http://www.yousaytoo.com/gallery_image/pics/94/92/8/555794/original/remot The terrain of East Africa was hilly and e_image_14447_0.jpgrugged, which caused the farmers of theAksum Kingdom to use terrace farming.However, fertile land for Swahili Coast. Major cities: Adulis: Major seaport/capitol of the Kingdom ofAksum. Zanzibar: Major trading city along Swahili Coast. Kilwa: Another major port city. Also, a center ofgold trade. Impact of region: The people of the Aksum Kingdom and SwahiliCoast depended on the Indian Ocean and theArabian Sea for trading goods. Diffusion of ideas and goods: Ideas and goods spread throughout East Africadue to the many trade routes and port cities alongthe coast. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_1JuuMk4daDs/Sn85MJ7W3BI/AAAAAAAAAME/xX9fD5YWhds/s400/09proto2-600.jpg
100 – 940 CE.
Origins: The Aksum Kingdom was founded by Sabaeans who came from South Arabia. Lasted from 100 CE to 940 CE.Geography: Located South of Kush. Aksum was established along the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. As a result, it became a major trading region.Adulis: Major sea port. Also the capitol of Aksum. Traded with Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and the Roman Empire.Technology: Built dams, aqueducts and had advanced knowledge about building with stone instead of mud bricks. First to mint own coins in East AfricaEconomy: Played a huge part in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean area. Aksums access to the Nile River and the Red Sea enabled trading opportunities with Indian, African and Arabian Seas. As a result of Aksums big part in the trade along the coast, they were a huge influence over sea trade in the Red Sea. Major Trading Routes/Systems: Trading system between the Roman Empire and India – exported ivory, gold and emeralds. Trading route from Egypt to India – used monsoon winds to cross. Caravan routes to Egypt (Known as Nile corridor) – connected Africa to Egypt. Silk Road.
Politics/Government: Monarchy government. Adopted a feudal system to help govern distribution of farm land. Had one king that controlled nobles. The nobles would pay the king tribute through the ruling of the lower classes. Conquered various kingdoms on the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea. Most memorable was the invasion of the Kingdom of Kush. By destroying Kush, Aksum now controlled many important trade routes not to mention vital, fertile soil.Religion: Aksums religion was originally a poleistic religion. They believed in gods that controlled nature. In the 4th century, King Ezana converted the entire empire to Christianity. Resistance at first, but gradually accepted the new religion.
Culture: Had many legends. Most famous legend is the Solomonic dynasty and the Ark. Aksumites believed that the Queen of Sheba was from Ethiopia. She went to Jerusalem to visit King Solomon. They had a child named Menelik. Later, Menelik returned to Jerusalem and took the Ark of Covenant back to Ethiopia. Thus, it is said that the line of Aksum kings were descendents of Solomon. http://www.bonzasheila.com/art/archives/jun09/images/29.%20de%20Heere, %20Lucas%20- Adulis carried many different cultures such %20Solomon%20And%20The%20Queen%20Of%20Sheba.jpg as Egyptian, Kushite, Sudanic, Arabic, Middle Eastern, and Indian. Highly influenced by South Arabia culture- wise. Only East African empire to have a written language, Geez. Artwork portrayed Middle Eastern deities. Built pillars 60 – 100 ft. tall. Scattered throughout the Aksum Kingdom. Also built huge Christian temples. Farmers used terrace farming. (Flattened areas of land to expand farming land.) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6b/Ethiopic_genesis.jpg/220px-Ethiopic_genesis.jpg
http://www.traveladventures.org/continents/africa/images/axum02.jpgMost memorable ruler of Aksum.His tutor, Frumentius, converted Ezana toChristianity. Also baptized him.Converted the entire Kingdom toChristianity, replacing their polytheisticbeliefs.Both Ezana and Frumentius wereresponsible for the drastic increase ofChristians in Aksum.Aksum reached its height under Ezanasrule.Very successful with military campaigns.Ezana conquered many kingdoms runningalong the Red Sea such as the Kingdom ofKush and Meroe.Built beautiful structures called obelisks(steles) dedicated to himself.Also responsible for finding the Ark of theCovenant which he handed over to theCathedral of St. Mary of Zion.Aksum thrived until the diffusion of Muslimscaused a conflict.War occurred between Aksumites andMuslims. Resulted in the Muslimstriumphing. King Ezanas Stele in Aksum
Trading/Exports: Main exports: Grain, wheat, cattle, sheep, camels, ivory, tortoise shells, rhinoceros horns, gold, iron and salt. With India and Mediterannean: Ivory tusks, http://www.aspireauctions.com/auctions/2005MAY/thumbs/9528-01.jpg tortoise shells, gold, emerald, and silk. With Sudan: Ivory tusks. http://rlv.zcache.com/tortoise_shell_close_up_magnet- p147934991594742797z85qu_400.jpg With South Asia: Spices. With Rome: Gold and Iron.Trading/Imports: From Egypt: Cloth and glass. Indian: Steel and cloth.Decline of the Aksum Kingdom: http://www.hownwhat.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/06/buy-ghana- Soil exhaustion from farming over the years. gold.jpg Slowly, couldnt produce enough food to support population. Spread of Muslims conflicted with Christianity. http://marilyn mollsnorwex. Muslims burned the port of Adulis, com/wp- disconnecting trade. content/uplo ads/wpsc/pro duct_images /window_clot h_purple2_1. http://www.relaxingpleasures.com/wp- jpg content/uploads/2011/08/Give-Her-Affordable- Created-Emerald-Jewelry-Fit-for-a-Queen.jpg
Origins: http://lanadipati.republika.pl/africaswahilicoast.jpg Bantu immigration traveled to East Africa and merged with the local population already living there, Afterwords, Arabic and Persians joined this wide mix of languages. Interaction between the different languages caused a need to create a common language known as Swahili, which means “living on the coast.” This language was mixed with Bantu and ArabicGeography: Fertile land, very useful for agricultural farming. Used monsoon winds to travel a cross large bodies of water. Established along the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.Zanzibar: Largest settlement in East Africa. Also one key port Technology: of a major trade route. Wealthy had houses with coral Said to have the most purest form of the Swahili plaster. Stays cool no matter language here. the weather.Kilwa: Had draining systems, flushing toilets. One of the most famous, important trading posts of the Swahili Coast. Built aqueducts for fresh water. Intricate designs on doors.
Economy: Merchants in port cities acted as “middle men.” This term means that they traded with locals living inland in which they cannot reach the water themselves. Therefore, they profited through charging them. Most valuable natural resource was gold. Ports had friendly rivalry, so no conquests occurred. Rulers gained wealth through taxing goods that passed their region. Main things traded: Ivory and slaves. Fishing out of the ocean. Major Trading/Routes: Middle men for central, south and east Africa. Trade route through Tanzania. Goods brought to Arabic, Indian and Portuguese traders. Zanzibar: Major area for selling slaves. Textiles brought in by Arabic countries.Politics/Government: Rulers focused on being the middle men. More businesslike than controlling. Divided into city states. Each governed by a noble. Nobles were selected by nobility and qualifications. Governments goal as a whole was to retain control and order while promoting the coastal trading. Women could govern. Could categorize as Aristocracy. Mainly governed by Muslim families.
Religion: Life style revolved around Muslim beliefs. Study the Quran and learn Arabic language in school. Monotheistic religion; Worship Allah. Prophet; Muhammad. Favored over Christianity because it didnt control every aspect of their lives.Culture: Indian Ocean connected Africa with China, Persia, Arabia and India. Sailors used monsoon winds to travel across the ocean. Swahili culture was influenced widely through all the trading from different regions. Arabic and Persian traders occasionally settled in the port cities of East Africa. Ended up marrying local women, therefore diffusing diverse cultures and heritages. http://newsblaze.com/pix/2010/0430/pix/islamic_veil_4.230.jpg Swahili Coast adopted Muslim as their religion. Buildings to worship Allah were built (Mosques). People prayed in Arabic. Men wore long robes while women covered their hair as Muslims would. Seaborne immigrants introduced the coastal region to bananas and coconuts. Farmers and fishers worked with iron and practiced pottery. Women wear black dresses called buibui. They also cover their heads with a black cloth called hijabu. http://www.urdusky.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/quran.jpg
First ruler of Kilwa.Member of the Mahdali Dynasty.Ruled during a prosperous time forKilwa.Began minting their own coins under hisrule.Rebuilt the Great Mosque. Making it thelargest mosque to worship Allah inAfrica,Also built the Palace of Husuni Kubwa.He traveled to the court of Sultan wherehe depicted Sultans great generosity.Soon afterwards, he was given thename, “Father of Gifts.” http://s1.hubimg.com/u/4923856_f520.jpg http://www.joelscoins.com/images/tanzset.jpg http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/09/98/29/great-mosque-manama.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-pavVNeF_p-A/Tjse_f671PI/AAAAAAAAABk/AxDcD3Tkt88/s1600/allah2.jpgTrading/Exports: Main exports: Ebony, gold, ivory and sandalwood. With Persia: Silk.Trading/Imports: From Zimbabwe: Gold and Iron. From India: Textiles. From Tanzania: Ivory. From Asia: Textiles, Jewelry, porcelain and spices. From Perisa: Ivory, gold, iron, slaves, and exotic animals.Due to its convenient location in the south, Indian ships would be able to sail and return in one single monsoonseason.Kilwa flourished immensely through international trading. However, it wasnt alone.City states/ports were connected by a commerce also by caravan trade routes.Due to Islamic growth, it provided a unified feeling of trust throughout the ports. http://library.thinkquest.org/C003603/images/monsoons03.jpg http://amazingrust.com/experiments/how_to/Images/Iron_Lump.jpg
Swahili Coast Decline: When the Portuguese arrived on the Swahili Coast, the entire coast was thrown off course. Kilwa was no longer the dominant city. Instead, the attention had turned to Malindi and Mombasa. Unfortunately, the Portuguese raided Kilwa and Mombasa in intention to control all the trading. Even though the Portuguese could never control the trading on the northern coast, the Swahili Coasts glory days were over. http://www.google.com/imgres?q=swahili+coast+map&start=33&num=10&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1440&bih=809 &tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=jyzhIyCeQMMPUM:&imgrefurl=http://plopsymd.com/tag/kenya/&docid=QhmhBiWj STqOhM&imgurl=http://plopsymd.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/kenya_map3.gif&w=1002&h=1214&ei=TlfDTs C9M6OU2QWG7dnZDg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1039&vpy=315&dur=1075&hovh=247&hovw=204&tx=109&t y=98&sig=104612076759046037351&sqi=2&page=2&tbnh=134&tbnw=111&ndsp=28&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:33