Las GuíAs Orquestales
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Las GuíAs Orquestales

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    Las GuíAs Orquestales Las GuíAs Orquestales Document Transcript

    • 1 Las guías orquestales Guía a la orquesta para jóvenes oyentes (Benjamín Britten). Hablaremos ahora de la Guía de orquesta para jóvenes oyentes, de Benjamín Britten (1913- 1976), es una pieza de carácter didáctico dirigida a todos aquellos que se inician en el pasatiempo de la música clásica. El nombre completo es “Variaciones y fuga sobre un tema de Purcell, Op. 34”. Fue compuesta en 1946 para una película educativa titulada: Los instrumentos de la orquesta. La música es una suite de 13 variaciones, de media hora de duración, inspiradas en una danza de Purcell “Abdelazar, o la venganza del moro”. Comentarios: 1. Benjamín Britten es uno de los compositores ingleses más importantes del siglo XX. 2. Una obra básica para todos aquellos que, sin ser músicos, queremos apreciar los sonidos de la orquesta clásica. Permite a aprender de forma amena los distintos timbres de los instrumentos de la orquesta. El narrador (generalmente el director de la orquesta) hace una presentación de cada instrumento indicando sus características de timbre sonoro y las posibilidades expresivas del mismo. Es una exposición bastante amena, sazonada de mucha chispa y humor. 3. Al final de las variaciones hay una fuga en donde participan por turnos todos los instrumentos. The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, opus 34, is a musical composition by Benjamin Britten in 1946 with a subtitle "Variations
    • 2 and Fugue on a Theme of Purcell". The work is one of the best-known pieces by the composer, and is one of the three popularly used scores in children's music education, together with Saint-Saëns' The Carnival of the Animals and Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf. This work, in composer's own words: is affectionately inscribed to the children of John and Jean Maud: Humphrey, Pamela, Caroline and Virginia, for their edification and entertainment. Instrumentation The work is scored for piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B flat and A, 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in C, 3 trombones, tuba, percussion (timpani, bass drum, cymbals, tambourine, triangle, side drum, wood block, xylophone, castanets, tamtam and whip), harp and strings. Structure The sections of the piece and instruments introduced by the variations are as follows. Theme: Allegro maestoso e largamente Tutti, Woodwinds, Brass, Strings, then Percussion Variation A: Presto (Piccolo and Flute ) Variation B: Lento (Oboes) Variation C: Moderato (Clarinets) Variation D: Allegro alla marcia (Bassoons) Variation E: Brillante: alla polacca (Violins) Variation F: Meno mosso (Violas) Variation G: - (Cellos) Variation H: Cominciando lento ma poco a poco accel. al Allegro (Double Basses) Variation I: Maestoso (Harp) Variation J: L'istesso tempo (Horns) Variation K: Vivace (Trumpets) Variation L: Allegro pomposo (Trombones and tuba) Variation M: Moderato (Percussion) Fugue: Allegro molto The work is based on the Rondeau from Abdelazar1, written by Henry Purcell. In the introduction, the theme is initially played by the entire orchestra, then by the individual sections of the orchestra: first the woodwinds, then the brass, then the strings, and finally by the percussion. 1 Z570 Incidental Music (1695) Abdelazer -or- The Moor's Revenge [Aphra Behn]. Z570/1:Overture, Z570/2-9: Suite (Rondeau/Air/Air/Minuet/Air/Jig/Hornpipe/Air); Z570/10 (Song: Lucinda is bewitching fair)
    • 3 After this introduction to the different families of the orchestra by repetitions of the theme, there is a more in-depth look at the different instrument families with variations on the theme played by individual instruments. Although it starts by featuring the piccolo and flutes, the underlying harmonic structure is maintained by the harp and strings. Each member of the woodwind family is then introduced in turn, highlighting the unique sound of each instrument. This is the reason it is called the young person's guide to the orchestra: because of the repeating theme with different instruments showing how each instrument sounds. This format is then copied by the strings in turn, and then by the brass and percussion, travelling through their individual variations. After the whole orchestra has been taken in pieces, it is reassembled using an original fugue which starts with the piccolo, followed in by all the woodwinds, strings, brass and percussion in turn. Once everyone has entered, the brass are re-introduced with Purcell’s original melody while the remainder continue the fugue theme until the piece finally comes to an end after building up to a fortissimo finish. Narration A narration was written by Britten's friend Eric Crozier, intended to be spoken by the conductor or a separate speaker during a performance. In fact, the composer arranged two versions of this piece for playing: with narration, or without. The one without narration is more often recorded. The commentary often alters between recordings. Pedro y el lobo (Prokofiev) Hablaremos acerca de otra obra didáctica proveniente de Rusia: Pedro y el lobo Un cuento musical para niños OP. 67. ¿Conoces a Pedro y el Lobo? Es un cuento musical donde los niños aprenden a reconocer algunos instrumentos de la orquesta. Es una pieza bastante popular y que ha sido grabada en casi todos los idiomas. Contiene temas y melodías de encantadoras, que la hacen atractiva desde la primera audición. Esta obra musical narrada fue escrita por Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953), y presentada por vez primera en Moscú, en el Teatro para niños, en 1936. Corresponde al período del compositor de mayor productividad,
    • 4 que se inicia con su regreso a la Unión Soviética en 1932, después de varios años de un exilio voluntario. Se establece entonces una colaboración con el estado para difundir la música clásica en amplios sectores de la población. Cada personaje del cuento viene representado por un instrumento. Así tenemos: Pedro y el Lobo 1. Flauta . El Pajarito. 2. Clarinete bajo. El gato. 3. Oboe. El pato. 4. Cuarteto de cuerdas – Pedro. 5. Fagot. El Abuelo. 6. Tres cornos – El Lobo. 7. Percusión, Timbales, bombos y platillos. Los cazadores. Bolero (Ravel) El Bolero es sin duda, la composición más popular del músico francés Maurice Ravel ( 1875-1937). Es un prolongado crescendo que se origina a partir de un motivo bastante simple, el cual es ejecutado por los diferentes instrumentos de la orquesta. Resulta ser una obra bastante pedagógica, pues permite conocer los timbres de los distintos instrumentos a medida que van entrando en acción dentro de la ora. El resultado es una música cautivante que hipnotiza al oyente, desde el principio hasta el fin, durante 15 minutos y lo atrapa con su ritmo misterioso de carácter español. Bolero de Ravel Intrumentos Flautín
    • 5 Flauta Clarinete Clarinete alto Oboe d’amore Saxofón Corno Inglés Saxo soprano Fagot Contrafagot Corno Trompetas Trombón Violines, violas, violoncellos, contrabajos. Percusión : caja, arpa, Comentarios: 1. ¿Por qué le gusta tanto a la gente el Bolero? Quizás sea por su ritmo tan marcado y su melodía pegajosa. El ritmo del bolero es constante en toda la pieza. Es un ritmo de ¾. Sin embargo el son del redoblante es el que más nos interesa por su poder de atracción. 2. El motivo melódico en La menor, es una línea ondulante que se proyecta hacia delante con mucha fuerza. Se repite 18 veces a medida que se incorporan más instrumentos a la orquesta. Es un obstinato de dimensiones colosales, quizás sin parangón dentro de la música clásica. Cuando el motivo cesa, entonces el ritmo del tambor aumenta de volumen para mantener el interés del oyente. Hacia el final la tonalidad cambia de manera sorpresiva a mi mayor, para luego retornar a La mayor. 3. El Bolero es una demostración practica de lo que se puede lograr con los instrumentos y sus combinaciones para crear nuevos timbres, enriqueciendo la paleta del compositor. En algunas de las entradas se repiten los instrumentos, siguiendo la misma melodía, pero tocando en distintas tonalidades y entonces se escuhan “instrumentos nuevos”. En este sentido es una guía orquestal musical mucho mas sofisticada que la de Britten.
    • 6 4. La historia del Bolero es un ejemplo de cómo una idea muy simple puede originar una obra genial sin tanto esfuerzo. La bailarina Ida Rubinstein le pidió a Ravel una obra escrita expresamente para ella. Un ballet de carácter español. Ravel intenta tomar prestado un tema de la suite Iberia de Isaac Albeniz, para orquestarlo. Pero luego se entera que director español Enrique Fernández Arbós tenía la exclusiva para orquestar las obras de Albéniz, por lo cual abandona el proyecto. Entonces decide tomar un ritmo de Bolero, que es una danza española para su composición. Ravel había visitado España y estaba familiarizado con su música y folklore. La obra fue todo un éxito desde su presentación. Con el paso del tiempo se ha convertido en la pieza clásica más popular del siglo XX. Los derechos de autor han reportado más de 27 millones de Euros! 5. Irónicamente, cuando se estrenó la pieza por ves primera el 20 de Noviembre de 1928, fue incomprendida, a tal punto, que una dama gritó desde su palco: “Agarren a ese loco”. Ravel, con su habitual sentido del humor, comentó después de la función “ Ella era la única persona que se dio cuenta de la verdad” The Carnival of the Animals Le Carnaval des Animaux (The Carnival of the Animals) is a musical suite of fourteen movements by the French Romantic composer Camille Saint-Saëns. The orchestral work has a duration between 22 and 30 minutes. History Le Carnaval was composed in February 1886 while Saint-Saëns was vacationing in a small Austrian village. It was originally scored for a chamber group of flute/piccolo, clarinet (B flat and C), two pianos, glass armonica, xylophone, two violins, viola, cello and double bass, but is usually performed today with a full orchestra of strings, and with a glockenspiel substituting for the rare glass armonica.
    • 7 Saint-Saëns, apparently concerned that the piece was too frivolous and likely to harm his reputation as a serious composer, suppressed performances of it and only allowed one movement, Le Cygne, to be published in his lifetime. Only small private performances were given for close friends like Franz Liszt. Saint-Saëns did, however, include a provision which allowed the suite to be published after his death, and it has since become one of his most popular works. It is a favorite of music teachers and young children, along with Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf and Britten's The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra. In fact, it is very common to see any combination of these three works together on modern CD recordings - a handy tool for class work. Movements There are fourteen movements: I- Introduction et marche royale du Lion (Introduction and Royal March of the Lion) Strings and two pianos: The introduction begins with the pianos playing a bold tremolo, under which the strings enter with a stately theme. The pianos play a pair of scales going in opposite directions to conclude the first part of the movement. The pianos then introduce a march theme that they carry through most of the rest of the introduction. The strings provide the melody, with the pianos occasionally taking low runs of octaves which suggest the roar of a lion, or high ostinatos. The movement ends with a fortissimo note from all the instruments used in this movement. II- Poules et Coqs (Hens and Roosters) Strings without cello and double-bass, two pianos, with clarinet: This movement is centered around a pecking theme played in the pianos and strings, which is quite reminiscent of chickens pecking at grain. The clarinet plays small solos above the rest of the players at intervals. III- Hémiones (animaux véloces) (Wild Asses; quick animals) Two pianos: The animals depicted here are quite obviously running, an image induced by the constant, feverishly fast up-and-down motion of both pianos playing scales in octaves. IV- Tortues (Tortoises) Strings and piano: A slightly satirical movement which opens with a piano playing a pulsing triplet figure in the higher register. The strings play a maddeningly slow rendition of the famous 'Can-Can' from Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld, as mentioned below.
    • 8 V- L'Éléphant (The Elephant) Double-bass and piano: This section is marked Allegro Pomposo, the perfect caricature for an elephant. The piano plays a waltz-like triplet figure while the bass hums the melody beneath it. Like "Tortues," this is also a musical joke - the thematic material is taken from Felix Mendelssohn's Incidental Music to A Midsummer Night's Dream and Hector Berlioz's Dance of the Sylphs. The two themes were both originally written for high, lighter-toned instruments (flute and various other woodwinds, and violin, accordingly); the joke is that Saint-Saëns moves this to the lowest and heaviest-sounding instrument in the orchestra, the double bass. VI- Kangourous (Kangaroos) Two pianos: The main figure here is a pattern of 'hopping' fifths preceded by grace notes VII- Aquarium Strings without double-bass, two pianos, flute, and glass armonica: This is one of the more musically rich movements. The melody is played by the flute, backed by the strings, on top of tumultuous, glissando-like runs in the piano. The first piano plays a descending ten-on-one ostinato, while the second plays a six-on-one. These figures, plus the occasional glissando from the armonica—often played on celesta or glockenspiel—are evocative of a peaceful, dimly-lit aquarium. According to British music journalist Fritz Spiegl, there is a recording of the movement featuring virtuoso harmonica player Tommy Reilly - apparently he was hired by mistake instead of a player of the glass armonica. VIII- Personnages à longues oreilles (Characters with Long Ears) Two violins: This is the shortest of all the movements. The violins alternate playing high, loud notes and low, buzzing ones (in the manner of a donkey's braying "hee-haw"). IX- Le coucou au fond des bois (The Cuckoo in the Depths of the Woods) Two pianos and clarinet: The pianos play large, soft chords while the clarinet plays a single two-note ostinato, over and over; a C and an A flat, mimicking the call of a cuckoo bird. X- Volière (Aviary) Strings, piano and flute: The high strings take on a background role, providing a buzz in the background that is reminiscent of the background noise of a jungle. The cellos and basses play a pick up
    • 9 cadence to lead into most of the measures. The flute takes the part of the bird, with a trilling tune that spans much of its range. The pianos provide occasional ping and trills of other birds in the background. The movement ends very quietly after a long ascending scale from the flute. XI- Pianistes (Pianists) Strings and two pianos: This movement is a glimpse of what few audiences ever get to see: the pianists practicing their scales. The scales of C, D flat, D and E flat are covered. Each one starts with a trill on the first and second note, then proceeds in scales with a few changes in the rhythm. Transitions between keys are accomplished with a blasting chord from all the instruments between scales. After the four scales, the key changes back to C, where the pianos play a trill-like pattern in thirds while the strings play a small part underneath. This movement is unusual in that the last three blasted chords do not resolve the piece, but rather lead into the next movement, with a pattern similar to the chords that lead from the second to the third movements of Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 3. XII- Fossiles (Fossils) Strings, two pianos, clarinet, and xylophone: Here, Saint-Saëns mimics his own composition, the Danse Macabre, which makes heavy use of the xylophone to evoke the image of skeletons playing card games, the bones clacking together to the beat. The musical themes from Danse Macabre are also quoted; the xylophone and the violin play much of the melody, alternating with the piano and clarinet. The piano part is especially difficult here - octaves that jump in quick thirds. Allusions to "Ah! vous dirai-je, Maman" (better known in the English-speaking world as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star), the French nursery rhymes "Au Clair de la Lune" and "J'ai du bon tabac", the popular anthem Partant pour la Syrie as well as the aria Una Voce Poco Fa from Rossini's Barber of Seville can also be heard. The musical joke in this movement is that the musical pieces quoted are the fossils of his time[citation needed]. XIII- Le Cygne (The Swan) Two pianos and cello: This is by far the most famous movement of the suite, often performed solo and is used to showcase the interpretive skills of the cellist. The lushly romantic cello solo (which evokes the swan elegantly gliding over the water) is played over rippling sixteenths in one piano and rolled chords in the other (representing the swan's feet, hidden from view beneath the water, propelling it along). XIV- Finale Full ensemble: The Finale opens on the same tremolo notes in the pianos as in the introduction, which are soon reinforced by the wind
    • 10 instruments, the harmonica and the xylophone. The strings build the tension with a few low notes, leading to glissandi by the piano, then a pause before the lively main melody is introduced. This movement is somewhat reminiscent of an American carnival from the middle of the twentieth century, with one piano always maintaining a bouncy eighth note rhythm. Although the melody is relatively simple, the supporting harmonies are ornamented in the style that is typical of Saint-Saëns' compositions for piano; dazzling scales, glissandi and trills. Many of the previous movements are quoted here from the introduction, the asses, hens, and kangaroos. The work ends with a strong group of C major chords. Musical references As the title suggests, the work follows a zoological program and progresses from the first movement, Introduction et marche royale du Lion, through portraits of elephants and donkeys ("Those with Long Ears") to a finale reprising many of the earlier motifs. Several of the movements are of humorous intent: • Poules et Coqs uses the theme of Jean Philippe Rameau's Harpsichord piece La Poule ("The Hen") from his Suite in G major, but in a quite less elegant mood. • Pianistes depicts piano students practicing scales • Tortues makes good use of the well-known Can-can from Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld, playing the usually breakneck-speed melody at a slow, drooping pace. • L'Éléphant is Hector Berlioz's Ballet des sylphes played in a much lower register than usual as a double bass solo. The piece briefly quotes the Scherzo from Felix Mendelssohn's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." It is heard at the end of the bridge section. • Fossiles quotes Saint-Saëns' own Danse Macabre as well as three nursery rhymes, "J'ai du bon tabac", "Ah! vous dirai-je, Maman" (Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star) and "Au Clair de la Lune", also the song Partant pour la Syrie and Rossini's aria, "Una voce poco fa" from The Barber of Seville. • The Personnages à longues oreilles section is thought to be directed at music critics: they are also supposedly the last animals heard during the finale, braying. The Dying Swan The ballet The Dying Swan, performed by Anna Pavlova, was choreographed years later to the music of the section The Swan.
    • 11 Ogden Nash verses In 1949, Ogden Nash wrote a set of humorous verses to accompany each movement for a Columbia Masterworks recording of Carnival of the Animals conducted by Andre Kostelanetz. Recited on the original album by Noel Coward, they are now often included when the work is performed. The conclusion of the verse for the "Fossils", for example, fits perfectly with the punchline-like first bar of the music: At midnight in the museum hall The fossils gathered for a ball There were no drums or saxophones, But just the clatter of their bones, A rolling, rattling, carefree circus Of mammoth polkas and mazurkas. Pterodactyls and brontosauruses Sang ghostly prehistoric choruses. Amid the mastodontic wassail I caught the eye of one small fossil. "Cheer up, sad world," he said, and winked- "It's kind of fun to be extinct." Throughout the long-running Carry On Films, the elephant was used as the signature tune for the characters played by Hattie Jacques, when they first appeared on screen. In 1976, Warner Brothers produced a television special directed by Chuck Jones featuring an abridged version of The Carnival of the Animals with Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck playing the piano duo (it opens with Bugs and Daffy arguing over the pronunciation of the composer's name—Camille Saint-Saëns [Bugs] or Camel Saynt Saynes [Daffy]). The live-action orchestra is conducted by Michael Tilson Thomas. "The Turtle", "The Mule", "The Cuckoo", "The Pianists" and "The Swan" are omitted, and the verse for "The Mule" is tacked onto the verse for "The Jackass". Fittingly, both "Weird Al" Yankovic and Peter Schickele have recorded new versions of the Carnival of the Animals, both also as "b" sides of new versions of Peter and the Wolf. Yankovic's version, on his album Peter and the Wolf recorded in 1988, is titled "Carnival of the Animals, part II," and features new poems in the style of Ogden Nash written and read by Yankovic, and with new music in the style of Saint-Saëns composed and performed by Wendy Carlos. Schickele's version, recorded on "Sneaky Pete and the Wolf" in 1993, keeps the original Saint-Saëns' music, but has new poems written and read by Schickele. In 1992, Dove Audio released an all-star cast recording (Dove 30560 {cassette}/30700 {CD}) performed by the Hollywood Chamber Orchestra conducted by Lalo Schifrin:
    • 12 • "Introduction" - read by Arte Johnson • "The Royal March of the Lion" - read by Charlton Heston • "The Cocks and Hens" - read by James Earl Jones • "The Wild Animals " - read by Betty White • "The Turtle" - read by Lynn Redgrave • "The Elephant" - read by William Shatner • "The Kangaroo" - read by Joan Rivers • "The Aquarium" - read by Ted Danson • "The Mule" - read by Lily Tomlin • "The Cuckoo in the Wind" - read by Deborah Raffin • "The Birds" - read by Audrey Hepburn • "The Pianists" - read by Dudley Moore • "The Fossils" - read by Walter Matthau • "The Swan" - read by Jaclyn Smith • "The Grand Finale" - read by Arte Johnson (In a special Dove's Kids Children's release (Dove 30550), Arte Johnson was replaced by Fred Savage.) Part of the proceeds from the sale of this recording were contributed to Actors and Others for Animals, American Oceans Campaign, American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and other charities. In 1999, Walt Disney Feature Animation incorporated the Finale into Fantasia 2000. In the film, a flock of flamingos (the Snooty Six) is annoyed by another flamingo playing with a yo-yo and attempt to make him fall into step with their dance routines. The music was recorded by James Levine conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra with the preceding narration done by James Earl Jones. A surf-rock version of Aquarium covered by Dick Dale was used as the theme song of the Space Mountain roller coaster at Disneyland in California from 1996 to 2003. This same version was featured in the game Walt Disney World Quest: Magical Racing Tour The Swan is used in the 2005 film My Summer of Love by P. Pawlikowski. Tamsin performs it on her cello when Mona visits her house for the first time. Aquarium is featured in the trailers for the 1994 film Only You, the 1974 film The Godfather Part II, the 2006 film Charlotte's Web and the 2008 film The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, and appears to be one of the influences on the main theme in Walt Disney's Beauty and the Beast and is especially prominent in the cue titled "The West Wing". It is also the opening theme music to the 1978 film Days of Heaven and the opening and closing theme in the 1992 film documentary, Visions of Light. Aquarium is played throughout the Simpsons episode "The Wife Aquatic," and can be heard in the The Ren and Stimpy Show episode entitled, "Rubber Nipple Salesmen." It is also heard in the video game
    • 13 Crash Tag Team Racing, and along with "Swan" is part of the soundtrack of the video game Burnout Paradise (2008 edition). Australian/British classical crossover string quartet Bond remade a version of the Aquarium movement on their album Born, although Camille Saint-Saëns is uncredited[1]. The theme from the "Royal March of the Lion" was used as the musical motif for the Dreyfus Fund commercials which aired on American television. This pairing of the music and the Dreyfus Lion was used for many years starting in the early 1950s. Roland Petit's ballet Proust ou les intermittences du cœur uses the Ouverture to open both acts.