Gender And Development
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,726
On Slideshare
1,725
From Embeds
1
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 1

https://www.linkedin.com 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Gender and Development By: Anne-Marijn, Carolien, Liselotte and Emma
  • 2. Overview
    • Women in the global economy
    • Case study: Clothing industry in Istanbul
    • Gender, technology and livelihoods.
    • “ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?”
    • Gender in participatory planning
    • Video
    • Discussion
  • 3. Women in the global economy
    • Women workers are increasing in LDC’s.
    • Type: Light manufacturing industries
    • Rural-urban migration of women
    • Are women victims or agents of change in the global economies?
  • 4. Women as victims I
    • Why women are exploited
    • Maria Mies:
    • - Cheapest possible labour
    • - More easily controllable than men
    • - Women are cut off from social support structures.
  • 5. Women as victims II
    • Why women are exploited
    • Aihwa Ong:
    • Local bureaucrats are threatened by the new autonomy of women.
    • Modern workplaces are oppressing female workers into all realms of their life.
  • 6. Case Study: Female workers in the clothing industry. Istanbul
    • Women take up 60% of the labour force
    • Rural-urban migrants are mainly women who seek employment in Istanbul.
    • Poor wages made women still dependent on their husbands.
    • Vicious circle: Daughters also end up in the clothing industry, when they have reached working age.
  • 7. Women transformed
    • Others believe that the global economy liberates women:
    • Delay in marriage and childbearing.
    • Economic and social autonomy.
    • It may enhance political awareness.
    • Better opportunity to enhance social and political power.
    • Advances status of workers, but also their status of women.
  • 8. Conclusion
    • Female participants in the global economy is a very complex subject.
    • It varies among states;
    • - it may enhance the position of women
    • - it may have a negative impact on women
  • 9. Gender, Technology and Livelihoods Andrew Scott and Margaret Foster
  • 10. Introduction
    • Most of the world’s poor are women
    • Women’s responsibilities
    • Factors that influence gender differences
  • 11. Poverty
    • Women’s knowledge
    • Women’s vulnerabilities
    • Undervalued knowledge
  • 12. Gender
    • Norms and values
    • Innovating and adaptation
    • ‘ Helping out’
    • Development workers
    • Lack of self- confidence
  • 13. Women and Livelihoods
    • Women’s tasks
    • No time to learn new things
    • Health
    • Multitasking
  • 14. Technology (1)
    • Technology: “the human skills, knowledge and organization as well as the tools or ‘hardware’ involved in production.”
    • Symbolically passed on from mother to daughter
    • Women’s social networks
    • Firewood and energy
  • 15. Technology (2)
    • Appropriate energy technologies is central to the conservation of women’s health
    • Energy scarcity  not enough cooking fuel
    • Women’s technological improvements based on own priorities
    • More security oriented
    • Women’s technical expertise often ignored
  • 16. Participation and change
    • Need for recognition of priorities and expertise of women
    • Involvement at every stage
    • Building on existing local knowledge
  • 17. Conclusion
            • Gender analysis
  • 18. Women and political representation Shirin M. Rai
  • 19. Women and political representation
    • Development policy is currently constructed without much influence from women
    • Need for political mobilization of women
    • Lack of representation is a problem
    • Can ‘women’ be seen as a group?
    • Women’s interests
    • Women’s groups
  • 20. Representation
    • Appropriate forms of representation
    • Levels of government  institutional constraints
    • Policy making
    • Party systems  gate keeping, general interest
    • Citizenship  good governance
    • Legitimacy and accountability
  • 21. Women in political institutions
    • Male bias
    • Worldwide: low percentage of women in national parliaments
    • Slow improvement
  • 22. Feminist debates on representation
    • State feminism seen as a force that could positively influence women’s participation
    • Question of form and content
    • Good governance  WB, SAP
    • Platform of Action (Beijing)
  • 23. Reasons for participation
    • The greater the number of women in public office, the greater the disturbance in gender hierarchy in public life  threshold participation
    • Elites
    • Exploration of strategies that women in public office use
    • Success of women’s movements reflected in political representation of women
  • 24. Strategies for increasing representation
    • Quotas at local and national level as a compensation for social barriers that have prevented women from participating in politics
    • But this recognition of the role of women in society may mean that power relations don’t change because women haven’t “earned” it themselves
  • 25. Conclusion
    • State institutions can’t be the major focus of women’s political struggles: also informal networks
    • But maybe ‘trickle down’ approach women’s representation
    • Discursive shift in teaching of politics
  • 26. Article
    • “ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?”
    • By Andrea Cornwall
    • E xplores dimensions of “participation” and “gender” in development, highlighting paradoxes of “gender-aware” and participatory development interventions .
  • 27. Ideas
    • WID (feminist) & Participatory Development
    • GAD emerged as an alternative to liberal Women in Development (WID)
    • GAD & Participatory Development
  • 28. Problems in getting women involved
    • Time
    • Official male bias
    • Social constraints about women’s capacities and roles
    • The absence of “critical mass” of women (!)
    • Lack of public speaking experience
  • 29. Tension Question
    • … between feminist agenda of GAD and
    • the emphasis on participation:
      • Women’s tendencies to let “the mother and wife in them” interfere .
      • IS THIS A BAD THING?
      • CAN THEY BE EXPECTED NOT TO?
  • 30. Gender in participatory planning
    • To what extent are women included? (tokenism - delegated control)
    • India (KRIBP) - problems:
      • public location of activities
      • timing (and also rapidity)
      • formality marks project as men’s domain
      • lack of female staff
      • assumptions of fieldworkers:
        • overlook that the powerful take over the arena
        • assume women’s agreement
  • 31. Voice?
    • Making space for difference: Working with separate groups and combining their plans (Uganda)
    • Speaking is not the same as being listened to.
    • Backfired - women chastised for bringing taboos into public spaces
    • Sensitivity for cultural context!
    • Method presents no challenge to existing structure
  • 32. Participation, gender and policy
    • Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA)
    • incorporation of gender-related issues depends on perspective of fieldworkers
    • weak points in the transition from fieldwork to PRSPs - need advocacy for gender throughout writing stage
    • Too narrowly focused on women as ‘gender’; men have become marginalized
  • 33. Stepping towards solutions
    • focus on ALL marginalized groups, not only women, and not only in one dimension (e.g. gender)
    • strategies that incorporate local dynamics of difference
    • advocacy for gender at every stage of the PRSP writing process
    • work from the view of poverty as powerlessness
    • politics of difference - situational identity
  • 34. Video
    • Fiji - fishing women
    • Empowerment of women
      • work
      • trade - overcoming cultural restrictions
    • Disadvantages:
      • double workload
      • sustainability?
  • 35. Discussion
    • How does the video relate to the subject, to what extent does it support or counterargument it?
    • Is structural change a desirable goal, keeping in mind the potential for backfiring on the marginalized group it has demonstrated?