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Define
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Define

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  • 1. Defining “culture”and cultural anthropology Credit given to: Howard Culbertson at Southern Nazarene University
  • 2. • “A few years ago I took a cultural anthropology class at a community college. This class studied people in great detail but never really mentioned what culture was. We assumed we were studying culture, but the [word culture] was never truly defined.” • A student in Global Evangelism class
  • 3. Cultural Anthropology -- an academic discipline
  • 4. Cultural Anthropology -- an academic discipline
  • 5. Cultural Anthropology -- an academic discipline
  • 6. Cultural Anthropology -- an academic discipline
  • 7. Cultural Anthropology -- an academic discipline
  • 8. Culture iswhat makesyou a strangerwhen you areaway fromhome
  • 9. Defining culture1. Philip Bock – What makes you a stranger when you’re away from home2. Ruth Benedict – learned patterns3. Charles Kraft – Complex, integrated coping mechanism4. Bob Sjogren -- What makes us “us” and them “them”
  • 10. Viewing culture as successive levels Diagram by Lloyd Kwast
  • 11. An iceberg as an analogy of culture
  • 12. From Gary Weaver in Culture, Communication and Conflict: Readings in Intercultural Relations
  • 13. Culture is a complex, integrated coping mechanism.Culture consists of 1. Learned concepts and behavior 2. Underlying perspectives (worldview) 3. Resulting products • nonmaterial (customs and rituals) • material (artifacts) – Chuck Kraft’s definition
  • 14. Scattered thoughts about Cultural Anthropology• It’s holistic (as opposed to atomistic or narrow)• It’s comparative – Etic (from outsider’s vantage point) – Emic (from an insider’s vantage point• Perspectives run the gamut from relativism to ethnocentrism• You will get your hands dirty (fieldwork)
  • 15. • What makes up a culture?• What are those learned patterns and behaviors?
  • 16. Cultural UniversalsGeorge Murdock’s 70 cultural universals
  • 17. age-grading ethics housing population policyathletic sports ethno-botany hygiene postnatal carebodily adornment etiquette incest taboos pregnancy usagescalendar faith healing inheritance rules property rightscleanliness training family joking propitiation ofcommunity feasting kin groups supernatural beingsorganization fire-making kinship nomenclature puberty customscooking folklore language religious ritualco-operative labor food taboos law residence rulescosmology funeral rites luck / superstitions sexual restrictionscourtship games magic soul conceptsdancing gestures marriage status differentiationdecorative art gift-giving mealtimes surgerydivination government medicine tool-makingdivision of labor greetings obstetrics tradedream interpretation hair styles penal sanctions visitingeducation hospitality personal names weather controleschatology weaving
  • 18. 9 cultural universals
  • 19. 1. Place and time
  • 20. 2. Family life
  • 21. 3. Economics
  • 22. 4. Food, clothing, shelter and transportation See note
  • 23. Note: “Drives” vs. culture• Hunger is a basic human psycho-biological drive.• How that hunger is satisfied involves all kinds of cultural things (what is eaten, how it is prepared, how it is eaten . . .).
  • 24. 5. Communication
  • 25. 6. Government
  • 26. 7. Arts and recreation
  • 27. 8. Education
  • 28. 9. Quest for the supernatural
  • 29. Sociocultural change
  • 30. Is it worth my time?• Question: Why study cultural anthropology?• Answer: To enrich a college education by giving new insights about ourselves and our own cultural context as well as stretching our imaginations.

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