Gender and Development By: Anne-Marijn, Carolien, Liselotte and Emma
- Women in the global economy
- Case study: Clothing industry in Istanbul
- Gender, technology and livelihoods.
- “ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?”
- Gender in participatory planning
Women in the global economy
- Women workers are increasing in LDC’s.
- Type: Light manufacturing industries
- Rural-urban migration of women
- Are women victims or agents of change in the global economies?
Women as victims I
- - Cheapest possible labour
- - More easily controllable than men
- - Women are cut off from social support structures.
Women as victims II
- Local bureaucrats are threatened by the new autonomy of women.
- Modern workplaces are oppressing female workers into all realms of their life.
Case Study: Female workers in the clothing industry. Istanbul
- Women take up 60% of the labour force
- Rural-urban migrants are mainly women who seek employment in Istanbul.
- Poor wages made women still dependent on their husbands.
- Vicious circle: Daughters also end up in the clothing industry, when they have reached working age.
- Others believe that the global economy liberates women:
- Delay in marriage and childbearing.
- Economic and social autonomy.
- It may enhance political awareness.
- Better opportunity to enhance social and political power.
- Advances status of workers, but also their status of women.
- Female participants in the global economy is a very complex subject.
- - it may enhance the position of women
- - it may have a negative impact on women
Gender, Technology and Livelihoods Andrew Scott and Margaret Foster
- Most of the world’s poor are women
- Factors that influence gender differences
- Innovating and adaptation
Women and Livelihoods
- No time to learn new things
- Technology: “the human skills, knowledge and organization as well as the tools or ‘hardware’ involved in production.”
- Symbolically passed on from mother to daughter
- Appropriate energy technologies is central to the conservation of women’s health
- Energy scarcity not enough cooking fuel
- Women’s technological improvements based on own priorities
- Women’s technical expertise often ignored
Participation and change
- Need for recognition of priorities and expertise of women
- Involvement at every stage
- Building on existing local knowledge
Women and political representation Shirin M. Rai
Women and political representation
- Development policy is currently constructed without much influence from women
- Need for political mobilization of women
- Lack of representation is a problem
- Can ‘women’ be seen as a group?
- Appropriate forms of representation
- Levels of government institutional constraints
- Party systems gate keeping, general interest
- Citizenship good governance
- Legitimacy and accountability
Women in political institutions
- Worldwide: low percentage of women in national parliaments
Feminist debates on representation
- State feminism seen as a force that could positively influence women’s participation
- Question of form and content
- Good governance WB, SAP
- Platform of Action (Beijing)
Reasons for participation
- The greater the number of women in public office, the greater the disturbance in gender hierarchy in public life threshold participation
- Exploration of strategies that women in public office use
- Success of women’s movements reflected in political representation of women
Strategies for increasing representation
- Quotas at local and national level as a compensation for social barriers that have prevented women from participating in politics
- But this recognition of the role of women in society may mean that power relations don’t change because women haven’t “earned” it themselves
- State institutions can’t be the major focus of women’s political struggles: also informal networks
- But maybe ‘trickle down’ approach women’s representation
- Discursive shift in teaching of politics
- “ Whose Voices, Whose Choices?”
- E xplores dimensions of “participation” and “gender” in development, highlighting paradoxes of “gender-aware” and participatory development interventions .
- WID (feminist) & Participatory Development
- GAD emerged as an alternative to liberal Women in Development (WID)
- GAD & Participatory Development
Problems in getting women involved
- Social constraints about women’s capacities and roles
- The absence of “critical mass” of women (!)
- Lack of public speaking experience
- … between feminist agenda of GAD and
- the emphasis on participation:
- Women’s tendencies to let “the mother and wife in them” interfere .
- CAN THEY BE EXPECTED NOT TO?
Gender in participatory planning
- To what extent are women included? (tokenism - delegated control)
- India (KRIBP) - problems:
- public location of activities
- timing (and also rapidity)
- formality marks project as men’s domain
- assumptions of fieldworkers:
- overlook that the powerful take over the arena
- Making space for difference: Working with separate groups and combining their plans (Uganda)
- Speaking is not the same as being listened to.
- Backfired - women chastised for bringing taboos into public spaces
- Sensitivity for cultural context!
- Method presents no challenge to existing structure
Participation, gender and policy
- Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA)
- incorporation of gender-related issues depends on perspective of fieldworkers
- weak points in the transition from fieldwork to PRSPs - need advocacy for gender throughout writing stage
- Too narrowly focused on women as ‘gender’; men have become marginalized
Stepping towards solutions
- focus on ALL marginalized groups, not only women, and not only in one dimension (e.g. gender)
- strategies that incorporate local dynamics of difference
- advocacy for gender at every stage of the PRSP writing process
- work from the view of poverty as powerlessness
- politics of difference - situational identity
- trade - overcoming cultural restrictions
- How does the video relate to the subject, to what extent does it support or counterargument it?
- Is structural change a desirable goal, keeping in mind the potential for backfiring on the marginalized group it has demonstrated?