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  • 1. Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX Tips and Considerations. . . . . . . . Erik Salander IBM Oracle International Competency Center December 2007 © Copyright IBM Corporation, 2007. All Rights Reserved. All trademarks or registered trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective holders
  • 2. Table of contentsChange history ............................................................................................................................1Abstract........................................................................................................................................2Introduction .................................................................................................................................2Terminology.................................................................................................................................2IBM AIX.........................................................................................................................................3 Service and support ................................................................................................................................. 3 Fix Central................................................................................................................................................ 4 C and C++ compilers ............................................................................................................................... 4Oracle Database 11g...................................................................................................................5 Current certifications ................................................................................................................................ 5 Latest patch set........................................................................................................................................ 6 Advanced Power Virtualization for Oracle Database 11g........................................................................ 6Oracle RAC 11g ...........................................................................................................................7 Current certifications ................................................................................................................................ 7 Oracle Clusterware .................................................................................................................................. 8 High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing ............................................................................................... 8 General Parallel File System ................................................................................................................... 8 Advanced Power Virtualization for Oracle RAC 11g ............................................................................... 9 Network interconnects ........................................................................................................................... 10Tuning tips.................................................................................................................................10 Automatic Storage Management ........................................................................................................... 10 Asynchronous I/O .................................................................................................................................. 11 Concurrent I/O and direct I/O................................................................................................................. 11 File system cache size........................................................................................................................... 12 RAC IPC ................................................................................................................................................ 12 GPFS ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 Oracle process memory footprint........................................................................................................... 12 Tuning resources ................................................................................................................................... 12Summary....................................................................................................................................14Appendix 1: Resources ............................................................................................................15About the author .......................................................................................................................16Trademarks and special notices..............................................................................................17Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation
  • 3. Change history Version Date Editor Editing description 1.0 2007.12.19 Patrick Moore Original VersionOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 1
  • 4. Abstract This paper consolidates the information to be considered when planning or implementing an Oracle Database 11g or Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) 11g on the IBM AIX® operating system. Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g were recently released for AIX in the end of 2007. This paper summarizes the information available at the time of publication. It will be updated as changes (eg. new certifications) occur. This paper is written to a level of detail that assumes readers have an in-depth knowledge of AIX, Oracle Database 11g, Oracle RAC 11g and the related products.IntroductionThere are many technical topics to consider when running Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g onAIX such as: certifications, 11g patch sets, AIX code levels, tuning and related software components - justto name a few. The documentation for these topics is spread across many websites, documents,presentations and forums. This paper consolidates that information for easy reference.The paper focuses on AIX 5.3 and AIX 6, since Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g are certifiedon those versions of AIX or will be in the future.This is a companion paper to two other papers. For 9i and 10gR1, Oracle 9i & 10g on IBM AIX5L: Tips and Considerations, http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100556 For 10gR2, Oracle Database 10gR2 and Oracle RAC 10gR2 on IBM AIX: Tips and Considerations, http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP101089Feedback is important; please send any comments about this paper to the IBM Oracle InternationalCompetency Center at ibmoracl@us.ibm.com.The IBM Oracle International Competency Center works closely with the Joint Solutions Center inMontpellier France and the IBM Oracle Competency Center in Tokyo, Japan. Joint Solutions Center, Montpellier France – oraclibm@fr.ibm.com IBM Oracle Competency Center, Tokyo Japan – ibmoracc@jp.ibm.comTerminologyWhere the System p™ product family name is used, it includes the earlier names of: RS6000®,eServer™ pSeries® and System p5™, unless stated otherwise.Where the System i™ product family name is used, it includes the earlier names of eServer iSeries® andSystem i5™, unless stated otherwise.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 2
  • 5. IBM AIXAIX is an open standards-based, UNIX operating system. AIX in combination with IBMs virtualizationofferings provides new levels of flexibility and performance to allow you to consolidate workloads on fewerservers which can increase efficiency and conserve energy. AIX delivers high levels of security,integration, flexibility and reliability—essential for meeting the demands of todays information technologyenvironments. AIX operates on the IBM Systems based on Power Architecture technology. For moreinformation about AIX see this web page: http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/os/aix/.IBM’s latest version of AIX is 6.1. It contains new features for virtualization, security, availability andmanageability. AIX 6.1 is binary compatible with AIX 5L. For additional information about AIX 6.1, visitthis web page: http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/os/aix/v61/index.html.Most of the new features of AIX 6.1 are available on earlier POWER platforms. However, the bestcapabilities are delivered on systems based on POWER6 processors. The POWER6 processor has ultrahigh-frequency dual-core processor technology and two integrated hardware accelerators. Forinformation about the POWER6 processor, see this web page:http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/advantages/power6/index.html.In addition to POWER6 support in AIX 6.1, the POWER6 processor-based systems are also supported byAIX 5.3 TL6 or later.IBM also produces benchmark reports that demonstrate the performance results of System p servers andAIX. These benchmarks are run using Oracle E-Business Suite, yet they provide valuable data aboutOracle Database and Oracle RAC. The benchmark results are published athttp://www.oracle.com/apps_benchmark/html/results.html.IBM will also provide sizings estimations to help predict the system resources necessary to support agiven workload. To start the sizing process, visit this web page, http://www.ibm.com/erp/sizing.Additional documentation resources for AIX can be found at: IBM System p and AIX Information Center, http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/index.jsp IBM developerWorks AIX, http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/aix IBM AIX 5L Wiki, http://www-941.ibm.com/collaboration/wiki/display/WikiPtype/HomeService and supportIn 2007 IBM enhanced the AIX 5L OS Release and Service Strategy as part of an ongoing effort toimprove the manageability and stability of the OS. The enhanced strategy provides clients with: Extended support for each OS Technology Level (TL) update Improved serviceability for the OS through the duration of a Technology Level Support for some new hardware on previous Technology LevelsOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 3
  • 6. To review the latest AIX 5L OS Release and Service strategy, as well as a Best Practices document forthe AIX 5L Service Strategy, see this website:http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/best/home.htmlFix CentralThe latest fixes and updates for your system’s hardware and operating system can be found at the FixCentral web page: http://www-912.ibm.com/eserver/support/fixes/.This document describes how Fix Central supports the AIX Service Strategy (discussed in the previoussub-section): http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/best/FC_changes_for_AIX.pdf.Be sure to review MetaLink note 282036.1, “Minimum Software Versions and Patches Required toSupport Oracle Products on IBM pSeries”, for the latest, up-to-date issues regarding AIX and OracleDatabase 11g. This MetaLink note is the primary mechanism used to broadcast any breaking news, suchas PTF’s or bug fixes, about AIX and Oracle Database 11g.In general, the ICC recommends that you keep your TL’s and SP’s current for your AIX installation.Monitor MetaLink note 282036.1 and Fix Central for the latest issues. If you can’t yet move to the latestTL for AIX 5.3, be aware of these two issues: If you have not applied ML01 (“Maintenance Level” terminology applies through AIX 5300-03 and predates “Technology Level”) to your AIX 5.3 environment, please apply mandatory APAR #IY58143. All customers at AIX 5.3 TL05 (5300-05) must install the IBM AIX PTF for APAR IY89080, and obtain the fix for Oracle Bug 5496862. Please see MetaLink notes 390656.1 and 5496862.8 for further information. Recommended fix levels To help determine recommended code levels among AIX and its related components, use the Fix Level Recommendation Tool (FLRT). FLRT can determine the recommended code levels among a mixture of AIX, HMC, Server firmware, VIOS, GPFS™ and HACMP™. The FLRT web page is: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/flrt/home.C and C++ compilersXL C/C++ is a standards-based, high performance C and C++ compiler with advanced optimizing anddebugging features. It gives you the ability to optimize and tune applications for optimal execution onsystems using PowerPC®, POWER3™, POWER4™, POWER5™, and the latest POWER6 processorsfrom IBM. The compiler supports IBM System p systems capable of running IBM AIX 5.2 and 5.3.To determine the current certifications for compilers on 11g, please review MetaLink note 43208.1,“Certified Compilers”. Currently, XL C/C++ 8.0 is certified for Oracle Database 11g. If necessary readMetaLink note 335569.1, “How to Find C or C++ version on AIX Platform” to determine your XL C/C++compiler version.The XL C/C++ runtime environment is installed during the installation of base AIX 5L. To update to thelatest runtime environment, go to the XL C/C++ web page,Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 4
  • 7. http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/xlcpp/features/aix/ and click on the “Latest XL C/C++ Updates(PTFs)” link. Then select the “Runtime Environment Components” in the AIX section.If the XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX compiler is installed, to get the latest updates, visit theproduct’s web page, http://www-306.ibm.com/software/awdtools/xlcpp/features/aix/ and click on the“Latest XL C/C++ Updates (PTFs)” link and select the appropriate link in the AIX section.Oracle Database 11gThis section contains the Oracle Database 11g non-RAC technical information that needs to beconsidered in an AIX installation. These are the basic documents to review for an Oracle Database 11ginstallation on AIX. “Oracle Database Installation Guide 11g for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-bit)”, B32076, http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/install.111/b32076/toc.htm “Oracle Database Release Notes 11g for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-bit)”, B32075, http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/relnotes.111/b32075/toc.htm MetaLink note 282036.1, “Minimum Software Versions and Patches Required to Support Oracle Products on IBM pSeries” for the latest, up-to-date issues regarding Oracle Database 11g and AIX.Current certificationsTo determine the current certifications for Oracle Database 11g on AIX, either: Sign into Oracle’s MetaLink website at https://metalink.oracle.com and click on the Certify tab to view Oracle’s certification matrices. See the certification information (mirrored from MetaLink) on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) website at: http://www.oracle.com/technology/support/metalink/index.html.Next, click on “View Certifications by Platform”. In the Platform Selection list, select “IBM AIX basedSystems”. From the Product Groups list select “Database/Server”. Then select the appropriate productfrom the product list: Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition. Then check the box for 11gR1 and click onSubmit. OS Product Status 5.3 11gR1 64-bit Certified Table 1: Oracle Database Enterprise Edition 11g certifications of AIX as of publication date.The same certifications are in place for Standard Edition (SE) as Enterprise Edition (EE).Here are some certification details to be aware of: These products are certified for AIX on all servers that IBM supports. The supported servers are the System p platform and the POWER processor-based blades. 64-bit hardware is required for a 64-bit application such as Oracle Database 11g for AIX.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 5
  • 8. Servers capable of more than 4 CPU’s are certified only for EE. Note, a 16-core System p (eg. 560Q with four Quad-Core modules) is eligible for SE. Logical Partitioning (LPARs) and Micro-Partitioning™ are supported. Virtual IO Server (VIOS) is supported for non-RAC environments.Certification of AIX 6.1 on Oracle Database 11g planned.Latest patch setTo find the documentation for the latest Oracle Database 11g patch set, sign into Oracle’s MetaLinkwebsite at https://metalink.oracle.com. In the Quick Find pulldown, specify “Document ID”. Then specifyDocument Number 161818.1, “Oracle Server (RDBMS) Releases Support Status Summary”. Then clickon “11.1.0.X”, this will bring up MetaLink note 454507.1, “Oracle 11g Release 1 (11.1) Support Status andAlerts”. The go to the “IBM AIX 64-bit 5L” section and locate the ReadMe. At the time of publication,there is no patch set for AIX.Also, check the Oracle Database 11g Release Notes for AIX 5L Based Systems,http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/relnotes.111/b32075/toc.htm, for additional AIX-specificinformation.In general, the ICC recommends that you keep your patch set current for your Oracle Database 11ginstallation. Monitor the MetaLink note 282036.1 and the Release Notes for AIX Based Systems for thelatest issues. Critical Patch Update schedule The Critical Patch Update (CPU) program is the method by which Oracle delivers security patch updates and security fixes for all their products. A CPU is a collection of patches for multiple security vulnerabilities. It also includes non-security fixes that are required (because of interdependencies) by those security patches. Oracle provides CPUs for all product offerings on a quarterly schedule. For more information about CPUs, see MetaLink note 360470.1, “Security Alerts and Critical Patch Updates – Frequently Asked Questions”. Watch for Critical Patch Updates at this site: http://www.oracle.com/technology/deploy/security/alerts.htm.Advanced Power Virtualization for Oracle Database 11gAs mentioned in the Current Certifications sub-section (see above) for Oracle Database 11g; LPARs,Micro-Partitioning and VIOS are supported in non-RAC environments. LPARs, Micro-Partitioning andVIOS are part of the Advanced Power Virtualization (APV) feature set: Logical partitioning allows a computers processors, memory, and hardware resources to be subdivided into multiple environments so that each environment can be operated independently with its own operating system and applications. The Micro-Partitioning feature provides the capability to create multiple logical partitions within a processor—to a granularity of 1/10th of a CPU. Virtual I/O Server allows sharing of physical resources between logical partitions (LPARs) including virtual SCSI and virtual networking. This allows more efficient utilization of physicalOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 6
  • 9. resources through sharing between LPARs and facilitates server consolidation. The VIOS Support web page is http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/vios/home.htmlFor additional, detailed APV information, see these documents and websites: APV webpage, http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/apv/ developerWorks Virtualization space, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/spaces/virtualization APV on System p: Introduction and Configuration (Redbook), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html?Open System p APV Best Practices (Redpiece), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp4194.html?OpenOracle RAC 11gThis section contains the Oracle RAC 11g technical information that needs to be considered in an AIXinstallation. These are the basic documents to review for an Oracle RAC 11g installation on AIX. “Oracle Database Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) for AIX”, B28258, http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/install.111/b28258/toc.htm “Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux and UNIX”, B28264, http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/install.111/b28264/toc.htm MetaLink note 282036.1, “Minimum Software Versions and Patches Required to Support Oracle Products on IBM pSeries” for the latest, up-to-date issues regarding Oracle Database 11g and AIX.Current certificationsTo determine the current certifications for Oracle RAC 11g on AIX, either: Sign into Oracle’s MetaLink website at https://metalink.oracle.com and click on the Certify tab to view Oracle’s certification matrices. See the certification information (mirrored from MetaLink) on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) website at: http://www.oracle.com/technology/support/metalink/index.htmlNext, click on “View Certifications by Platform”. In the Platform Selection list, select “IBM AIX basedSystems (RAC only)”. From the Product Groups list select “Real Application Clusters”. This takes you tothe “General Notes for RAC for Unix On IBM AIX based Systems (RAC only)” page. OS Product Certified With Version Status 5.3 11gR1 64-bit Oracle Clusterware 11g Certified HACMP 5.3 11gR1 64-bit 5.3 Certified For raw logical volume support. SeeOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 7
  • 10. HACMP sub-section below. Table 2: Oracle RAC 11g certifications of AIX as of publication date.Here are some certification details to be aware of: These products are certified for AIX on all servers that IBM supports. The supported servers are the System p platform and the POWER processor-based blades. AIX on System i partitions are also supported. 64-bit hardware is required for Oracle RAC. AIX 64-bit is required for Oracle RAC 11g. Logical Partitioning (LPARs), Dynamic Logical Partitioning (DLPARs), Shared Processor Pool (SPLPARs) and Micro-Partitioning are supported in Oracle RAC environments. Virtual IO Server (VIOS) is not supported in Oracle RAC environments. Note: VIOS can be used for some non-RAC functions such as: virtual SCSI based root volume groups (rootvg) and public networks over the virtual Ethernet. Oracle RAC support is planned. See the APV sub-section below for more details.By following the navigation instructions in the first paragraph of this sub-section, the RAC TechnologiesCompatibility Matrix (RTCM) will also be visible. The RTCM supplies details about storage technologies,network interconnect technologies and other platform-specific information.Certification of AIX 6.1 on Oracle RAC 11g is planned.Oracle ClusterwareIn a RAC environment Oracle Clusterware provides the high availability functionality. This includesmonitoring or restarting the nodes of the cluster, for the database instances, for the listeners and for thedatabase services. Oracle Clusterware is required for Oracle RAC 11g. For more information on OracleClusterware, visit: www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/clusterware/index.html.High Availability Cluster Multi-ProcessingWhere customers desire raw logical volumes for their Clusterware files, database files or recovery files,High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing (HACMP) will be required. The certification details for thedifferent versions of HACMP are: HACMP 5.3: Certified on AIX 5.3.The HACMP web page is at http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/ha/.General Parallel File SystemIf using a file system for your Oracle RAC 11g data files (as opposed to raw logical volumes or ASM),you’ll need to use a cluster file system (CFS). A CFS allows file system access by all members in acluster at the same time. That requirement precludes JFS and JFS2 from being used for Oracle RAC 11gdata files. The IBM General Purpose File System (GPFS) is an Oracle RAC 11g certified CFS.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 8
  • 11. GPFS is a high-performance shared-disk file system that can provide fast, reliable data access from allnodes in a homogenous or heterogeneous cluster of IBM UNIX servers running either the AIX 5L or theLinux® operating system.To determine the current certifications for GPFS on Oracle RAC, browse to the “General Notes for RACfor Unix on IBM AIX based Systems (RAC only)” web page, as described in the beginning of the CurrentCertifications sub-section (see above). Then select the link for the RAC Technologies CompatibilityMatrix (RTCM). Within RTCM, GPFS certifications are listed under Cluster File Systems for AIX.Currently, GPFS 3.1 is certified for use in Oracle RAC 11g environments. The certification details for thedifferent versions of GPFS are: GPFS 3.1: Certified on AIX 5.3. Certification is not planned for AIX 6.1. GPFS 3.2: Certification on AIX 5.3 and AIX 6.1 is planned.The GPFS web site is http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/clusters/software/gpfs.html. Make sure to reviewthe current GPFS advisories in the GPFS FAQ available from the GPFS web site.See the GPFS sub-section in the Tuning Tips section (below) for GPFS tuning information.Advanced Power Virtualization for Oracle RAC 11gAs mentioned in the Current Certifications sub-section (see above) for Oracle RAC 11g: LPARs, DynamicLPAR (DLPAR), Shared Processor Pool (SPLPARs) and Micro-Partitioning are supported in Oracle RAC11g environments. LPARs, DLPARs, SPLPARs, Micro-Partitioning and VIOS are part of the AdvancedPower Virtualization (APV) feature set: Logical partitioning allows a computers processors, memory, and hardware resources to be subdivided into multiple environments so that each environment can be operated independently with its own operating system and applications. Dynamic LPAR allows for resources such as processors, memory and adapters to be dynamically reassigned to another LPAR. SPLPARs make it possible to share processors among virtual servers (LPARs). The Micro-Partitioning feature provides the capability to create multiple logical partitions within a processor—to a granularity of 1/10th of a CPU. Virtual I/O Server allows sharing of physical resources between LPARs. This allows more efficient utilization of physical resources through sharing between LPARs and facilitates server consolidation. At this time, Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) is not supported in Oracle RAC environments. However, VIOS can be used for non-RAC functions such as: virtual SCSI based root volume groups (rootvg) and public networks over the virtual Ethernet. Initial support is planned for VIOS 1.3 and GPFS 3.1. That is followed by planned support for VIOS 1.3 and ASM. The VIOS Support web page is: http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/vios/home.html.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 9
  • 12. APV features are powerful, yet their implementation can get quite complex in Oracle RAC 11g. If youhave any questions about implementing APV with Oracle RAC 11g, contact the IBM Oracle InternationalCompetency Center at ibmoracl@us.ibm.com. For additional, detailed APV information, see thesedocuments and websites: APV webpage, http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/apv/ developerWorks Virtualization space, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/spaces/virtualization APV on System p: Introduction and Configuration (Redbook), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html?Open System p APV Best Practices (Redpiece), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/redp4194.html?OpenNetwork interconnectsTo determine the current certifications for network interconnects on Oracle RAC, browse to the“General Notes for RAC for Unix on IBM AIX based Systems (RAC only)” web page, as described in thebeginning of the Current Certifications sub-section (see above) for Oracle RAC 11g. Then select the linkfor the RAC Technologies Compatibility Matrix (RTCM). Within RTCM, Network Interconnectcertifications are listed. Currently, 100Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet as well as IP over InfiniBand arecertified.Support for Reliable Datagram Sockets (RDS) over Infiniband is planned for Oracle Database 11g.For additional information about Implementing InfiniBand: Implementing InfiniBand on IBM System p (Redbook), www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247351.html?OpenTuning tipsTuning Oracle Database and Oracle RAC for AIX is documented in detail in many documents. The tuningitems chosen for inclusion in this section are those where the defaults are sub-optimal, or settings thatrequire special consideration. Instead of repeating the existing documentation, this section willconsolidate references to the existing documentation. The URLs of the documents referenced in thissection are listed at the end of the section.Automatic Storage ManagementAutomatic Storage Management (ASM) is a feature in Oracle Database 11g that provides the databaseadministrator with a simple storage management interface that is consistent across all server and storageplatforms. In an Oracle Database 11g instance, ASM can be used to store the data and recovery files butnot the Oracle Database executables. In an Oracle RAC 11g environment, ASM can not be used to holdthe Clusterware files.For information about ASM, see Oracle’s ASM web page:http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/asm/index.htmlOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 10
  • 13. Asynchronous I/OAsynchronous I/O (AIO) allows a program to initiate an I/O operation then continue with other work inparallel to the I/O operation. Oracle Database 11g often requires multiple server and user processesrunning at the same time. Therefore Oracle Database 11g takes full advantage of AIO services providedby AIX. AIO is implemented with AIO server processes. The configuration values of: minservers,maxservers and maxreqs control the AIO server configuration of AIX. The Tuning IBM AIX 5L for anOracle Database whitepaper [1] has an “Asynchronous I/O” section that describes recommendations forthe configuration values. GPFS configuration recommendations are also supplied. There is also a “UsingAsynchronous I/O” section in the Oracle Architecture and Tuning on AIX whitepaper [2].In AIX 5.3 AIO is disabled by default. However, in AIX 6 AIO is enabled by default. When upgrading toAIX 6, the AIO setting will not be changed.Note, if you use the AIX filemon command, the AIO API calls of aio_read, aio_write and lio_listio are notincluded in the filemon report.Concurrent I/O and direct I/OThere is File System I/O tuning information in the Tuning IBM AIX 5L for an Oracle Database whitepaper[1], the Oracle Architecture and Tuning on AIX whitepaper [2] and the Direct I/O or Concurrent I/O on AIX5L MetaLink note [7]. For Oracle Database 11g, the database defaults to asynchronous I/O (AIO)enabled and concurrent I/O (CIO) disabled. In general, a good starting point is to set thefilesystemio_options=setall, in your init*.ora configuration file. This setting will enable AIO (which is thedefault) and CIO operation. CIO operation is built upon direct I/O (DIO) with the additional function ofinode locking. Note, there may be workloads (eg. sequential reads) where cached I/O performs betterthan CIO.When using CIO/DIO, the Oracle setting of DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT (the maximumnumber of blocks read in one I/O operation during a sequential scan) needs to be considered. Also, thealignment of the database blocksize and the file system block size (agblksize) has to be considered.These two topics are addressed by the documents in the previous paragraph. They are also addressedin the Oracle 9i & 10g on AIX 5L: Tips and Considerations whitepaper [8].When not using CIO/DIO, look at the suggested settings in the “AIX sequential read ahead” section of theOracle Architecture and Tuning on AIX whitepaper [2].Note, some third-party utilities and file system utilities (eg. cp, dd and cpio) are not CIO/DIO aware. Inthese situations, if the database is started with filesystemio_options=setall, you could shutdown thedatabase, thereby ensuring files are not open with CIO/DIO and proceed with the utilities using cachedIO. Or you could take advantage of the cio/dio mount options, specify filesystemio_options=asynch (thedefault) and the database and utilities can concurrently use CIO/DIO. If the CIO/DIO mount options areused, file system read ahead will also be disabled. The utilities may need to have their default I/Otransfer size increased to maintain acceptable throughput. This topic is also addressed in the Oracle 9i &10g on AIX 5L: Tips and Considerations whitepaper [8].Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 11
  • 14. File system cache sizeIn AIX 5.3 the default Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) settings are not optimal for a databaseenvironment. In AIX 6 the VMM defaults have been changed to be much more suitable for a databaseworkload. When upgrading to AIX 6, the VMM settings will not be changed.For an Oracle database workload, we need to ensure the computational pages used for Oracle code,SGA, and PGA remain resident in memory. The Oracle database buffer cache already provides cachingof database files. Therefore, the file system cache size should be tuned (using the VMM settings) to favorcomputational pages over file pages. Check the “Memory and Paging” chapter in the Oracle Architectureand Tuning on AIX whitepaper [2] for recommended VMM settings. Note, these settings are asuggested starting point. If you have already tuned your system, do not revert to these VMM settings.The VMM Tuning Tips: lru_file_repage and lru_poll_interval whitepaper [3] has a detailed description ofthe lru_file_repage and lru_poll_interval parameters and their tuning.RAC IPCOracle RAC 11g uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for interprocess communication (IPC) betweennodes. The Oracle Architecture and Tuning on AIX whitepaper [2] indicates how to tune the UDP kernelsettings in the “Network Tuning” section.GPFSThe GPFS Concepts, Planning and Installation Guide [4] contains a “GPFS use with Oracle” chapter thatcontains Oracle configuration and tuning considerations. MetaLink note 302806.1 [5] contains a “GPFSTuning Requirements for Oracle” section which describes the latest tuning information.Oracle process memory footprintThe AIXTHREAD_SCOPE environment variable can be used for control if an AIX process runs withprocess-wide contention scope (the default) or with system-wide contention scope. System-widecontention scope significantly reduces the memory required for each database process. AIX 5L operatesmost effectively with Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC when using system-wide contention scope(AIXTHREAD_SCOPE=S). See the “Tuning Memory” chapter of the Tuning IBM AIX 5L for an OracleDatabase whitepaper [1] for a detailed description of the AIXTHREAD_SCOPE parameter.Tuning resourcesThese are the documents referenced throughout this section. 1. Tuning IBM AIX 5L for an Oracle Database (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/servers/enable/site/peducation/wp/9a46/9a46.pdf 2. Oracle Architecture and Tuning on AIX (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100883 3. VMM Tuning Tips: lru_file_repage and lru_poll_interval (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/TD103148 4. GPFS: Concepts, Planning and Installation Guide (GPFS document), http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/clresctr/vxrx/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.cluster.gpfs.doc/gpfsbooks.htmlOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 12
  • 15. 5. IBM GPFS and Oracle RAC on AIX 5L and IBM pSeries (MetaLink note 302806.1), https://metalink.oracle.com/ 6. GPFS FAQs available here, http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/clusters/software/gpfs.html 7. Direct I/O or Concurrent I/O on AIX 5L (MetaLink note 272520.1), https://metalink.oracle.com/ 8. Oracle 9i & 10g on IBM AIX5L: Tips and Considerations (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100556These are supplemental tuning resources. AIX 6 Performance Management (AIX documentation), http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v6r1/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/doc/base/performance.htm AIX 5L Performance Management Guide (AIX documentation), http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v5r3/topic/com.ibm.aix.doc/doc/base/performance.htm AIX 5L Practical Performance Tools and Tuning Guide (Redbook), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg246478.html?Open Performance Management for System p, http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/p/support/pm/index.html Configuring IBM TotalStorage for Oracle OLTP Applications (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100319 Configuring IBM System Storage DS4000 Series for Oracle Database Applications (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100780 Diagnosing Oracle Database Performance on AIX Using IBM NMON and Oracle Statspack Reports (whitepaper), http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100880 Improving Database Performance with AIX Concurrent I/O (whitepaper), http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/whitepapers/db_perf_aix.pdfOracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 13
  • 16. SummaryThis document coalesced the key technical topics that need to be considered in planning or implementingOracle Database 11g or Oracle RAC 11g with AIX. In almost all cases, there are reinforcing referencesincluded in each section. The resources appendix below contains pointers to general documentation andadditional supporting documents.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 14
  • 17. Appendix 1: ResourcesThese Web sites and documents provide useful references to supplement the information contained inthis document: Oracle Database 11g Documentation Library, http://www.oracle.com/pls/db111/homepage Oracle Clusterware and RAC documentation, http://www.oracle.com/pls/db111/portal.portal_db?selected=16&frame= IBM and Oracle Support Process, http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100981 Facts about Oracle Solutions using 32-bit and 64-bit versions of AIX, http://www-03.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/WP100434 Raw Devices and Cluster Filesystems with RAC, MetaLink note 183408.1, https://metalink.oracle.com/ Oracle MetaLink note 341507.1: Oracle Products on Linux on IBM POWER, https://metalink.oracle.com/Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 15
  • 18. About the authorErik Salander is an IT Specialist with the IBM Advanced Technical Support (ATS) Oracle InternationalCompetency Center based in San Mateo. He provides System p and AIX support for projects at the IBMOracle International Competency Center in San Mateo and for enablement activities at Oracle inRedwood Shores.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 16
  • 19. Trademarks and special notices© Copyright. IBM Corporation 1994-2007. All rights reserved.References in this document to IBM products or services do not imply that IBM intends to make themavailable in every country.IBM, the IBM logo, AIX, AIX 5L, eServer, GPFS, HACMP, iSeries, Micro-Partitioning, Power Architecture,POWER, PowerPC, POWER3, POWER4, POWER5, POWER6, pSeries, RS6000, System i, System i5,System p, and System p5 are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business MachinesCorporation in the United States, other countries, or both:UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.Information is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind.All customer examples described are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBMproducts and the results they may have achieved. Actual environmental costs and performancecharacteristics may vary by customer.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from a supplier of these products, publishedannouncement material, or other publicly available sources and does not constitute an endorsement ofsuch products by IBM. Sources for non-IBM list prices and performance numbers are taken from publiclyavailable information, including vendor announcements and vendor worldwide homepages. IBM has nottested these products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, capability, or any other claimsrelated to non-IBM products. Questions on the capability of non-IBM products should be addressed to thesupplier of those products.All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal withoutnotice, and represent goals and objectives only. Contact your local IBM office or IBM authorized resellerfor the full text of the specific Statement of Direction.Some information addresses anticipated future capabilities. Such information is not intended as adefinitive statement of a commitment to specific levels of performance, function or delivery schedules withrespect to any future products. Such commitments are only made in IBM product announcements. Theinformation is presented here to communicate IBMs current investment and development activities as agood faith effort to help with our customers future planning.Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlledenvironment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary dependingupon considerations such as the amount of multiprogramming in the users job stream, the I/Oconfiguration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can begiven that an individual user will achieve throughput or performance improvements equivalent to theratios stated here.Photographs shown are of engineering prototypes. Changes may be incorporated in production models.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 17
  • 20. Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not inany manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not partof the materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.Oracle Database 11g and Oracle RAC 11g on IBM AIX – Tips and Considerationshttp://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs© Copyright 2007, IBM Corporation 18

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