Gender And Development


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Gender And Development

  1. 1. Gender and Development By: Anne-Marijn, Carolien, Liselotte and Emma
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Women in the global economy </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: Clothing industry in Istanbul </li></ul><ul><li>Gender, technology and livelihoods. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?” </li></ul><ul><li>Gender in participatory planning </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Women in the global economy <ul><li>Women workers are increasing in LDC’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Type: Light manufacturing industries </li></ul><ul><li>Rural-urban migration of women </li></ul><ul><li>Are women victims or agents of change in the global economies? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Women as victims I <ul><li>Why women are exploited </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Mies: </li></ul><ul><li>- Cheapest possible labour </li></ul><ul><li>- More easily controllable than men </li></ul><ul><li>- Women are cut off from social support structures. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Women as victims II <ul><li>Why women are exploited </li></ul><ul><li>Aihwa Ong: </li></ul><ul><li>Local bureaucrats are threatened by the new autonomy of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern workplaces are oppressing female workers into all realms of their life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Case Study: Female workers in the clothing industry. Istanbul <ul><li>Women take up 60% of the labour force </li></ul><ul><li>Rural-urban migrants are mainly women who seek employment in Istanbul. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor wages made women still dependent on their husbands. </li></ul><ul><li>Vicious circle: Daughters also end up in the clothing industry, when they have reached working age. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Women transformed <ul><li>Others believe that the global economy liberates women: </li></ul><ul><li>Delay in marriage and childbearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and social autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>It may enhance political awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Better opportunity to enhance social and political power. </li></ul><ul><li>Advances status of workers, but also their status of women. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conclusion <ul><li>Female participants in the global economy is a very complex subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It varies among states; </li></ul><ul><li>- it may enhance the position of women </li></ul><ul><li>- it may have a negative impact on women </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gender, Technology and Livelihoods Andrew Scott and Margaret Foster
  10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>Most of the world’s poor are women </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that influence gender differences </li></ul>
  11. 11. Poverty <ul><li>Women’s knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Undervalued knowledge </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gender <ul><li>Norms and values </li></ul><ul><li>Innovating and adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Helping out’ </li></ul><ul><li>Development workers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of self- confidence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Women and Livelihoods <ul><li>Women’s tasks </li></ul><ul><li>No time to learn new things </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul>
  14. 14. Technology (1) <ul><li>Technology: “the human skills, knowledge and organization as well as the tools or ‘hardware’ involved in production.” </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolically passed on from mother to daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Firewood and energy </li></ul>
  15. 15. Technology (2) <ul><li>Appropriate energy technologies is central to the conservation of women’s health </li></ul><ul><li>Energy scarcity  not enough cooking fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s technological improvements based on own priorities </li></ul><ul><li>More security oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s technical expertise often ignored </li></ul>
  16. 16. Participation and change <ul><li>Need for recognition of priorities and expertise of women </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement at every stage </li></ul><ul><li>Building on existing local knowledge </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender analysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Women and political representation Shirin M. Rai
  19. 19. Women and political representation <ul><li>Development policy is currently constructed without much influence from women </li></ul><ul><li>Need for political mobilization of women </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of representation is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Can ‘women’ be seen as a group? </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s interests </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s groups </li></ul>
  20. 20. Representation <ul><li>Appropriate forms of representation </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of government  institutional constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Policy making </li></ul><ul><li>Party systems  gate keeping, general interest </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship  good governance </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy and accountability </li></ul>
  21. 21. Women in political institutions <ul><li>Male bias </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide: low percentage of women in national parliaments </li></ul><ul><li>Slow improvement </li></ul>
  22. 22. Feminist debates on representation <ul><li>State feminism seen as a force that could positively influence women’s participation </li></ul><ul><li>Question of form and content </li></ul><ul><li>Good governance  WB, SAP </li></ul><ul><li>Platform of Action (Beijing) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reasons for participation <ul><li>The greater the number of women in public office, the greater the disturbance in gender hierarchy in public life  threshold participation </li></ul><ul><li>Elites </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration of strategies that women in public office use </li></ul><ul><li>Success of women’s movements reflected in political representation of women </li></ul>
  24. 24. Strategies for increasing representation <ul><li>Quotas at local and national level as a compensation for social barriers that have prevented women from participating in politics </li></ul><ul><li>But this recognition of the role of women in society may mean that power relations don’t change because women haven’t “earned” it themselves </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>State institutions can’t be the major focus of women’s political struggles: also informal networks </li></ul><ul><li>But maybe ‘trickle down’ approach women’s representation </li></ul><ul><li>Discursive shift in teaching of politics </li></ul>
  26. 26. Article <ul><li>“ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?” </li></ul><ul><li>By Andrea Cornwall </li></ul><ul><li>E xplores dimensions of “participation” and “gender” in development, highlighting paradoxes of “gender-aware” and participatory development interventions . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ideas <ul><li>WID (feminist) & Participatory Development </li></ul><ul><li>GAD emerged as an alternative to liberal Women in Development (WID) </li></ul><ul><li>GAD & Participatory Development </li></ul>
  28. 28. Problems in getting women involved <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Official male bias </li></ul><ul><li>Social constraints about women’s capacities and roles </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of “critical mass” of women (!) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of public speaking experience </li></ul>
  29. 29. Tension Question <ul><li>… between feminist agenda of GAD and </li></ul><ul><li>the emphasis on participation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s tendencies to let “the mother and wife in them” interfere . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS THIS A BAD THING? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN THEY BE EXPECTED NOT TO? </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Gender in participatory planning <ul><li>To what extent are women included? (tokenism - delegated control) </li></ul><ul><li>India (KRIBP) - problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>public location of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>timing (and also rapidity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formality marks project as men’s domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of female staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assumptions of fieldworkers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overlook that the powerful take over the arena </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assume women’s agreement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Voice? <ul><li>Making space for difference: Working with separate groups and combining their plans (Uganda) </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking is not the same as being listened to. </li></ul><ul><li>Backfired - women chastised for bringing taboos into public spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity for cultural context! </li></ul><ul><li>Method presents no challenge to existing structure </li></ul>
  32. 32. Participation, gender and policy <ul><li>Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) </li></ul><ul><li>incorporation of gender-related issues depends on perspective of fieldworkers </li></ul><ul><li>weak points in the transition from fieldwork to PRSPs - need advocacy for gender throughout writing stage </li></ul><ul><li>Too narrowly focused on women as ‘gender’; men have become marginalized </li></ul>
  33. 33. Stepping towards solutions <ul><li>focus on ALL marginalized groups, not only women, and not only in one dimension (e.g. gender) </li></ul><ul><li>strategies that incorporate local dynamics of difference </li></ul><ul><li>advocacy for gender at every stage of the PRSP writing process </li></ul><ul><li>work from the view of poverty as powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>politics of difference - situational identity </li></ul>
  34. 34. Video <ul><li>Fiji - fishing women </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade - overcoming cultural restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainability? </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Discussion <ul><li>How does the video relate to the subject, to what extent does it support or counterargument it? </li></ul><ul><li>Is structural change a desirable goal, keeping in mind the potential for backfiring on the marginalized group it has demonstrated? </li></ul>