The painting depicts the story from the Gospel of Matthew (Matthew 9:9): Jesus saw a man named Matthew at his seat in the custom house, and said to him, &quot;Follow me&quot;, and Matthew rose and followed him. In this painting, the gloom and the canvassed window appears to situate the table indoors. Christ brings the true light to the dark space of the sitting tax-collectors. This painting records the collision of two worlds — the ineluctable power of the immortal faith, and the mundane , foppish, world of Levi. Jesus spears him with a beam of light, with an apparent effortless hand gesture he exerts an inescapable sublime gravity, with no need for wrenching worldly muscularity. Jesus' bare feet are classical simplicity in contrast with the dandified accountants; being barefoot may also symbolize holiness, as if one is on holy ground. Similarly to his treatment of Paul in the Conversion on the Way to Damascus , Caravaggio chronicles the moment when a daily routine is interrupted by the miraculous. Around the man to become Matthew are either the unperceptive or unperturbed bystanders. Caravaggio's audience would have seen the similarity between the gesture of Jesus as he points towards Matthew, and the gesture of God as he awakens Adam in Michelangelo 's Sistine Chapel . Following the line of Christ's left arm, it seems that Matthew is being invited to follow him into the world at large. &quot;This clear legibility, so different from many Mannerist paintings, ... accounted for the work's enormous popularity.”
The principal subject is composed of nine figures: at the top of two ladders, workers are lowering the body of Christ with the aid of a shroud which one of them holds in his teeth, the other in the left hand. Bracing themselves firmly against the arms of the cross, each bends forward to guide the Christ with the hand that is left free while St. John, with one foot on the ladder and his back arched, supports him most energetically. One of Savior’s feet comes to rest on the beautiful shoulder of the Magdalene, grazing her golden hair. Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, placed midway on ladders so as to face each other, form, together with the two workmen in the upper part of the picture, a square of vigorous but plebeian figures. The Virgin, standing at the foot of the sacrificial tree, extends her arms towards her Son; Salome (properly, Mary Cleophas), kneeling, gathers up her robe. On the ground are seen the superscription and a copper basin where the crown of thorns and the nails of the Crucifixion lie in the congealed blood. The crowd, always elated by the spectacle of torture, has departed from Golgotha as daylight fades. After the sacrifice of Calvary, as it is called in Scripture, the sad, dark sky is crossed by a light that illumines the shoulders of the workmen, whose bold posture recalls the composition by Daniele da Volterra &quot;.
While most artists produce a handful of self portraits if any during their lifetime, Rembrandt depicted himself in approximately forty to fifty paintings, thirty-two etchings and several drawings. Many scholars agree that a Rembrandt self portrait reflects his journey of self discovery. Early Self Portraits His early self portrait etchings emphasized real fascinating facial expressions which were always cast in shadows The Amsterdam Years During his time in Amsterdam during the 1630's he began to paint himself with more light. He portrayed himself in many different ways; elegantly dressed and honoured with gold chains, as a fashionable middle class burgher donning a wide-brimmed hat and an expensive cloak and again as a beggar. The Later Years He was suffering financially during this time and had to declare bankruptcy. A few self portraits were sold just to keep his head above water. One in particular in 1659 is dark and sombre as the only illuminated feature is his face. His expressionless face seems to indicate how empty he was feeling during this time.
as the name implies, uses a pearl earring for a focal point .. It is sometimes referred to as &quot;the Mona Lisa of the North&quot; or &quot;the Dutch Mona Lisa &quot;. Done in subtle colour scheme and shows the intimacy of the girl’s gaze on to the spectator
is a classical style and combines grandeur and impressive styles with a sense of power and elegance, and any piece of Baroque furniture automatically demands attention and a sense of awe from any that are lucky enough to have it in their home. The style initially came into its own with regards to the sculpture and architecture of the places that King Louis XIV set his hands upon, and once this evolvement reached a grand scale with people wanting similar styles in their home the Baroque furniture scene was first created. The style itself used great motions of expressions and gestures and helped to create pieces of Baroque furniture that produced drama, exuberance and tension in a grand scale. They were sturdy pieces that could withstand even the clumsiest of owners and this was developed to match the sturdiness of the King, but the drama and tension that were created by such pieces were to match everything that the King loved. It is this time period that glass doored cabinets first came about so that their owners could display their proudest trophies and treasured possessions. Again, sturdy in construction, they were large pieces of Baroque furniture that could not help but catch the eye of anyone that happened to pass them. The furniture pieces that included Baroque cabinets and Baroque mirrors were decorated with magnificent and elaborate designs of foliage, and the beds of this style were created to be the main focus of a bedroom. However, these beds were still intricate in design and beautifully carved, as like most pieces of Baroque furniture.
Baroque n rococo
<ul><li>Not one style; more of a focus on particular ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive proportions </li></ul></ul>Fusion of a number of movements
Characteristic Features <ul><li>Baroque paintings are brilliant and colorful, theatrical and passionate . </li></ul><ul><li>They are fascinated with light. They have used light and colour to dissolve form, by having dark background. </li></ul><ul><li>Portrayed emotional intensity – facial expression – dramatic movements. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills of reproducing realistic effects in all media were developed. eg- Marble, Oil on canvas, etching etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque mingled what was real with what was only apparent – created a feeling of illusion . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Made use of contrast colours to heighten the dramatic effect . </li></ul><ul><li>In Baroque painting, the eye is given only a few points of rests – one form leads to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the atmosphere participates in the drama. (A theatrical effect) </li></ul><ul><li>In reproducing scenes of martyrdom less use or physical effects like torn limbs were shown, instead spiritual exaltation was shown in their faces, as painting was religious </li></ul>
Key Words of Baroque Art and Architecture <ul><li>- Decadent - Sensual </li></ul><ul><li>- Ornamented - Opulent </li></ul><ul><li>- Dynamic - Extravagant </li></ul><ul><li>- Brilliant - Versatile </li></ul><ul><li>- Colorful - Turbulent </li></ul><ul><li>- Theatrical - Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>- Passionate - Institutional </li></ul>
Bernini David <ul><li>Time is important </li></ul><ul><li>Action explicit and convincing </li></ul><ul><li>Depicting very moment </li></ul><ul><li>Matter in motion through space, time and light </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>Rococo art, flourished in France and Germany in the early 18th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Was in many respects a continuation of the baroque, particularly in the use of light and shadow and compositional movement </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected the traditional themes of heroes and mythology. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on representing the carefree life characteristic of the aristocratic patrons of the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the French word, rocaille , or pebbles, referring to the stones & shells used to decorate the interior of caves. </li></ul>
Rococo <ul><li>As the seventeenth century ended and the eighteenth century began, France emerged as the strongest, wealthiest, nation in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Paris, its capital, became the center of the art world. </li></ul><ul><li>The early 18th cen. saw a resurgence in aristocratic social, political & economic power. (the great age of aristocracy) </li></ul><ul><li>With the reign of Louis XV, the sparkling gaiety cultivated in the new age, found perfectly harmonious in the Rococo style. </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo, it is a softer style that expresses free, graceful movement, playful use of line and delicate colors . </li></ul>
<ul><li>During the reign of Louis XV in France, The Rococo may be thought of as the ‘feminine’ version of the Baroque. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rococo Style is lighter in scale, rooms are smaller, and there is a reliance of silver and gold gilding not only on the walls but on the ceiling decoration. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rococo is a style of the interior rather than an architectural one. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastel colors are used, and there is an all over patterning of lightly scaled undulating motifs. </li></ul><ul><li>Although space layout was symmetrical, the applied decoration was asymmetrical </li></ul>
Definition of Rococo <ul><li>An eighteenth century art style which placed emphasis on portraying the carefree life of the aristocracy rather than on grand heroes or pious martyrs </li></ul><ul><li>Love and romance were considered to be better subjects for art than historical or religious subjects </li></ul><ul><li>The style was characterized by a free, graceful movement; a playful use of line; and delicate colors </li></ul><ul><li>Genre painting came back into favor when the Academy admitted Watteau to its ranks in 1717 on the presentation of this work, the subject of which was so novel that the term "fête galante" was coined to describe it </li></ul>
<ul><li>The French Rococo exteriors was most often simple, or even plain, but Rococo exuberance took over interiors (designed as lively total works of art – alternating gilded moldings, vivacious relief sculptures, & daintily colored ornament of flowers & garlands- must have harmonized with the chamber music played in them, with elaborate costumes of satin & brocade, & with equally elegant etiquette & sparkling wit of the people who graced them. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>It was a reaction of nobility against classical baroque which had been imposed at Versailles by Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>Style of the aristocracy: it revealed a taste for what is clear and elegant, refined and gallant </li></ul><ul><li>Life without worry, closely related to nature </li></ul><ul><li>Its influence on French architecture is limited, yet it reaches Germany where it finds favorable ground </li></ul><ul><li>The 1789 French Revolution interrupted the development of Rococo </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo was eventually replaced by Neoclassicism, which was the popular style of the American and French revolutions </li></ul>
Reference <ul><li>Baroque Painting and sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo art and furniture / interiors. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference : Social History of art </li></ul><ul><li>Vol – 2, Hauser, Arnold, vintage books. </li></ul>