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Mis

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  • 1. Types of IS andComponents of MISReport submitted for MISSubmitted to:Mr. C. NagapavanFaculty, Centre for Bus. Adm.Submitted by:Apurva UtkarshIMBA- 3rd Sem.(Session 2010-15)
  • 2. Index:Information System………………………………………………………….01Fundamental role of IS………………………………………………………02Types of IS……………………………………………………………...…….02  OAS…………………………………………………………………….02  TPS……………………………………………………………………..03  MIS………………………………………………………….………….04  DSS………………………………………………………….………….06  ESS……………………………………………….…………………….07Case…………………………………………………………………………...09
  • 3. W ithincreasing competition and sizes of the firms, use of computers in 01business has gone up. At the same time the complexities of the systems havealso gone up. Earlier there were separate information systems for separatebusiness functional areas but now there is a merger and large interdependenceof different business processes and IS. The cut-throat competition in the markethas made it essential for the firms to provide relevant information instantly totheir managers in order to get hold of the opportunities or at least survive in themarket. This makes IS one of the most vital parts of the business.Information System (IS)Information: Information is data that has been processed into a form that ismeaningful to the recipient (USER) and is of real or perceived value in currentor prospective actions or decisions.System: A system is a group of interrelated components, with a clearly definedboundary, working toward the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputsand producing outputs in an organized transformation process.Information System: An IS can be any organized combination of people,hardware, software, communications networks, data resources, and policies andprocedures that stores, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in anorganization.
  • 4. 02Fundamental Roles of IS in Business:An IS has essentially three fundamental roles in a business at three differentlevels as-  Support of business processes and operations for lower level management  Support of decision making for the middle level management  Support of strategies for competitive advantage for the top level management Top Management Support Strategies for Competitive Advantage Support Business Decision Middle Level Management Making Support Business Processes Lower Level Management and Operations Fundamental Roles of IS in BusinessTypes of ISThere are many IS but to conclude this report in accordance with the syllabusthese five are discussed:Office Automation System (OAS): Office Automation Systems are systemsthat try to improve the productivity of employees who need to process data andinformation. Perhaps the best example is the wide range of software systemsthat exist to improve the productivity of employees working in an office (e.g.Microsoft Office) or systems that allow employees to work from home or whilston the move.
  • 5. Transaction Processing System (TPS): As the name implies, TransactionProcessing Systems ("TPS") are designed to process routine transactionsefficiently and accurately. A business will have several (sometimes many) TPS;for example:- Billing systems to send invoices to customers- Systems to calculate the weekly and monthly payroll and tax payments- Production and purchasing systems to calculate raw material requirements- Stock control systems to process all movements into, within and out of thebusinessComputerized TPS is of three types:  Batch TPS: Batch processing involves processing several transactions at the same time, and the results are not immediately available when the transaction is being entered; there is a time delay. Transactions are accumulated for a certain period where updates are made especially after work. This kind of TPS is relatively easy to program, install and maintain and batches can be processed during low-activity periods but at the same time information is delayed.  Online TPS: OLTP is the form of TP that processes data as it becomes available. It processes transactions in real-time and is required for any ‘modern’ application where time is critical. It must be well supported by client/server computing model.  Hybrid TPS: This is a newer kind of TP which is a combination of Batch and Online TPS. In this system OLTP applications can feed transactions to batch systems with real time order capture and delayed processing.
  • 6. Management Information System (MIS): Management Information Systemismainly concerned with internal sources of information. MIS usually take datafrom the transaction processing systems and summarize it into a series ofmanagement reports like Scheduled reports, On-demand reports, Key-indicator(business fundamentals), Exception reports, etc.MIS reports support middlemanagement and operational supervisors in tactical and operational decisionmaking. Goals of MIS:There are essentially three goals of MIS:  Provide managers with information  Regular, routine operations  Control, organize and plan betterFunctional Perspectives of MIS  Financial MIS Will integrate information from multiple sources Functions Costing P&L reporting Auditing Funds management  Manufacturing Design and Engineering Master Production Scheduling Inventory Control Materials Planning Manufacturing and Process Control Quality Control  Marketing Market research  Web-based market research Pricing
  • 7.  Transportation and Logistics Route and schedule optimization  Human Resources  AccountingComponents of MIS:There are essentially 5 components of a MIS-  Hardware: Hardware includes all physical devices and materials used in information processing. Specifically, it includes not only machines, such as computers and other equipment, but also all data media, that is, tangible objects on which data are recorded, from sheets of papers to magnetic or optical disc. In computer based MIS it refers to the computer system and peripherals.  Software: It includes all types of information processing set of applications and programs in the computer based IS. Software is of two types: i) System software which allows the user to use the computer like MS Windows 7, Unix, Mac, etc. ii) Application software which facilitates using a particular application of the computer like MS Excel, Photoshop, etc.  Data: Data are the raw materials of a Management Information System. It is a valuable organizational resource which when processed becomes information and thus provides ground for day to day business decisions to the managers.  Procedures: Procedures are sets of rules or guidelines, which an organization establishes for the use of a computer based IS. In other words, it is a set of information processing and operating instructions for the people who will use an information system. Examples are using a software package, instructions regarding applications, etc.
  • 8.  People: People are essential ingredient for the successful operation of all IS. These people include end users and IS specialists. IS specialists are people who develop and operate IS. They include system analysts, software developers, system operators, and other managerial, technical, and clerical IS personnel. Briefly, systems analysts design IS based on the information requirements of end users, software developers create computer programs based on the specifications of systems analysts, and system operators help monitor and operate large computer systems and networks. End users (also called users or clients) are people who use an information system or the information it produces. They can be customers, salespersons, engineers, clerks, accountants, or managers and are found at all levels of an organization.Decision Support System (DSS):Decision-support systems ("DSS") arespecifically designed to help management make decisions in situations wherethere is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. DSScomprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analysethe options and alternatives. DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet anddatabases to create "what-if" models.Characteristics of DSS:  Data from multiple sources internal and external to organization  Presentation flexibility  Simulation and what-if capability  Support for multiple decision approaches  Statistical analysis
  • 9. Advantage of DSS:  Improves personal efficiency  Speed up the process of decision making  Increases organizational control  Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker  Speeds up problem solving in an organization  Facilitates interpersonal communication  Promotes learning or training  Generates new evidence in support of a decision  Creates a competitive advantage over competition  Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem spaceDisadvantages of DSS:  Assumptions about reality may be incorrect  Accuracy of predications often unreliable  Requires abstract thinkingExecutive Support System (ESS):An Executive Support System ("ESS") isdesigned to help senior management make strategic decisions. It gathers,analyses and summarises the key internal and external information used in thebusiness.A good way to think about an ESS is to imagine the senior management team inan aircraft cockpit - with the instrument panel showing them the status of all thekey business activities. ESS typically involves lots of data analysis andmodeling tools such as "what-if" analysis to help strategic decision-making.Characteristics of ESS:  Tailored to individual executives  Easy to use  Drill down capabilities  Can access external data  Can deal with a high degree of uncertainty  Future orientation  Linked with value-added business processes
  • 10. Capabilities of an ESS:  Support for defining overall vision  Support for strategic planning  Support for strategic organizing & staffing  Support for strategic control  Support for crisis management
  • 11. A CASE RakeshAnmol has a family owned hereditary restaurant which spans over 3 floors in a single building. 1st floor is dedicated to fast food and snacks, 2nd floor is dedicated to international cuisine while 3 rd floor is a dedicated bar. The restaurant was once one of the most desired places in the city with customers from premier segments flowing to the place. Rakesh is the only person to take care of his business as there is no one except him in his family to run this business. Rakesh, being the only person to manage his business, was finding it tough to run the show. There was mismanagement on two of the three floors. Manual-billing system made it tough to detect the fraud in the accounts and particularly in the bill-books as there was only one billing counter for all the three floors. Bill generation and table service were also very much slow. There were no immediate records regarding sales and items sold. The inventory system was also having a back-log as there was no instant update and so on. All these things led to customer dissatisfaction and a continuous downfall in the sales and customers was clearly visible. What Rakesh did…?? Rakesh went for installing an Information System. He now has a TPS installed in his restaurant which is having three computerized billing- counters, one on each floor with one of them as the super-ordinate and rest being sub-ordinates. The main system records all the bills generated, thus eliminating any misrepresentation or fraud in the books. It also reduced the service time in the restaurant. The inventory is now 24*7 updated. There was instant information regarding availability of an item. Order processing was also connected with this system and thus processing time also went down. Customers were turning up. He is now planning for extension of his business and has also installed MIS which assists him in taking effective decisions by generating reports based on the TPS. Now he is having butter in his mouth as he is making more and more out of the same old family business.

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