Gender And Development
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  • 1. Gender and Development By: Anne-Marijn, Carolien, Liselotte and Emma
  • 2. Overview
    • Women in the global economy
    • Case study: Clothing industry in Istanbul
    • Gender, technology and livelihoods.
    • “ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?”
    • Gender in participatory planning
    • Video
    • Discussion
  • 3. Women in the global economy
    • Women workers are increasing in LDC’s.
    • Type: Light manufacturing industries
    • Rural-urban migration of women
    • Are women victims or agents of change in the global economies?
  • 4. Women as victims I
    • Why women are exploited
    • Maria Mies:
    • - Cheapest possible labour
    • - More easily controllable than men
    • - Women are cut off from social support structures.
  • 5. Women as victims II
    • Why women are exploited
    • Aihwa Ong:
    • Local bureaucrats are threatened by the new autonomy of women.
    • Modern workplaces are oppressing female workers into all realms of their life.
  • 6. Case Study: Female workers in the clothing industry. Istanbul
    • Women take up 60% of the labour force
    • Rural-urban migrants are mainly women who seek employment in Istanbul.
    • Poor wages made women still dependent on their husbands.
    • Vicious circle: Daughters also end up in the clothing industry, when they have reached working age.
  • 7. Women transformed
    • Others believe that the global economy liberates women:
    • Delay in marriage and childbearing.
    • Economic and social autonomy.
    • It may enhance political awareness.
    • Better opportunity to enhance social and political power.
    • Advances status of workers, but also their status of women.
  • 8. Conclusion
    • Female participants in the global economy is a very complex subject.
    • It varies among states;
    • - it may enhance the position of women
    • - it may have a negative impact on women
  • 9. Gender, Technology and Livelihoods Andrew Scott and Margaret Foster
  • 10. Introduction
    • Most of the world’s poor are women
    • Women’s responsibilities
    • Factors that influence gender differences
  • 11. Poverty
    • Women’s knowledge
    • Women’s vulnerabilities
    • Undervalued knowledge
  • 12. Gender
    • Norms and values
    • Innovating and adaptation
    • ‘ Helping out’
    • Development workers
    • Lack of self- confidence
  • 13. Women and Livelihoods
    • Women’s tasks
    • No time to learn new things
    • Health
    • Multitasking
  • 14. Technology (1)
    • Technology: “the human skills, knowledge and organization as well as the tools or ‘hardware’ involved in production.”
    • Symbolically passed on from mother to daughter
    • Women’s social networks
    • Firewood and energy
  • 15. Technology (2)
    • Appropriate energy technologies is central to the conservation of women’s health
    • Energy scarcity  not enough cooking fuel
    • Women’s technological improvements based on own priorities
    • More security oriented
    • Women’s technical expertise often ignored
  • 16. Participation and change
    • Need for recognition of priorities and expertise of women
    • Involvement at every stage
    • Building on existing local knowledge
  • 17. Conclusion
            • Gender analysis
  • 18. Women and political representation Shirin M. Rai
  • 19. Women and political representation
    • Development policy is currently constructed without much influence from women
    • Need for political mobilization of women
    • Lack of representation is a problem
    • Can ‘women’ be seen as a group?
    • Women’s interests
    • Women’s groups
  • 20. Representation
    • Appropriate forms of representation
    • Levels of government  institutional constraints
    • Policy making
    • Party systems  gate keeping, general interest
    • Citizenship  good governance
    • Legitimacy and accountability
  • 21. Women in political institutions
    • Male bias
    • Worldwide: low percentage of women in national parliaments
    • Slow improvement
  • 22. Feminist debates on representation
    • State feminism seen as a force that could positively influence women’s participation
    • Question of form and content
    • Good governance  WB, SAP
    • Platform of Action (Beijing)
  • 23. Reasons for participation
    • The greater the number of women in public office, the greater the disturbance in gender hierarchy in public life  threshold participation
    • Elites
    • Exploration of strategies that women in public office use
    • Success of women’s movements reflected in political representation of women
  • 24. Strategies for increasing representation
    • Quotas at local and national level as a compensation for social barriers that have prevented women from participating in politics
    • But this recognition of the role of women in society may mean that power relations don’t change because women haven’t “earned” it themselves
  • 25. Conclusion
    • State institutions can’t be the major focus of women’s political struggles: also informal networks
    • But maybe ‘trickle down’ approach women’s representation
    • Discursive shift in teaching of politics
  • 26. Article
    • “ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?”
    • By Andrea Cornwall
    • E xplores dimensions of “participation” and “gender” in development, highlighting paradoxes of “gender-aware” and participatory development interventions .
  • 27. Ideas
    • WID (feminist) & Participatory Development
    • GAD emerged as an alternative to liberal Women in Development (WID)
    • GAD & Participatory Development
  • 28. Problems in getting women involved
    • Time
    • Official male bias
    • Social constraints about women’s capacities and roles
    • The absence of “critical mass” of women (!)
    • Lack of public speaking experience
  • 29. Tension Question
    • … between feminist agenda of GAD and
    • the emphasis on participation:
      • Women’s tendencies to let “the mother and wife in them” interfere .
  • 30. Gender in participatory planning
    • To what extent are women included? (tokenism - delegated control)
    • India (KRIBP) - problems:
      • public location of activities
      • timing (and also rapidity)
      • formality marks project as men’s domain
      • lack of female staff
      • assumptions of fieldworkers:
        • overlook that the powerful take over the arena
        • assume women’s agreement
  • 31. Voice?
    • Making space for difference: Working with separate groups and combining their plans (Uganda)
    • Speaking is not the same as being listened to.
    • Backfired - women chastised for bringing taboos into public spaces
    • Sensitivity for cultural context!
    • Method presents no challenge to existing structure
  • 32. Participation, gender and policy
    • Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA)
    • incorporation of gender-related issues depends on perspective of fieldworkers
    • weak points in the transition from fieldwork to PRSPs - need advocacy for gender throughout writing stage
    • Too narrowly focused on women as ‘gender’; men have become marginalized
  • 33. Stepping towards solutions
    • focus on ALL marginalized groups, not only women, and not only in one dimension (e.g. gender)
    • strategies that incorporate local dynamics of difference
    • advocacy for gender at every stage of the PRSP writing process
    • work from the view of poverty as powerlessness
    • politics of difference - situational identity
  • 34. Video
    • Fiji - fishing women
    • Empowerment of women
      • work
      • trade - overcoming cultural restrictions
    • Disadvantages:
      • double workload
      • sustainability?
  • 35. Discussion
    • How does the video relate to the subject, to what extent does it support or counterargument it?
    • Is structural change a desirable goal, keeping in mind the potential for backfiring on the marginalized group it has demonstrated?