The Interoperability Imperative

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Imagine a world where publishers can create a single publication that functions flawlessly both online and offline, packaged or unpacked. As publishing technologies continue to converge, it's not a far-off dream. Learn how Web Publications, EPUBs, and related standards for accessibility, annotations, and image interoperability are coming together in this presentation.

This presentation was originally presented by Apex CoVantage VP and Principal Consultant, Bill Kasdorf, at the STM Digital Publishing 2016 conference in London, UK.

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The Interoperability Imperative

  1. 1. Bill Kasdorf VP and Principal Consultant, Apex Content Solutions Member of IDPF Board, EPUB 3 WG, W3C DPUB IG The Interoperability Imperative How Publishing Technologies Continue to Converge
  2. 2. IDPF+W3C 1. A Brief History of the Convergence
  3. 3. Books in Browsers 2014: “Bridging the Web and Digital Publishing” Unofficial Draft 30 June 2015: “EPUB+WEB” (AKA “EPUB-WEB”) GitHub, 24 September 2015: “Portable Web Documents for the OWP” W3C Working Draft, 15 October 2015: “Portable Web Publications for the OWP” W3C Editors Draft, 28 November 2016: “Web Publications for the OWP” (a work in process)
  4. 4. (P)WP Recent Realization: First we need to define a Web Publication! Meaning an arbitrarily extensive and complex collection of resources on the web (web pages, CSS, fonts, images, media, scripts, etc.) that has an identity, that can be referenced, etc. Whether/how it’s packaged is a separate issue. “PUBLICATION” ≠ “DOCUMENT” but “BUNCH OF STUFF ON THE WEB” might = “PUBLICATION”
  5. 5. (P)WP Recent Realization: First we need to define a Web Publication! Meaning an arbitrarily extensive and complex collection of resources on the web (web pages, CSS, fonts, images, media, scripts, etc.) that has an identity, that can be referenced, etc. Whether/how it’s packaged is a separate issue.
  6. 6. (P)WP Recent Realization: First we need to define a Web Publication! Meaning an arbitrarily extensive and complex collection of resources on the web (web pages, CSS, fonts, images, media, scripts, etc.) that has an identity, that can be referenced, etc. Whether/how it’s packaged is a separate issue. The “P” is coming to mean “packaged” more than “portable”
  7. 7. Relationship with researchers Decisions based on analytics Peer review automation Reference tracking Statistic checking Text and Data mining How efficient is text? Rethink use of document Integrating digital artefacts The narrative Research Data Who wants the Narrative Integrating multimedia Taxonomy resources Linked Open Data Relationship maps Wikipedia All digital artefacts Code protocols ORCIDS needed XML linked data Reducing friction Publications at different places Open science satellite NEW RELATIONS VIA SOCIAL NETWORKS SCN’s creating new journals Become publishers? Start ups A challenge An opportunity in integration STM = B2C publishing? Chaos and diversity Not the same as asking an expert Inertia Signal vs noise Business/ leisure/ research? Needs easier paywalls New business models INFORMATION STRUCTURE AND CONTEXTUALISATION Behavioural analytics Researcher Researcher Consumer Doctor Patient Patient CAVEATS Big data analytics User focus DYNAMIC PUBLISHING Creating solutions Not search results User tracking = new products and services PUBLISHING 1 Unstructured Data Precision Information Automated literature navigation Look up everything Outsource your brain and memory Look up on the fly Any device will do Different skill sets Ask right questions Get solutions, not search results Facts and data vs meta- analysis The customised solution Atomisation of information Who wants the full document? Open Science Platforms Citizen Science Innovation in Society Who wants the full document? EVERYONE IS A CUSTOMER Virtual reality Augmented reality+ Social learning Reputation management Metrics Social networks Life Logging Social reading Collaboration tools LIFELONG LEARNING ASK WATSON! THE PERIPHERAL BRAIN 22 USERS Convergence online and offline INDUSTRIAL- ISATION OF RESEARCH Scaling up Using big data Text analytics Data moving from lab to lab Fast translation of results Data analytics by the crowd OPEN SCIENCE Open Data Reproducibility Sharing Research Data SMALL SHOP LABS Citizen science Garage shops Outside academia Findable Retrievable Accessible RESEARCH DATA Linking Data and Pubs Interoperable Collaboration Performance Evaluation Pooling of Data Robot labs Machine generated Research Hypothesis Experiments Citizen Science Knowledge graphs AUTOMATED KNOWLEDGE CREATION 3RESEARCH PRIVACYANDSECURITY 44 Warranting reproducibility Identity, reputation Link people Certification VoR Users securing their own metadataUser privacy Balance Privacy and Value NEED Unauthorised PDFs PROBLEMS Theft and privacy Push walls Content locks Internet locked and blocked Big user data Right to be forgotten Safe harbour Individualised services allowed? BOOST IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TDM Statistics on steroids Internet of Data Artificial Intelligence Machine learning, machine reading COMPUTER POWER ON STEROIDS Cloud computing Webscale computing No more capacity limits Easier innovation? Computing costs up or down? Big Data meets Artificial IntelligenceText Non-text Protocols Research Data Knowledge graphs Code Orcids MORE OUTPUTS - ALL DIGITAL Outputs born digital Increased output variety 5TECHNOL O GY 5 User-cen tered Publishing delivers Precision Inform at ion The Machine is the New Reader Science as a Social Machine D ata Privacy requires a Web of Trust STM Tech Trends: Outlook 2020 THE TECHNOLOGY FLOODGATES ARE OPEN Kindly sponsored by It’s not just about text. And almost all of this depends on Web technologies.
  8. 8. Minor update to HTML 5 on 1 Nov. 2016 Mostly fine-tuning to align with actual practice. A few new elements, like <details> and <summary>, for info users can choose whether or not to read. Removed some features, mostly very technical. A few changes, like <figcaption> anywhere in <figure>. HTML 5.2 is being worked on, due late 2017. This will continue to evolve. This is a good thing! HTML 5.1
  9. 9. Working toward print-quality rendering. “Grid” and “flexbox” for complex layouts. CSS variables and the “calc” function for adaptability. New font features for sophisticated display. MS is working on a new spec for table behavior; goal is interoperability among browsers. These will help make complex (STM!) content more reliable and responsive. CSS is modular: ongoing progress. CSS
  10. 10. The Web Publication Vision: ONE PUBLICATION FOR BOTH ONLINE AND OFFLINE USE. The same content in two different “states”: Offline, packaged or cached; Online, with all essential resources linked. A canonical URL that leads to both.
  11. 11. Wouldn’t it be great if there was no difference between an online publication and an EPUB?
  12. 12. OMG! OMG! OMG! Please don’t kill EPUB!
  13. 13. Calm down! Nobody’s taking EPUB away!!
  14. 14. EPUB 3 has become essential to the publishing ecosystem E-Readers It’s the “master format” for virtually all systems.
  15. 15. EPUB 3 has become essential to the publishing ecosystem E-Readers It’s the “master format” for virtually all systems. Accessibility It’s the format for interchange of accessible content.
  16. 16. EPUB 3 has become essential to the publishing ecosystem E-Readers It’s the “master format” for virtually all systems. Accessibility It’s the format for interchange of accessible content. Education Platforms are built on the EPUB for Education profile.
  17. 17. EPUB 3 has become essential to the publishing ecosystem E-Readers It’s the “master format” for virtually all systems. Accessibility It’s the format for interchange of accessible content. Education Platforms are built on the EPUB for Education profile. Not Just Books It’s used for all kinds of publications.
  18. 18. EPUB 3 has become essential to the publishing ecosystem E-Readers It’s the “master format” for virtually all systems. Accessibility It’s the format for interchange of accessible content. Education Platforms are built on the EPUB for Education profile. Not Just Books It’s used for all kinds of publications. Global Widely adopted in US, EU, Far East, Israel.
  19. 19. We want to avoid two competing specs. These need to be the same thing. Could be one master spec, or a layered spec with “profiles”: e.g., PWP as a profile of a WP (a type of WP), and “EPUB 4” in turn as a profile of PWP (like EPUB for Education is for EPUB), a type of PWP requiring more predictability, accessibility, archivability. EPUB 4 vs. (P)WP
  20. 20. We want to avoid two competing specs. These need to be the same thing. Could be one master spec, or a layered spec with “profiles”: e.g., PWP as a profile of a WP (a type of WP), and “EPUB 4” in turn as a profile of PWP (like EPUB for Education is for EPUB), a type of PWP requiring more predictability, accessibility, archivability. EPUB 4 vs. (P)WP This is why we’re working on combining the IDPF into the W3C.
  21. 21. Publishing Business Group Provides a formal voice for publishing in the W3C. Dues are comparable to IDPF dues. IDPF members are automatically members for two years at current IDPF dues. Publishing Working Group Full participation in W3C standards at W3C dues. EPUB 3 Community Group Free to all; maintains EPUB 3. Here’s the plan.
  22. 22. People are afraid publishers will become “lost” in the W3C.
  23. 23. People are afraid publishers will become “lost” in the W3C. This plan is designed to ensure that publishers have an even greater presence and influence and can participate at costs that even small publishers can bear.
  24. 24. In the meantime, the evolution of EPUB 3 continues.
  25. 25. Tightens up EPUB 3 without breaking it. New spec format, better integrated. Deprecates unused features of EPUB 3.0. Clarifies/extends support for remote resources (e.g., metadata, fonts, datasets). Improves CSS behavior between author/RS/user. Improved and stricter accessibility support. Expected to advance to member vote as final Recommended Spec on Thursday. EPUB 3.1
  26. 26. Better alignment with OWP. Undated references to HTML & SVG to stay in synch. No EPUB CSS profile; uses CSS WG “official definition.” Some metadata improvements. Prioritizes linked bibliographic metadata records. Deprecates @refines attribute and adds more explicit attributes for specific functionality. Final notice on NCX. Slated for removal in next major revision of EPUB. EPUB 3.1
  27. 27. EPUB in Microsoft Edge Read EPUBs natively just as you can with PDFs. HTML5-based version of Woodwing Magazine industry’s leading production system moves from proprietary to OWP software. VitalSource Content Studio Easy cloud-based creation of complex educational media as EPUB 3. IBM adopts EPUB 3 for all documents Significant move away from PDF. EPUB is Not Just for Books!
  28. 28. Accessibility 2. Mainstreaming Accessibility
  29. 29. Separate spec devoted to accessibility. Clear guidelines to enable certification of accessibility and discovery of accessible features in an EPUB. Based on WCAG 2.0: A is must, AA is recommended. Adds publication-specific requirements. Requires accessibility-specific metadata. Techniques document provides “how to do it” advice. Applicable and referenceable by any version of EPUB and other specs too. EPUB Accessibility 1.0
  30. 30. Categories of compliance. “Discovery-Enabled”: Just metadata. “Accessible”: MD + WCAG 2.0 + EPUB requirements. “Optimized”: Metadata + specific features. Metadata aligned with schema.org. accessMode (textual, visual, auditory, tactile). accessibilityFeature (what features does it have). accessibilityHazard (e.g., flashing can cause seizures). accessibilitySummary (human-readable explanation). accessModeSufficient (e.g. text + alt text = textual). EPUB Accessibility 1.0
  31. 31. Annotations 3. Progress on Interoperable Annotations.
  32. 32. W3C Web Annotation Working Group Web Annotation Data Model Web Annotation Vocabulary Web Annotation Protocol Provide interoperable “data structures” for annotations: Can exchange annotations between systems. Can store annotations on an annotation server. Put annotations on text, images, videos, etc. Final recommendations to pub in February. Annotations
  33. 33. Annotating All Knowledge Coalition of over 70 scholarly publishers, platforms, libraries, and technology organizations. Open source, standards-based, supports key formats (HTML, PDF, EPUB, images, video and data). Ambitious 3-year timeline: Pilots at JSTOR, arXiv, eLife, etc. Force11: Community Platform, Working Group. Annotations
  34. 34. Ambitious AAK 3-Year Timeline Year 1, Design & Build: Interview users, run experiments, gather requirements. Discussions w/ key platforms. Ship standards. Write software. Year 2, Deploy: Make annotation available with articles, books and other media objects. Year 3, Market: Drive adoption through partnerships and targeted programs. (Thanks to Maryann E. Martone, Hypothes.is) Annotations
  35. 35. Images 4. Coming Soon: Interoperable Images.
  36. 36. IIIF: The International Image Interoperability Framework A Community . . . Over 600 national libraries, research institutions, museums, tech firms, aggregators, and projects. . . . that creates APIs . . . Image (the pixels); Presentation (human readable info); Authentication (almost finished); Search (to come). . . . that it uses to create interoperable services. Focusing on providing a good UX. Interoperable Images
  37. 37. Image API URL and identifier for image; can express regions, size, mirror, rotation, rights info, multiple versions. Presentation API Structure, properties (labels, rights, technical info, links), can associate transcription, translation, commentary, etc. with regions of an image. Working on Audio, Video; 3D in future All based on Web technologies, including Annotations. Interoperable Images
  38. 38. WEB PUBLICATIONS Web Publications for the Open Web Platform: https://w3c.github.io/dpub-pwp/ HTML 5.1 https://www.w3.org/TR/html/ EPUB 3.1 http://www.idpf.org/epub/31/spec/epub-spec.html ACCESSIBILITY EPUB Accessibility 1.0: http://www.idpf.org/epub/a11y/ EPUB Accessibility Techniques: http://www.idpf.org/epub/a11y/techniques/techniques.html WEB ANNOTATIONS Data Model: https://www.w3.org/TR/annotation-model/ Vocabulary: https://www.w3.org/TR/2016/CR-annotation-vocab-20160906/ Protocol: https://www.w3.org/TR/2016/CR-annotation-protocol-20160906/ ANNOTATING ALL KNOWLEDGE https://hypothes.is/annotating-all-knowledge/ INTERNATIONAL IMAGE INTEROPERABILITY FRAMEWORK http://iiif.io/ Resources
  39. 39. Thanks! Bill Kasdorf bkasdorf@apexcovantage.com +1 734 904 6252 @BillKasdorf

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