptation to microgravity and return to gravitational environments. The laboratory supports ground-based and in-flight investigations, crew health monitoring, risk mitigation operational activities and countermeasures evaluation and validation research. T he Neuroscience Laboratories are composed of the Motion Laboratory, Neuroautonomic Laboratory, Off-Vertical Axis Rotator (OVAR) Laboratory, Postural Control Laboratory, Preflight Adaptation and Virtual Reality Training Lab, Sensorimotor Laboratory, Short-Arm Centrifuge Laboratory, Visual-Vestibular (Gaze) Laboratory.
  • Embryonic posture: are you floating or falling? Thunderbirds are Go!! Interestingly – consider the suits – do they consider the body alterations in prep for EVA’s NO!
  • • Miscues of inner ear – Otolith Organs – Semicircular Canals • Coriolis Illusion • Leans • Oculogravic Illusion • Graveyard Spin/Spiral • G-excess illusion l head tilt during a turn is misunderstood by the body, which thinks your head has tilted more than it really has l but since you know where your head is, you think that the plane experienced an uncommanded pitch-up l watch out during a sustained turn l don’t go by your instruments!
  • Astronauts have reported episodes of disorientation relatively frequently in microgravity and on return to Earth. Such episodes have the potential to interfere with an astronaut's performance and to jeopardize safety. The OVAR Laboratory is primarily concerned with understanding the mechanisms by which judgments of orientation are made in order to understand the causes of the episodes of disorientation and hopefully to provide ways of eliminating such episodes. The laboratory uses oculomotor and perceptual tasks to measure where astronauts feel themselves to be in three-dimensional space and in which direction they are moving or facing. This subjective location is called the egocenter and its location and direction is determined by both otolith and somatosensory inputs. Experiments on Earth which modify these inputs alter people's judgments of where they are and which direction they are facing. Vestibular disorders affect orientation perception and it seems that, corresponding with the recovery process, over time the balance between vestibular and somatosensory input in determining orientation is altered. It is anticipated that similar changes will take place during prolonged microgravity and then again another re-balancing between vestibular and somatosensory input will occur on return to a 1-g environment. This laboratory is the only laboratory that has initiated a direct investigation of the changes in the straight-ahead direction in astronauts. We measure the subjective straight-ahead by psychophysical tests requiring verbal responses and oculomotor responses. In a typical psychophysical test the subjects is asked to indicate when a spot crosses their perceived straight-ahead or to return the gaze to the straight-ahead position from various off-center positions. In a typical oculomotor task the subject will be required to look straight ahead during a period of darkness in order to determine where gaze shifts, and eye position will be measured using videooculography. Image right: Off Vertical Rotation - Measurement of Perception and Video Recording of Eye Movements The Off-Vertical Axis Rotator allows investigators to study eye movements and motion perception while continuously changing the orientation of the subject relative to gravity. This device is currently being used to examine adaptive changes in otolith-mediated responses following short-duration Shuttle flights (DSO 499), as well as examining vestibular-autonomic interactions. • Miscues of inner ear – Otolith Organs – Semicircular Canals • Coriolis Illusion • Leans • Oculogravic Illusion • Graveyard Spin/Spiral • G-excess illusion l head tilt during a turn is misunderstood by the body, which thinks your head has tilted more than it really has l but since you know where your head is, you think that the plane experienced an uncommanded pitch-up l watch out during a sustained turn l don’t go by your instruments!
  • With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts are living and working in microgravity for long durations, facing novel situations for which there is inadequate knowledge of human capabilities. Space farers are not only challenged by challenging workloads, weightlessness, confinement, isolation and a cumbersome (and very loud) life-support array, but they sign up for a period of employment or an exclusive tourist opportunity in an environment with extreme levels of radiation –just one of the many factors which cause debilitating physiological responses with long-term consequences to their health.
  • Welcome Thank you This seminar considers the physiology, biophysical interactions and the associated performance behaviors when humans explore and occupy extreme environments.
  • the classic dive response outlined by Irving and Scholander in the 1940s has been described in both human newborns and adults. The dive response is a suite of reflexes which conserves oxygen for the heart and brain during submergence; these responses include apnea (breath-holding), decreased blood supply to non-essential organs such as the peripheral muscles and gut, decreases in heart rate and cardiac pumping, and an increased dependence on anaerobic metabolism. Ref: Andersson, P. A., Liner, M. H., Runow, E. and Schagatay, E. K. A. (2002). Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers. J. Appl. Physiol. 93 ,882 -886 the study of breathhold divers, particularly elite divers, has improved our understanding of respiratory drive and provided significant evidence that a diving reflex exists in humans. human subjects involved in a long duration training programme of breath-hold diving have reduced post-apnea as well as post-exercise blood acidosis and oxidative stress, mimicking the responses of diving animals. Ref: Respiratory Physiology in Extreme Environments. Colleagues in Respiratory Medicine Clinical Pulmonary Medicine. 13(5):282-288, September 2006. Whittaker, Laurie A. MD; Kaminsky, David A. MD
  • The apnea is a state in which one voluntarily or involuntarily “ceases to breathe”. The diver takes a deep breath and descends under water. In a state of apnea (when the breath is held), the release of CO2 temporarily stops which results in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the cells, blood and lungs. Simultaneously, carbon dioxide starts irritating the respiratory center. In a particular moment, the irritation becomes so unbearable that the person is not able to hold his breath anymore. There occurs an irresistible will to exhale and release the large amount of CO2 called an impulse of breathing , which discontinues the apnea. The concentration of CO2 in the blood, which forces the impulse of breathing is called the critical line . The critical line cannot be strictly determined because of individual differences. The high level of the critical line might be due to the richer concentration of O2, better training of the apnea or simply holding the breath after maximum inhalation.
  • Lack of Oxygen Hyperventilation hides potential danger if straight after that the diver does tiring physical activity. Swimming or moving actively under water increases the release of oxygen which adds up to quick exhaustion of oxygen in the blood. At the same time, vigorous hyperventilation has led to a very low level of CO2 to prolong the apnea. In this case, the diver loses consciousness under water before he has any need to breathe. He cannot feel the decrease of oxygen in his blood. Besides, the  low concentration of CO2, caused by hyperventilation, still has not reached the critical line of CO2 and has not sent any signals to the respiratory center to discontinue the apnea. Such cases of drowning are common among trained divers. WARNING: Avoid intensive physical work under water after hyperventilation. The trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) is defined as the sudden onset of parasympathetic dysrhythmia, sympathetic hypotension, apnea or gastric hypermotility during stimulation of any of the sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve. By this physiological response, the adjustments of the systemic and cerebral circulations are initiated to divert blood to the brain or to increase blood flow within it. As it is generally accepted that the diving reflex and ischemic tolerance appear to involve at least partially similar physiological mechanisms, the existence of such endogenous neuroprotective strategies may extend the actually known clinical appearance of the TCR and include the prevention of other potentially brain injury states as well. This may be in line with the suggestion that the TCR is a physiological, but not a pathophysiological entity. Ref: B. Schaller Trigeminocardiac reflex, Journal of Neurology, Volume 251, Issue - 6, Page 658 – 665, Date - 2004 In divers, the changes in lactic acid, TBARS, RAA, and GSH concentrations were markedly reduced after static and dynamic apnea, as well as after control exercise. Thus, human subjects involved in a long duration training programme of breath-hold diving have reduced post-apnea as well as post-exercise blood acidosis and oxidative stress, mimicking the responses of diving animals. Ref: Reduced oxidative stress and blood lactic acidosis in trained breath-hold human divers. Joulia F , Steinberg JG , Wolff F , Gavarry O , Jammes Y . Laboratoire d'Ergonomie du Sport et de la Performance Motrice, UFR STAPS, Universite Toulon La Garde, Toulon, France.
  • The human respiratory system has a remarkable ability to adapt to many different environmental demands. Recently, recreational sports such as high altitude climbing have pushed the limits of adaptive physiology. Similarly, the study of breathhold divers has led to a greater understanding of physiological adaptations at high pressure. An important mechanism of lung compression with increased pressure is achieved through central shunting of peripheral blood flow. The increased pulmonary blood flow then allows for greater alveolar gas exchange, which has important implications for duration of breathhold and, indirectly, depth of dive achievable. Cupping-Glass Effect Once the chest contractions reach the volume of residual air, further, no matter what the pressure is, the chest cannot shrink any more. Due to the differences in pressure, the cupping-glass effect occurs. As a result, a large amount of blood enters the lungs which might lead to a rupture of the heart muscle. If the cupping-glass effect is insignificant, bronchopneumonia or small hemorrhages in the alveoli may take place. Actually, this is observed in deep dives. Ref: Respiratory Physiology in Extreme Environments. Colleagues in Respiratory Medicine Clinical Pulmonary Medicine. 13(5):282-288, September 2006. Whittaker, Laurie A. MD; Kaminsky, David A. MD
  • Changes in the Chest According to Boyle’s law , chest starts to contract with the increase of depth. With its anatomical peculiarities, the chest resembles a spring which reacts to the changes of ambient pressure: during descent, it contracts and reduces the volume of the pulmonary air; during ascent, it expands and enlarges this volume.
  • Lungs are located in the thorax. During inhalation, the ribs move up and out and the diaphragm goes down. Thus, the volume of the thorax is increased allowing air to enter the lungs. During exhalation, the ribs move downwards and inwards and the diaphragm rises. This way, the chest contracts and forces the air from the lungs. A common problem with respiration for the free diver and the scuba diver is tiredness of respiratory muscles, cause by differences in pressure under water. Raised Partial Pressure of Oxygen Example: A well-trained spearfisherman, engrossed in chasing fish, spends a minute at a depth of 25–30 meters without feeling any need of oxygen and without any impulse of breathing. Convinced that he has not used up his oxygen yet, he is ascending when suddenly, he feels a strong necessity to breathe which he cannot resist. Two or three meters before he reaches the surface, he drowns. Explanation: The raised partial pressure of oxygen creates a false feeling of well-being. At the same time, CO2 accumulates slower without signaling the dangerously-decreasing oxygen concentration in blood. During ascent, the partial pressure of oxygen is suddenly reduced, robbing the diver of oxygen to breathe. Carbon dioxide itself quickly enters the blood and expands causing irresistible impulse of breathing. Since he has no oxygen supply, the diver drowns. Breath-hold divers have to overcome the air resistance in the snorkel and divers with autonomous diving suits have to cope with the resistance in breathing apparatuses. A Diver’s Abilities The safe depth for the breath-hold diver depends on the larger total pulmonary volume and the smaller volume of residual air. 15 meters is considered a safe depth. Every additional meter below 20 is connected with risks. WARNING: Do not swim below 15 meters with your breath held! Of course, there are fantastical records in free diving below 100 meters. Divers such as Jacques Mayol , Francisco Ferreras and Loui Leferme excel with perfect physique, huge total pulmonary volume, insignificant residual air, increased resistance towards carbon dioxide and an ability to slow down their cardiac activity.
  • Effects of Pressure on the Lungs and Chest Changes in the Chest According to Boyle’s law , chest starts to contract with the increase of depth. With its anatomical peculiarities, the chest resembles a spring which reacts to the changes of ambient pressure: during descent, it contracts and reduces the volume of the pulmonary air; during ascent, it expands and enlarges this volume. Cupping-Glass Effect Once the chest contractions reach the volume of residual air, further, no matter what the pressure is, the chest cannot shrink any more. Due to the differences in pressure, the cupping-glass effect occurs. As a result, a large amount of blood enters the lungs which might lead to a rupture of the heart muscle. If the cupping-glass effect is insignificant, bronchopneumonia or small hemorrhages in the alveoli may take place. Actually, this is observed in deep dives. Another situation of cupping-glass effect is when the diver is at a depth of 1.8–3 meters and breathes atmospheric air through a long tube. At such depth, chest muscles cannot overcome water resistance. A Diver’s Abilities The safe depth for the breath-hold diver depends on the larger total pulmonary volume and the smaller volume of residual air. 15 meters is considered a safe depth. Every additional meter below 20 is connected with risks. WARNING: Do not swim below 15 meters with your breath held!
  • Donald Duck Voice A curious phenomenon, explained with the density of the water and speed of sound waves, was observed by some divers working in an underwater laboratory – “ Our voices became funny and unusually loud, shrilling and resonant so that we could not recognize our own voice laughter. Entering the underwater habitat for the first time, everyone burst into laughter as he heard his unpleasant voice. It was like a recording tape set to fast-motion” .
  • Beginners find it impossible to determine size and distance under water which leads to exaggeration of the size of fish and other objects. When experienced divers have doubts about the extent of something, they always make a comparison by taking it in their hands. This is certainly a good method because muscular senses remain unchanged under water. According to certain laws in physics, colors lose their brightness with the increase of depth – red disappears below 8 meters, orange – below 10 m, yellow – below 20 m and at greater depth everything looks bluish, greenish or grayish. For instance, if a person hurts himself at a depth of 20 meters, his blood will seem black. Illumination restores the brightness of colors regardless of depth and amateurs are astonished by the diversity of patterns in a world which looked monotonous and dull before.  According to Archimedes’ principle, objects appear lighter in water than they are in the air.
  • The ears are organs of hearing and equilibrium. Both functions might be disturbed under water because of the inability of the diver to equalize the pressure Sounds under water, in contrast to those in the air, can be heard at greater distance. For example, the whir of a boat’s engine is heard earlier under water than in the air. If the boat is 15 to 20 meters away, a diver would think that it is above his or her head. Disorientation under water is also a significant problem because the location of the source emitting sound waves is hard to be determined. However, this confusion can be overcome after some practice. During their stay under water, divers take no pains in order to keep their position. Because of the reduced weight of the whole body, ciliated cells cannot be irritated by the ear sand to the same extent as they are irritated out of water. That is why they do not send any commands for the change of position. This leads to the state of loose muscles and weightless body which is typical of both divers and astronauts.  With closed eyes, one who is at rest under water quickly loses his or her sense of body position in space. This concerns especially people with neutral buoyancy . Research data show that a swimming diver with his eyes closed determines his body location with an error of 17°± 8°. Orientation also depends on the position of the body – lying on the back, head relaxed backwards, is considered unfavorable. A diver has to use outer factors which signal his body location. He relies mainly on his eyesight (following the light layer of water above him), air bubbles, which always go up, buoys and other light objects showing the way to the surface. Divers, suffering from sinusitis, orientate themselves much better for the vertical position of their bodies. This phenomenon can be explained with the difference in pressure that they cannot equalize immediately. They feel pain in the sinuses which suggests an increase of pressure or that they sink.
  • The results indicate that augmentation of the diving response slows down the depletion of the lung oxygen store, possibly associated with a larger reduction in peripheral venous oxygen stores and increased anaerobiosis. This mechanism delays the fall in alveolar and arterial PO2 and, thereby, the development of hypoxia in vital organs. Accordingly, we conclude that the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect during exercise. Ref: Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers Johan P. A. Andersson1, Mats H. Linér2, Elisabeth Rünow1, and Erika K. A. Schagatay1,3 J Appl Physiol 93: 882-886, 2002. First published May 17, 2002; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00863.2001 8750-7587/02 Vol. 93, Issue 3, 882-886, September 2002
  • The gas needs time in order to be able to be taken in again by way of the lungs. Apart from the research about gas reception, oxygen toleration, respiratory physiology, decompression problems and the therapy of divers with massive decompression troubles, research diving courses were carried out. A part of the European astronauts received the necessary diving instructions in order to be able to carry out a zero-gravity training in the water basin. Ref: www.dlr.de/me/Institut/Abteilungen/Flugphysio...
  • First of all, we should point out that the pressure on a diver under water is the result of two separate forces which act simultaneously upon him or her. These are:      1.   The weight of the water      2.   The weight of the atmosphere over the surface of the water.  A diver in an EVA suit designed for use in outer space will be pressurized. It will also be made of all of the materials that would be flown into space for life support including very heavy equipment and thick radiation shielding The astronaut enters the water via a stage which is lowered into the water. The astronaut would not experience the external weight in space – but they would experience the weight of the suit itself.
  • Due to Henry's Law, organisms saturate themselves with the nitrogen contained in the air we breathe. Decompression problems may occur if the surrounding pressure is diminished. When the pressure is diminished, the surplus nitrogen will escape from the liquid in the form of gas. This problem concerns the astronaut preparing a "space walk" ( EVA = E xtra V ehicular A ctivity). The pressure inside the space suit ranges from 300-400 hPa (depending on the type of the suit) because under normal pressure, the suit would be unmovable against the vacuum outside. During diving, the same problem occurs with the return to the surface; under the increased pressure under water, additional nitrogen or other inert gasses are dissolved into the body by way of the air breathed. During the return to the surface (relief of pressure), the gas has to leave the body via the lung. The decompression stops known to divers have to be observed. In the case of astronauts, the elimination of nitrogen is achieved by preliminary oxygen respiration. No nitrogen is offered to the lung anymore, so the nitrogen gradually leaves the organism and the pressure can be lowered to the level of the space suit in one final step. Ref: www.dlr.de/me/Institut/Abteilungen/Flugphysio ...
  • Similarly, with permanent human presence working underwater around the globe, aquanauts and divers (especially saturation divers) are living and working in extreme altered gravity positive pressure working environments for long durations – often at multiple high exposure rates – in extreme temperatures and performing heavy workloads. Despite our considerable experience with the water, the challenges to habitability, workload and human performance are immense and for all of our very sophisticated technologies and protocols, the risks are still very high to the human body.
  • The annular swimming pool (donut shaped) is 8' (2.5 m) wide and 8' (2.5m) deep and 60 m in circumference. The pool is fully instrument for filtering and heating (40º C) and cooling (10º C). Studies can be conducted at speeds up to 15 mph using a bridge suspended over the pool and driven by the centrifuge. The water in the pool can also be pumped to produce a 1.0 m/sec current in the pool (water treadmill). The pool has three 4' by 4' under water window through which videotaping can be conducted. The monitoring bride can be fully instrumented and is direct wired to computer processing for control, data collection and data processing. Centifuge  Load Capabilities Capsule; 0 to 31 RPM, 1 to 10 G, 15 SEC onset, 18,000 ft simulated altitude Platform Altitude, 490 LB payload at 10 G Dimensions Capsule; 8 ft ID X 7.5 ft L One 2 ft W X 5 ft H entrance hatch Features: Capsule air conditioned Audio & video monitoring Multiple slip ring package for data collection Multiple penetrations for electrical, mechanical, or gas pass-through Stationary center platform for monitoring equipment 1 ton overhead crane for positioning equipment   Ref: www.smbs.buffalo.edu/crese/Facilities/Gravity...
  • Media Lab Europe H uman Connectedness research group Breakout for Two : an exertion interface for sports over a distance Florian 'Floyd' Mueller, Stefan Agamanolis Breakout for Two employs an exertion interface -- an interface that deliberately requires intense physical effort and can be expected to be physically exhausting when used for an extended period of time. In short, it gets your adrenaline moving and makes you sweat, just like any physical exercise or sport. The Breakout for Two game is a cross between soccer, tennis, and the popular video game Breakout . Participants in remote locations must throw or kick a real soccer ball at a local physical wall to break through a projection of virtual "blocks" that partially obscure a live video image of the other player. The effect is one of a virtual game "court" in which the competitors are separated by a barrier through which they can interact. The blocks on each player's screen are synchronized -- when one player breaks through a block, the same block disappears from the other player's screen. The player who breaks through the most blocks wins. Games typically last several minutes and can incorporate varying levels of difficulty. Our hypothesis is that augmenting an online sport or gaming environment with exertion will greatly enhance the potential for social bonding, just as playing an exhausting game of squash or tennis with a new acquaintance or co-worker helps to "break the ice" and build friendships. The heightened state of arousal induced by the exertion also potentially makes the interaction more memorable.
  • BodyShocks - from subspace to outer space

    1. 1. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space Pell, S.J. PhD Life Science & Humanities Seminar, 23 Jan 2007 School of Anatomy & Human Biology, University of Western Australia
    2. 2. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air 1. OUTER SPACE Known Risks Heart Brain Spatial adaptation Orientation Countermeasures Sleep & Return 2. SUB SPACE Diving Reflex Apnea Positive Pressure Partial Pressure Optical Vestibular & Audio Baroreflex <ul><li>4. LUNAR SPACE </li></ul><ul><li>*LUNA GAIA: a closed loop habitat for the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Human Health </li></ul><ul><li>Countermeasures </li></ul><ul><li>Risk & Research </li></ul>3. WET SPACE Weightless Environment Tools Decompression | EVA | Protocol Operations | Countermeasures *Excerpt from ISU SSP06 Co-Authored Team Project
    3. 3. SUB SPACE: Underwater Partial Immersion (< 0.5m, > I ATA) Diver (> 0.5m, > 1 ATA) Aquanaut (> 0.5m, > 1 ATA x 24hrs +) AUV Pilot (>100m, = 1 ATA) ABOVE & BELOW AIR SPACE: Parabolic Flight Aeronaut ( Zero G < 30s x f) OUTER SPACE: LEO, ISS, Moon+ Cosmonaut, Taikanaut, Astronaut Low Earth Orbit Space Tourist BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air Image Courtesy NASA Image Courtesy NASA Image Courtesy NASA Image Bill Viola ‘The Messenger ’ Image Sarah Jane Pell ADAS2
    4. 4. Part 1 : OUTER SPACE
    5. 5. <ul><li>EFFECTS OF RADIATION </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Synergistic effects with microgravity or environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Late degenerative tissue effects </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogenesis due to immune system changes </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac dysrhythmia </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration of age-related osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestation of previously asymptomatic cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic exposure </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS & PERFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Disorientation and inability to perform landing, egress, or other physical tasks, especially during /after G-level changes </li></ul><ul><li>Poor psychosocial adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep & circadian rhythm problems </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL PRACTICE </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma & acute medical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Illness & ambulatory health problems, renal stone formation </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic exposure </li></ul>KNOWN RISKS BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    6. 6. MEDICAL EVAULATIONS IN FLIGHT HARDWARE <ul><li>Normal testing includes: </li></ul><ul><li>operational tilt tests </li></ul><ul><li>stand tests </li></ul><ul><li>heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>arterial pressure </li></ul><ul><li>cardiac rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>cardiac function (ultrasound) </li></ul><ul><li>blood volume </li></ul><ul><li>plasma catecholamine levels </li></ul><ul><li>orthostatic intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>blood volume changes after flight. </li></ul>Basic ultrasound device, pulse oximeter, lower body negative pressure device, Holter monitor, continuous blood pressure device, and the respiratory impedance plethysmograph PRE | IN | POST FLIGHT BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    7. 7. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air CARDIO Disturbances in cardiac rhythm Post flight faintness upon standing, because of drop in blood pressure. (orthostatic intolerance) Reduced exercise tolerance Reduced circulating blood volume Changes in vascular function In microgravity, hydrostatic pressure gradient & gravitational pressure gradient disappear changing the vascular system The body tries to maintain constant normal & sheer stresses in blood vessels however… Microgravity decreases the dynamic range of vasocontriction and vasodilation
    8. 8. FLUID SHIFTS a One G. Normal distribution preflight on Earth b Zero G. Immediate response to Spaceflight c Zero G. Stabilized response in Spaceflight d One G. Immediate response landing on Earth Image ©NASA BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    9. 9. MOON FACE Image JAXA Astronaut Dr. CHaiki Mukai ©NASA BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    10. 10. ORTHOSTATIC WEAKNESS Image ©NASA Image Lower Body Negative Pressure ISS BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    11. 11. MUSCLE ATROPHY DECREASE IN BODY MASS | DECREASE IN LEG VOLUME | ATROPHY OF THE ANTIGRAVITY MUSCLES (THIGH, CALF) = DECREASE IN LEG STRENGTH – EXTENSOR MUSCLES MORE AFFECTED THAN FLEXOR MUSCLES DIFFICULT TO MOTIVATE ASTRONAUTS TO EXERCISE | FATIGUE | HARD TO STAY ON | BOREDOM | INHIBITED COORDINATION | “DEAD WEIGHT” LIFTS | HUGE TIME CONSIDERATION IN ASTRONAUT DAILY WORKLOAD SCHEDULE FULL BODY WORKOUT REQUIRED | RESISTIVE | CARDIOVASCULAR | NEAT BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    12. 12. MUSCLES & BONES NO WORK = NO CONDITION | ZERO PRESSURE ON BONE CAUSES DEMINERALISATION OF CALCIUM | EARLY ONSET OSTEOPEROSIS | CHANGES POSTURE | THUNDERBIRDS ARE GO CAUSES KIDNEY STONES | FREQUENT NEED TO UNRINATE | BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    13. 13. “ GOING” WITHOUT ANY FLOW DRINKING URINE OWN & OTHERS LIMITED PRIVACY LATENT VIRAL INFECTIONS FECAL WASTE DISPOSAL BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air WASTE RECLYCLING Photos Michelle Murray, NASA Ames Visit 2006 BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    14. 14. ORIENTATION Image Morag Whiteman, Star City The Arts Catalyst 2002 Image Peter Diamantes Zero G Corp. Image Morag Whiteman Image Morag Whiteman (http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-98/html/s98e5284.html) EYES BRAIN STEM SPINAL CORD BODY JOINTS TENDONMUSCLE & SKIN VESTIBULAR ORGANS CEREBELLUM OCULOMOTOR CENTER SENSORY & BALANCE SYSTEM BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    15. 15. NEURO ADAPTERS BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    16. 16. VESTIBULAR ORGANS The vestibulo-ocular reflex causes the eyes to rotate in a direction opposite from the head’s rotation BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    17. 17. LOCATORS PERFORMANCE STRATEGIES (1) reduced head movements in early phases of space flight (2) reliance on internal coordinate system (intrinsic) or environmental coordinates (extrinsic) during different phases of space flight for spatial orientation (3) compensation for the changing role of proprioceptive information in flight. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    18. 18. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air VISUAL ORIENTATION On Earth, a man strapped upright to a wall in a room that has been slowly tilted is persuaded that he is tilted • In space, when facing a rotating visual scene, the astronauts have the illusion that they are rotating • The Earth is generally perceived as being “below” • Distance perception is altered • Volumes and objects are perceived smaller in the vertical dimension (height) On Earth, the ball would fall based on the acceleration of gravity, but in space the ball is propelled toward the crewmember at a constant velocity In space, the subjects continue to expect the ball to accelerate downwards
    19. 19. 6 POINT MOVEMENT BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    20. 20. Image © NASA RETUNRING TO 1G BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    21. 21. RETURNING TO 0G Image © NASA Image © NASA DISORIENTATION | LATE VISUAL CUES | INABILITY TO JUDGE DISTANCE | MISCALCULATING STAIRS, CORNERS & DOORWAYS | LIGHT FLASHES | MUSCLE ATROPHY | ORTHOSTATIC INTOLLERNACE | FORGETTING GRAVITY | HABIT OF TETHERING| “LETTING GO” OF OBJECTS RETURNING TO HORIZONTAL SLEEP | FIRST NIGHT HOME = LAST NIGHT OF ‘MEMBERING’ THE EXPERIENCE OF WEIGHTLESSNESS SMELLING | FEELING WEIGHT | BATHING | SEEING COLOUR GREEN BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    22. 22. RESTING & SLEEPING Image ©NASA Astrobionics 90 MINUTE DAY & NIGHT CYCLES | DISCOMFORT | BORDOM | FEAR | CONFINED SPACE HABITAT | LACK OF PRIVACY | ISOLATION | FLOATING V’S FALLING : WAKING TO “CATCH YOURSELF” | PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTION PROHIBITIVE TO PERFORMANCE | SENSORY OVERLOAD | EXCITEMENT | PERFORMANCE PRESSURES | RISK | ADRENAL FATIGUE | | LACK OF DREAM STATES? NON DISCUSSED BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    23. 23. DREAM OCCUPATION Ed White, First American Spacewalker. Image NASA BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    24. 24. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    25. 25. Part 2: SUB SPACE
    26. 26. <ul><li>DIVING REFLEX </li></ul><ul><li>Immersing the head of adults & newborn mammals underwater produces the following reflex: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased periphery blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Increased anaerobic metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Long duration training produces post-apnea & post-exercise blood acidosis & oxidative stress, mimicking aquatic species </li></ul>IMMERSION Image Sarah Jane Pell & Lawrence English, ‘Petrification ARC Biennale 2005 BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    27. 27. KNOWN DIVING RISKS DECOMPRESSION ILLNESS BRAIN | SPINAL CORD | LUNGS | JOINTS | INNER EAR | EYES | SKIN | BLADDER EMBOLISM BRAIN | SPINAL CORD | HEART | LUNGS | JOINTS | INNER EAR | EYES | SKIN | BLADDER | INTESTINES | GAS POISIONINGS CO2 | OXYGEN TOXICITY | HYPERVENTILATION | NITROGEN NARCOSIS | REVEARSE BAROTRAUMA EAR | EYES | SKIN | SINUS | TOOTH | GASTROINTESTINAL | PULMONARY | SALT WATER ASPIRATION NEAR DROWNING DROWNING INJURY BLEEDING | BURNS | SHOCK| FRACTURES | SPRAINS | LIMB TRAUMA | BITES | STINGS | HYPER/HYPOTHERMIA BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    28. 28. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air STATIC APNOEA Image Sebastian Burat, Apnea Training Image Sam British Freediving Association Image Adiscipline, Russia The apnea is a state in which one voluntarily or involuntarily “ceases to breathe”. The diver takes a deep breath and descends under water. Carbon Dioxide Paralysis of the Respiratory Center This pathological condition is due to an overcoming the impulse of breathing and thus crossing the critical line. Lack of Oxygen Hyperventilation hides potential danger if straight after that the diver does tiring physical activity. WARNING: Avoid intensive physical work under water after hyperventilation .
    29. 29. NEURO PROTECTIVE? Diving Reflex Linked To Ischemic Tolerance Trigemino-cardiac Reflex: Physiological Or Pathophysiological? Neuro-protective Strategies In Freediving & Static Apnea Learnt, Membered Or ‘Remembered’? BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    30. 30. w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space Image Adiscipline, Russia Image Adiscipline, Russia Image Adiscipline, Russia Image Adiscipline, Russia OXYGEN UPTAKE
    31. 31. BOYLE’S LAW BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    32. 32. Image World Freediving Assoc. Image Blue2005 Italy Image World Freediving Assoc. Image Tania Stretton Image Sebastian Burat DYNAMIC APNOEA Raised Partial Pressure of O2 = shallow water blackout = near/ drowning The raised partial pressure of oxygen creates a false feeling of well-being. At the same time, CO2 accumulates slower without signaling the dangerously-decreasing oxygen concentration in blood. During ascent, the partial pressure of oxygen is suddenly reduced, robbing the diver of oxygen to breathe. Carbon dioxide itself quickly enters the blood and expands causing irresistible impulse of breathing. Since there is no oxygen supply, the diver drowns. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    33. 33. PRESSURE w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space SQUEEZE
    34. 34. COMPRESSION BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    35. 35. BREATHING GASES BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    36. 36. OPTICAL ILLUSIONS Image Sarah Jane Pell, ADAS 2 The Underwater Centre, Fremantle 2002 BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    37. 37. ORIENTATION GAS RISES | WEIGHT FALLS | PRESSURE | TEMPERATURE | FLOW | LIGHT | BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    38. 38. BARO REFLEX Image NASA Ames Image House at the bottom of the Sea, Italy 2005 The diving reflex has an oxygen-conserving effect during underwater exercise Water provides vibration protection and resistance Peddling backwards underwater requires greater cardio fitness & employs more pedestrian muscles BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    39. 39. Images Bill Viola ‘Five Angels for the new Millennium, 1999 Part 3: WET SPACE weightless environment training
    40. 40. WET EVA Images © NASA Sonny Carter Neutral Buoyancy Lab, Johnson Space Centre Images © NASA Sonny Carter Neutral Buoyancy Lab, Johnson Space Centre Image ORLAN Suit, Star City EVA = Extra Vehicular Activity Simulation Unlike outer space, water provides omni-directional resistance & pressure variation nevertheless simulating microgravity PP EVA suits, hand tools etc. must be weighted/ ballasted to simulate no gravity Archimedes principal , any body immersed in a liquid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    41. 41. CAN YOU REACH IT | CAN YOU SEE IT | CAN YOU WORK IT | CAN YOU DO IT | HUMAN PERFORMANCE OPERATION & PROTOCOL TRAINING SUIT EVALUATION | PROCEEDURAL TASK-RELATED SKILLS DEVELOPMENT TESTING THE SUIT BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    42. 42. SATURATION SUIT (1 ATA) BIORISK HARDWARE TESTS EVA DEMANDS BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    43. 43. EVA DECO The pressure inside the space suit ranges from 300-400 hPa Astronauts are therefore susceptible to decompression illness The elimination of nitrogen is achieved by preliminary oxygen respiration BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    44. 44. SYMPTOMS OF DECOMPRESSION ILLNESS OCCUPATIONAL RISKS BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    45. 45. University at Buffalo NY State University Annular Pool & Human Rated Centrifuge Potentials for innovative countermeasures using hydro | centrifuge therapies? PHYSICAL COUNTERMEASURE | HYPERBARIC MEDICINE? | RAPID CELL GROWTH? | GRAVITY? BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    46. 46. <ul><li>POTENTIAL FOR WET ARCHITECTURES IN SPACE? </li></ul><ul><li>ACTUAL AND VIRTUAL HYBRIDS? </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL COUNTERMEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>RADIATION STORM SHELTERS </li></ul><ul><li>TELECONFERENCING / COMMS PORT </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL SANCTUARY </li></ul><ul><li>EVA TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEMS TEACHING </li></ul><ul><li>SICKBAY </li></ul>MIT PoolPhone David Blaine “Drowned Alive” NY 2005 BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    47. 47. TELEMATICS NETWORKS| REAL TIME WORKOUT | VIRTUAL INTERFACE | REMOTE CONNECTION MIT Remote Sports Competition MIT PoolPhone BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air
    48. 48. BODY SHOCKS from subspace to outer space w w w .s a r a h j a n e p e l l .c o m body | sea | sky | space | air

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