Lean Six Sigma Manual

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Lean Six Sigma Manual

  1. 1. Lean Six Sigmafor Colleges A team based approach for process improvement in Colleges
  2. 2. Page 1 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  3. 3. Table of Contents Background............................................................................................................................. 5Introduction to Deploying Lean Six Sigma Projects In Colleges Using this Manual ................................................................................................................... 8 What are LSS Projects?........................................................................................................... 9 What are the different types of Project? ............................................................................. 10 The DMAIC process structure .............................................................................................. 12 Commonly asked questions about LSS................................................................................. 14Management of Lean Six Sigma Projects within Colleges Process Management Structure ........................................................................................... 16 Communication and Timing of Projects ............................................................................... 17 Role of the Principal and VP’s .............................................................................................. 18 Role of the College Champion .............................................................................................. 19 Role of the Project Manager ................................................................................................ 20 Project steering committee.................................................................................................. 20 Selection of College Champions and Project Managers ...................................................... 22 Project Team Selection and Make Up .................................................................................. 24 Project Selection and Strategic Alignment........................................................................... 25 Project Sequence and Timelines .......................................................................................... 27Project Charters Using Project Charters.......................................................................................................... 30How to Prepare LSS Projects Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 37 Potential Pitfalls ................................................................................................................... 37 Facilities and Project Logistics .............................................................................................. 40 Collection of initial supporting data ..................................................................................... 42Initial Training Purpose................................................................................................................................. 44 Content ................................................................................................................................. 45Page 2 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  4. 4. Delivery................................................................................................................................. 46Running Project Meetings Using the DMAIC Process to Structure Meetings ................................................................ 49 Generating and Testing Ideas............................................................................................... 52 Safety Issues ......................................................................................................................... 53 Team Rules ........................................................................................................................... 54 Recording Activities and Actions .......................................................................................... 55 Keeping the Team on Track .................................................................................................. 56 Example Meeting Agenda .................................................................................................... 57Process Mapping Introduction to Process Mapping......................................................................................... 59 Purpose................................................................................................................................. 60 Using Current and Future State Maps.................................................................................. 61 Manual Process Mapping as a Tool ...................................................................................... 63 Basic Flowcharting Symbols ................................................................................................. 64 Using Bizagi Software ........................................................................................................... 66 Examples of Process Maps ................................................................................................... 68The Final Presentation Purpose................................................................................................................................. 71 Structure............................................................................................................................... 72 Who Should Attend? ............................................................................................................ 73 Celebrating Success .............................................................................................................. 74Sustainment and Project Follow Up Measuring Success ............................................................................................................... 76 Using RAG Reporting ............................................................................................................ 77 Example RAG Report ............................................................................................................ 78 Project Close-Out ................................................................................................................. 79 Roles and Responsibilities .................................................................................................... 80 Follow up Communications .................................................................................................. 81Glossary of Terms Glossary of terms ................................................................................................................. 83Page 3 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  5. 5. © 2012 Scott-JardineLimit of useThe use of this publication is limited to Bromley, Bexley and John Ruskin College. Permission is granted tothese bodies to use, reproduce and transmit this manual for use within the confines of the named colleges.However, outside of the named colleges, no part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storageand retrieval system without permission in writing from the authors. The AoC, as the overseeing body of the project, is also granted permission to use this manual within the samelimits of permissionLimit of LiabilityIndividuals using and/ or reading this manual are responsible for their use of the information contained. Theauthors make no guarantees with regard as to the accuracy or completeness of the book and specificallydisclaim all warranties of fitness for a particular purpose.The manual does not constitute professional or legal advice and the reader is advised to seek competentadvice in any particular matter in relation to any matters regarding the reader’s business or personal affairs.No responsibilities or liabilities are assumed by the Authors whatsoeverPage 4 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  6. 6. BackgroundColleges are faced with an increasingly difficult task: improving the outcomes for studentsdespite reduced budgets and against a backdrop of continued economic uncertainty.Achieving maximum value for money from existing resources while improving quality andperformance is critical to success.As with other parts of the economy Colleges can harness the benefits of Lean and Six Sigmato streamline their internal processes.Lean and Six Sigma have been found to be very successful approaches to improving qualityand increasing efficiency in a wide range of processes. They use the skills and experience ofstaff in the organisation and use a structured team based approach to deliver the benefits.Through the AoC shared services initiative a Lean and Six Sigma programme was undertakenwith Warwickshire and Coventry Colleges in 2011. Significant benefits were seen from thisprogramme across the processes studied which covered pre-enrolment, enrolment,examinations, and registration.Following on from the success of this programme, a further programme funded by the FEInnovation Fund agreed with the AoC was implemented called ‘Embedding processefficiency gains using Lean and Six Sigma’. This programme was deployed in Bromley College(including Orpington Campus), Bexley College and John Ruskin College.The programme commenced with an initial trainings session for the staff across all theColleges. The training focused on the basic tools and techniques of Lean and Six Sigma alsothe removal of waste and improvement in the reliability of College processes. This wasfollowed up by the practical application of the tools and techniques within four projects thatwere identified by the Steering Committee.Cross College teams were formed and the structured DMAIC process was used to progressthe projects and identify improvements in the relevant processes. The processes studied inthis programme were enrolment, fee collection, payroll and student services.At the end of the projects, final presentations were made to College leadership and staff.Also the key actions that would be undertaken to secure the improvements were identified.As part of the overall programme it was agreed a toolkit would be developed to help CollegeManagers and Leaders to undertake their own improvement projects.This manual is the result of that work and is designed to help you to introduceimprovements into your College through team based improvement following the DMAICroadmap that is defined later in this manual.Page 5 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  7. 7. Introduction to DeployingLean Six Sigma ProjectsIn CollegesPage 6 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  8. 8. Introduction to Lean Six SigmaYou have embarked, or are about to embark, on an exciting journey within your College.Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a team based process improvement tool that, when deployedcorrectly, will not only generate savings and improve customer quality, but will alsogenerate excitement with those people and departments who are involved.The fundamental concept you should always keep in mind is that Lean Six Sigma is a processof continuous improvement. It’s a ‘journey’ and not something that is undertaken once.As on any journey, along the way you will see ups and downs. You will be met with a wholeseries of challenges, but again by its very nature Lean Six Sigma is exciting and most of all,fun.Waste exists in its various forms in every part of day to day working. Lean Six Sigma is aframework that provides structure to the process of identifying and eliminating that wasteand puts in place measures to continually strive to look for mare opportunities to improve. We don’t know what we don’t know. We can’t act on what we don’t know. We won’t know until we search. We won’t search for what we don’t question. We don’t question what we don’t measure. Hence, we just don’t know.” Dr. Mikel HarryPage 7 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  9. 9. Using this ManualAlthough many of the tools and techniques are similar to those used in other sectors, thedeployment process within the College environment is different. This manual draws uponthe leanings from the Lean Six Sigma project run with Bromley, Bexley and John RuskinColleges(2012) and a similar project run with Warwickshire, Coventry Henley and StratfordColleges (2011).This manual is aimed at those who are involved with the implementation of Lean Six Sigma(LSS) within the College environment. Its aim is to act as a guide to assist in the smoothrunning of the complete process and explains the set-up, planning, execution and follow upphases of a Lean Six Sigma project.This manual is not meant to be a complete guide to the ‘ins and outs’ of Lean Six Sigma. Thisis not something that can be learnt from a book or a manual, because every project isdifferent. Each process on each campus will have its own nuances meaning the route toimprovement will be different each time.Knowing which tools to use and at what time comes with experience. Put simply the moreimprovement activity you do the more you will start to see and, by default, the better theresults.It is strongly advised, before you start using this manual to deploy the Lean Six Sigmaprocess, that you have been involved in and experienced at least one Lean Six Sigma projectto help you understand the DMAIC process and also the cultural change processes that takeplace within the project group and your wider College audience.This manual can also serve as a guide to Principals and those involved in the steering groupand governance process of Lean Six Sigma deployment. Its seeks to help them betterunderstand their roles in improving their Colleges processes though the effectivedeployment of the Lean Six Sigma methodology at a senior level.Most importantly, the manual also identifies some of the lessons learnt and some of thepitfalls to be aware of as you move through the process.Page 8 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  10. 10. What are Lean Six Sigma Projects?Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a structured approach that helps manage and improve the quality,performance and cost of a process.Lean Six Sigma Projects are essentially planned interventions to look at how a specificCollege process is performing.Every process has 2 types of activity.Value Added activityThese are the parts of the process that transform something closer to what the customerwants. I.e. if a student walks into the student services area, asks a question and is given animmediate correct answer. This would be deemed as Value Added.Non Value Added activityThese are the parts of the process that do not transform something closer to what thecustomer wants. i.e. if a student walks into the student services area, asks a question andthe Student services adviser has to get up, move to a computer, log on, look through 3screens of data to find the answer, all of this additional activity would be deemed as NonValue Added.Non value added activities are in effect waste; and make up between 95% and 99% of allprocess time. However in day to day life, people simply get used to this type of activity andit becomes the norm. It becomes hard to see.LSS projects are designed to focus of the identification and removal of waste for the processin question. Not all waste can be removed quickly, but we have seen in all the Colleges’projects to date that a very large number of small changes can be made quickly, easily andat little or no cost, to improve the process in question, both in terms of quality andefficiency.LSS projects should focus on one specific process with clear start and finish points. Theproject should have clear goals that are aligned to the overall business improvement plan ofthe College and each project should follow a prescribed set of steps.Page 9 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  11. 11. What are the different types of Project?Although the majority of this manual focuses on larger scale LSS projects, we should not losesight of the bigger picture.The longer term goal is to support a marked shift in the culture of the College. The goal is tomove away from the ‘Silo’ mentality that can be seen in certain parts of Colleges and movetoward more self-directing work teams.This means that we need to consider how LSS activity over the longer term needs to look.Lean Six Sigma is dynamic. Its deployment needs to be adapted over time to match thematurity level of the ‘acceptance of change’ within the College.Initial LSS projectsInitially LSS projects using cross functional teams are by far the best way to start the LSSjourney. This is because normally the improvements that we are trying to make tend to bein processes that affect more than one department and tend to be quite complex andrequire consideration from all areas concerned. Also the longer timescales involved (6 to 12weeks) tend to match the pace of change at the starting point of the LSS programme.Colleges (like most other organisations) tend to be quite bureaucratic with slow-downs inthe change process.However as more projects are undertaken, the organisation will start to become moreaccustomed to the culture of change and the timescales involved will start to reduce.Interim LSS projectsOnce a good proportion of the staff have been through the process a number of times theywill become more accustomed to the process. This provides a number of opportunities tochange the dynamics of the LSS projects.  Timescales can be challenged and reduced.  Local teams can start making smaller local improvements.This will set the ground for the final stages of the cultural change process.Team based LSS activityTeam projects are short, narrow focused improvement projects that are aimed at makingsmall incremental changes to local processes.This type of LSS activity is primarily run by staff within the team who are familiar with thechange process.Page 10 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  12. 12. Although the DMAIC structure is used, it becomes much more relaxed. However the projectcharter is still vitally important to the process since is allows the project to be correctlyfocused, checked and confirmed.Typically in order for a local team to reach the point where it can successfully manage itsown LSS project, the team will have in place its own performance metrics and the teamwould have the capability analysing and deciding where its own issues lie.Quick winsFrom the very start of the programme, small quick gains will be identified. These aretypically known as ‘quick wins’ and represent the simplest and quickest way to make quickgains for the benefits of the customer, the College and the area concerned.Many of these ‘quick wins’ will be identified by the project team aside from the mainproject. It is key that these are captured and acted upon in addition to the main projectgoals.Quick wins normally by definition should be just that, quick and easy to accomplish, withminimum effort. As a guide no more than 2 hours work involving no more than 2 or 3people.Quick wins normally fall outside the full structure of the DMAIC process, since they can beundertaken quickly with a low risk factor.Page 11 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  13. 13. The DMAIC process structureThe method used most widely in a College environment for structuring the improvementproject is based on the Six Sigma DMAIC approach.The benefit of this approach for a College is that it allows the project to be broken intosensible chunks of work that can be progressed alongside normal day to day activities.The DMAIC structure provides a visible framework for the project phases that enables thebest chance of success.DMAIC is the project phases DEFINE, MEASURE, ANALYSE, IMPROVE and CONTROL.All process improvement projects with some degree of complexity and impact go throughthese phases and it is best practice to adopt this approach when introducing animprovement project.The team can use this structure for each meeting and in principle have one session perphase as the project moves forward.DEFINEThe DEFINE phase is critical to the success of the project as it sets out the nature of theproject, the scope of the work, objectives, key performance indicators, timetable and teammembers to deliver the project. The Project Charter is the key output from the definephase.It is critical that the project is aligned with the College strategy and that clear benefits canbe identified.See Project Charter Chapter 4 for full detailsMEASUREThe MEASURE phase is about how the process is assessed.What has happened in the past and what happens now?What data do we have from the key performance indicators about the current process andhow it is performing?The critical part in a College for this phase is the mapping of the process being studied asdefined in the project charter. The process map should be created by the team based on theactual process and highlight issues, concerns and opportunities within the current process.Each process step is identified and mapped in sequence and allocated within theappropriate area of responsibility so that the full complexity of the process can be assessed.See Process Mapping Chapter 8 for full details.Page 12 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  14. 14. ANALYSEThe ANALYSE phase is about understanding the current process and identifyingopportunities to eliminate unnecessary steps and handoffs. The team work together todevelop a clear understanding of the existing process, along with the limitations, constraintsand delays that occur when the existing process is employed.The team generate ideas on how the process could be improved and start to assess theeffect an alternative may have.The team review any data collected about the process and establish if these are the bestand most appropriate key performance indicators for the process being studied.IMPROVEThe IMPROVE phase is about selecting a new and improved method which addresses theissues raised with the current process. Through process mapping a new better process isdesigned which provides a more robust, reliable and efficient process. A new standardprocedure is established and the correct performance measures identified.The risks with the new process should be assessed and if practical the new method shouldbe trialled to make sure that the new process works as expected. Any further improvementsshould be identified at this stage.CONTROLThe CONTROL phase is about ensuring the new process is introduced correctly andmonitored to ensure the improvement is sustained. The new standard method of workingshould be introduced with the appropriate training of the staff using the new process.The key performance measures that have been identified for the process need to bemonitored regularly to ensure the new process is working well and any issues raised arequickly addressed.Page 13 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  15. 15. Commonly asked questions about LSSThese are a few of the ‘stock questions’ that are commonly asked by staff during projects –and the stock answers:What is Lean Six Sigma?LSS is the blending together of two toolsets, Lean and Six Sigma.The Lean part of the process provides to tools for the identification and removal of waste.The Six Sigma part of the process provides the structure to the project by the use of theDMAIC process.Do I have to fit this into my already busy day?The simple answer is yes, but if the additional workload becomes too much, explain this toyour line manager, Project Manager or College Champion, who will work with you to find asolution.What’s in it for me?Generally most people find the opportunity to get involved in change very rewarding. Thechance to have your say and fix those small niggles is something that the LSS process givesyou that you would not normally get in day-to-day College life.It is also far better to be involved with change than have change imposed on you.I thought this only worked in automotive and manufacturing?Absolutely not, this approach has been used in almost every business sector including theNHS, the courts of justice, local councils and increasingly even in central Government.Colleges are different, our problems are unique.Like every other business, Colleges have waste in all processes. The focus of LSS is to removewaste, so in reality Colleges have the same opportunity to improve as every otherorganisation.Page 14 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  16. 16. Management ofLean Six Sigma ProjectsWithin CollegesPage 15 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  17. 17. Process Management StructureThe process management structure to support a Lean and Six Sigma (LSS) programme in aCollege consists of the Steering Committee a College Champion a Project Manager orManagers and Team Members.In order that the LSS programme delivers the maximum benefits, it is vital that the LSSstructure it fully integrated with the Senior Management Team. This will allow the LSStoolset to be deployed far more strategically and breakdown silos within the organisationThe Steering Committee is the College leadership team that provides the direction andsupport for the programme. The programme should consist of a number of individualprocess improvement projects that support the College goals.A College Champion is a senior College leader who has the respect and authority of staff andis able to sponsor projects and is a key member of the Steering Committee.The Project Manager is the College expert on Lean and Six Sigma who has been trained todeliver improvement projects using the DMAIC structure.The Team Members are a cross section of College staff formed as a team to undertake theproject. Team Members should be trained in basic Lean and Six Sigma tools by the ProjectManager at the start of the project to enable them to contribute fully to the process.A College can have a number of Project Managers undertaking a project each or one ProjectManager undertaking several projects. The projects will vary in time, resource andcomplexity and the Project Charter is used to set out the details and scope of the project.Page 16 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  18. 18. Communication and Timing of ProjectsConsideration must be given as to the best time to launch a Lean Six Sigma Programmebefore starting any form of communication with the general populous of the college.This is because LSS is, as we have mentioned before, a cultural tool. The success of theprogramme to a large extent will be judged by the level of engagement of the staff and theirwillingness to get involved with an initiative that will invoke change across the College.Some of that change will involve changes to staff roles, to a greater or lesser extent as wasteis removed from the processes and workloads need to be rebalanced.In the current climate, staff are understandably, fearful of job losses. So any changeprogramme if not launched correctly will be viewed very negatively and will evoke highlevels of emotion.Experience shows that this will be very damaging for any LSS work going forwards.So the launch of LSS activity needs to be set against the correct backdrop and the initialmessage needs to be very clear and strong.The ideal launch timing the start of LSS activity is at a time of relative stability. No significantrestructuring should be planned at the same time as a LSS project is running. Considerationshould be given to the risk of any planned staff changes being linked to LSS activity.Once the timing has been agreed, the message as to what LSS is and its role in the Collegeneeds to consistent from all sources - SMT, governors, LSS Steering committee and linemangers.The explanation must be simple and tangible, not conceptual and abstract.The more directly a person of department is going to be effected by a project, the morepersonal the communication should be.Where possible the message about job security must be clear. Nobody will lose their job as a direct result of a Lean Six Sigma project.Of course this statement needs to be set against the backdrop of the rest of the activity inthe College. If there is a cut in funding, a merger or a change in the College’s course offeringthat’s different, and no guarantees can be made about those situations. But peoplegenerally understand this so long as the message is fair and clear.Every communication should emphasise the benefits of LSS activity. Focus on the long termbenefits to the College, rather than the short term disruption that running the projectbrings. If the staff understand the bigger picture, the more likely they are to understand thebenefits.So in summary, assess the best time to launch the LSS activity, allow time for effectivecommunication and plan the message.Page 17 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  19. 19. Role of the Principal and VP’sAlthough it is recognised that College Principals and VP’s are very busy, time must be putaside to demonstrate support of the Lean and Six Sigma process.Lean and Six Sigma by its very nature is a cultural transformation tool and that is designed toharness the power of teamwork to provide solutions to process issues. With this in mind, itis important that top level support for the process is both seen and demonstrated. This waythe project teams will feel valued and ultimately produce better results.The key roles in the process are as follows: • Being the ultimate lead for the programme • Ensure that the required resources and priority are given to the programme • Deliver the message that the process is seen as an integral part of the way forward • Review progress on a regular basis • Support Project Managers, who are responsible for the success of a project • Remove barriers to progressThe most powerful tool is ‘Go and See’. If possible the Principal or nominated VP’s should‘drop in’ on the occasional team meeting for a short while and lend support.Another vital part of the process is the final report out presentation. This meeting is wherethe teams present their findings and actions to a wider audience.This meeting should be attended by the Principal and VP’s and should be used as anopportunity to both thank and praise the team for all their hard work. This presentationshould also be used to gain commitment from the team to make the changes work goingforward and challenge further improvements to the process.Page 18 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  20. 20. Role of the College ChampionThe College Champion (CC) is responsible for ensuring that the LSS process runs smoothly inthe College. They are also responsible for promoting Lean Six Sigma across the College at alllevels.Normally the College Champion is a member of the Senior Management Team reportingdirectly to the Principal.The College Champion should assess and agree all projects prior to their start and check thatany potential projects are aligned strategically to the College business plan. They should alsocheck that a project will not cause any conflict with other planned initiatives such asplanned IT changes or planned changes in departmental roles of structures.Other responsibilities include.  To work across all of the projects with their College to ensure no issues exist.  Be the centre of communication for all project activity within their College  To help facilitate the process locally with The Project Managers  To work with the Project Managers to provide the Principals regular updates  Assist in the removal of barriers within the College  Chairing the Project Steering committeePage 19 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  21. 21. Role of the Project ManagerThe Project Manager (PM) has a pivotal role in the entire process. They should be viewed asthe internal leader of the process right from the outset through to the end of the process.Their task is to be one step ahead at all times, guide the team, but not direct.The PM should be involved right from the conception of the project and should assist in thedefinition of the project and be involved in the completion of the Project Charter. Onceagreed, the PM then becomes responsible for the maintenance and delivery of the charterscontents.Where Initial training is required in Lean Six Sigma tools a techniques, the Project Manageris responsible for either providing the training or arranging for the training from anothersource.As the Project leader The PM is also responsible for the following parts of the process:  Being the centre of communication for their project o Day to day communication with the team members o Arranging for the actions of the team to be documented and distributed in a timely manner o Providing the Principal and the College Champion with regular updates  Facilitating the process locally, arranging rooms and equipment  Assisting in the removal of barriers with the College Champion.  Ensure actions are followed up between sessions  Become the local expert, lead from the frontOther smaller but equally important tasks include:  Assist group to find solution – not providing solution  Challenge assumptions, Remain subjective  Maintain credibility of process  Pick up on and diffuse conflict within / outside of the team  Keep team on track, maintain the focus  Make sure all contribute, and make it enjoyable for team, maintain team morale and ensure that the team is empowered.  Being “one Step” ahead at all timesPage 20 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  22. 22. Project Steering CommitteeIn a College the management direction and support for the LSS programme is provided bythe Project Steering Committee.The Steering Committee is made up of the senior leadership team of the College includingthe Principal and Vice Principals with other senior staff from the cross College functionalareas. The size of the Committee would typically be between 5 and 8 and meet on amonthly basis. The Steering Committee should be chaired by the College Champion who isresponsible for the overall process.The role of the Steering Committee is to drive the improvement programme, recognise theneed for change and be committed to the use of Lean and Six Sigma to bring about thechange.The Steering Committee appoints and supports the Project Managers who are responsiblefor the delivery of the improvement projects.They also approve new projects ensuring they are aligned with the objectives of the Collegeand the potential benefits are worthy of the time and resource to be spent on the project.The Steering Committee must also review the progress of projects on a regular basis andhelp remove barriers to progress.The Steering Committee will ensure that at completion projects are correctly closed out andthe benefits are identified, measures put in place and a plan available to ensureimprovements are sustained.The chair of the Steering Committee would be expected to act as the ‘College Champion’who would actively sponsor projects and directly support Project Managers with the issuesand obstacles that may arise during the course of the project between formal reviews withthe Steering CommitteeThe Project Manager or managers would be expected to present their project progress at aslot during the Steering Committee meeting.Page 21 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  23. 23. Selection of College Champions and Project ManagersThe correct selection of College Champions and Project Managers is critical to the success ofthe LSS improvement programme. It is vital that the College leadership team carefullyconsider these appointments and consider the candidates against the criteria describedbelow.Candidates for College Champions should be:  In a leadership position  Involved in strategic planning for the College  Able to remove roadblocks such as time, resources, and personnel  Committed to using LSS as a tool to drive improvement and cultural change  Have enough capacity to undertake the role and the responsibilities that go with itSome of the ideal personal qualities for the College Champions are:  Excellent communicator across all levels of the College  Well organised and structured approach  Strategic and creates a clear vision of the future  Resolving- good at resolving problems  Positive- takes an optimistic view  Change Orientation- readily accepts new challenges  Reliable- conscientious about meeting deadlines and honouring commitmentsCandidates for Project Managers should be:  Respected within the College at all levels  Able to be the lead person on LSS in the College  Committed to using LSS as a tool to drive improvement and cultural change  Have enough capacity to undertake the role and the responsibilities that go with itSome of the ideal personal qualities for the Project Manager are:  Insightful-quick at getting to the core of a problem, good at identifying ways to improve things  Analytical- seeks solutions to problems, asks probing questionsPage 22 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  24. 24.  Empowering- good at finding ways to motivate people, inspiring and encouraging to others  Interactive- engaging and a good communicator  Resolving- good at resolving disagreements  Positive- quickly recovers from setbacks  Change Orientation- readily accepts change  Organised- plans well and is focused on hitting deadlinesBoth the College Champion and the Project Mangers need to have the drive, determinationand the passion to drive change. Both roles should not be underestimated. Done well, theroles will take up considerably more time than first thought. Do not compromise on theselection process. Consider carefully all aspects of the role, not just a person’s availability.Page 23 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  25. 25. Project Team Selection and Make UpTotal team size, including the Project Manager, should be between 6 and 10 people.Because a good mix of team members facilitates creativity, idea generation, and freshviewpoints, it is suggested that the rule of thirds is applied when defining the team andselecting the team members.One third of the team should be directly related to the process that it to be worked upon.One third of the team should be related to the process in some way, such as IT, teachingstaff or a ‘customer’ or the process.One third should be ‘fresh pairs of eyes’. That is to say they are not closely related to theprocess (although they may have some knowledge of it). Their role is to question the normand look at the process from an outsiders view point.Each project team must have at least one member who is very familiar with the process.This will assist the team in process mapping and also allow answers to questions to bequickly gained. Ideally, he or she should have spent some time working on or supervisingthe process. Such people are extremely valuable resources because their detailedknowledge facilitates making changes.Page 24 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  26. 26. Project Selection and Strategic AlignmentThere are a number of reasons that a project can be selected. Typically a College tends toselect projects at the point where the College is experiencing some problems with abottleneck process such as the enrolment of students at peak periods or problems with thebalancing of staff hours. This is perfectly acceptable since the Lean Six Sigma process willassist in addressing these issues.However the best way of selecting projects is to link them to the overall strategic plan forthe College. For example as the business plan is developed to the next academic year thereis a problem foreseen with rooming or the register creation process. Using the Lean SixSigma approach these can be looked at measured and improved ahead of time.The main objective when selecting a project to be undertaken is that it will produce tangibleresults. That is to say that the College staff and the Customers (students) will see a markedimprovement in the quality of the service, the ease at which a process is performed, or afinancial benefit.The project gains ideally must be measurable.Other criteria to consider  Linkage to overall strategy  Have a cross reference to College objectives  Have a positive Impact on the customer experience  Improve overall service quality levels  Demonstrate bottom line savings  Improve system synchronization across functional silos  Creation of a model processes  The project must have measurable outcomes  The project is designed to address particular performance issues  Are we processing in line with customer requirements?  Does the process incur a lot of additional cost (overtime)  Is there a lot of stress in the process  Does the process visually looked disorganized when you walk through it  Can someone from the area easily describe the process to you  Does the process have a record of high customer dissatisfaction  The delivery performance is off target  Does the process have a continuing history of backlogs  People resource  Realistically achievablePage 25 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  27. 27. When scoping the project, it is better if the overall objectives are smart, narrow and deep.This way the process will be investigated more fully and the end result will be morecomplete.Selecting a project that is too broad will result in ‘scope creep’ and it is likely that the teamwill struggle to identify the true start and finish point of the project.The best way to test if the project has been well defined it to complete a Project Charter.The project charter will assist in discussing and agreeing the start and finish points, theoverall objectives and the key milestones of the project.Project areas that can be considered within a College environment include:  Pre-Enrolment / Marketing  Enrolment  Registers and attendance record processes  Examinations  Fee collection  Student Services  Curriculum Planning, Timetabling and Course Set-up  Room Utilisation and Room AllocationPage 26 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  28. 28. Project Sequence and TimelinesThe main input to the programme is from the College strategic and annual goals and targets.The sequence to be followed is:PLANNING AND PREPARATIONSELECT THE RIGHT PROJECTS  Clarify the big picture using the strategic plan  Identify the need and formulate goals  Agree the budget  Establish potential improvement areas gather data on current performance  Prioritise projects based on the benefits, resources required and timing  Select key projects with buy-in from College leadership  Put in place effective Key Performance IndicatorsSELECT AND TRAIN THE RIGHT PEOPLE  Ensure the right leadership and project ownership is in place  Recruitment if required  Develop training plan for those involved  Ensure the right support structure and resources are available  Ensure suitable communication plan is developedIMPLEMENTATIONIMPLEMENT IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS  Kick off workshops  Staff Training  Project Charter to define the process  Measure process  Analyse the process  Identify waste  Improve process  Implement solutions  Control processPage 27 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  29. 29. PROGRAMME MANAGEMENT  Frequently review progress and remove barriers  Check impact and benefits  Continuously communicate progressMAINTENANCE AND DEVELOPMENTSUSTAIN THE GAINS  Implement effective control plans  Conduct training in the new process  Ensure the right measures are in place  Assess results  Review the benefits and effectiveness regularly  Communicate success  Transfer learning to other departmentsIt is important to close the loop and assess the gains. If more gains can be seen, considerplanning another project.Page 28 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  30. 30. Project ChartersPage 29 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  31. 31. Using Project ChartersThe Lean Six Sigma project charter is a document that details the improvement opportunityto both the team and top management of the College.It should explain why the project is important and how it supports the goals of the College.The initial charter detailing the scoping and expectations of the project should be completedahead of any work commencing with the team.This document is then studied in detail and finalised during the define phase of the project.It is very important to understand that it is a living document, that is, it may be revised asneeded during the course of your improvement opportunityThe statements in the project charter should describe the anticipated improvement that isexpected from the team. It should be worded in concise terms.Completing the formClearly define the project title, Ensure that the Project Manager is appointed (3) and in fullyinvolved in the creation of the project charter.Enter the process and project description box (1 & 2). Try to keep the language common andunambiguous. What is the opportunity being addressed? Why is the project important?What is the problem? What is the effect of the problem? What is the effect of the solution?Creating an outstanding project objective statement (3) is easy if you follow 5 simpleconcepts. The acronym for a good project objective statement is SMART:  Specific- do not use confusing or ambiguous language anywhere within the project charter. Clearly describe the process, together with clear start and finish points.  Measurable- define in terms of percentage improvement or reduction, monetary gains, throughput, productivity, etc. This gives the team an objective to reach... and a basis for comparison after completion of the project.  Attainable- attempting to set too high of a goal is the beginning of a poor plan. Set a goal that is achievable within 3-4 months. If the overall goal cannot be reached within that timeframe, set an interim goal. This will help keep your team motivated.  Relevant- the teams goal should correspond to the problem at hand, business objectives, or perhaps Critical to Quality elements that have been identified.  Time-bound- list when the team expects to achieve this improvement goalA good objective statement always begins with a verb. Use terms like increase, reduce, orimprove to begin your statement.Outline the results expected in the results box (4), again quantify the expectations.Page 30 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  32. 32. In completing the Team members box (5), who is on the team and who else is involved? Theteam members should be discussed and identified as early as possible to ensure that theteam is balanced. The Project Manager should then work with the College departmentmanagers to ensure that the people identified can be released to join the team. The finalteam members should be entered onto the charter at the initial team meetings in the definephase.In the project scope box (6), what is the scope of the process? What is included and what isexcluded? What rules will the team follow? Ensure that both the start point and the endpoint are entered on to the form and are clearly defined. A Statement like:‘From the point where the student first contacts the College to the point when the studentsigns the enrolment form’.Would be ideal since it is specific and easy to understand at all levelsThe benefits to the end customer (7) should be identified since one of the key objectives ofany project is that the customer should see a noticeable improvement in Quality, delivery orcost.Key milestones should be entered into the schedule box (8). These should be either enteredat the initial phase of by the team during the define phase. These dates should coincide withthe completion of each phase of the project and should be marked by some from of a sensecheck between the Principals, VP’s and Project Manager. This will ensure that any issues orscope creep are picked up before it is too late. This sense check will also allow any barriersor difficulties to be managed effectively.The support required box (9) is a thought provoking box that is aimed at considering andspecial support that may need to be put in place ahead of time. IT support and capacity is atypical issue that needs to be considered as well as covering key members of staff whilstthey are working on the teamThe Project Manager is responsible to the upkeep of the project charter and should beconstantly confirming that the teams direction is in line with the direction set in the charterPage 31 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  33. 33. TEAM PROJECT CHARTERProject TitleProject ManagerStart Date Target Completion Date Element Description Team Charter1. Process: The process in which opportunity exists.2. Project Description: Describe the Project’s Purpose and scope. Also the Location of the project to be improved3. Objective: What improvement is targeted and what will be the impact on key measures All objectives must be SMART Specific, M easurable, Achievable, R elevant and Time Bound4. Results: What is the improvement in performance are anticipated and when?5. Team members: Who are the full-time members and support consultants?6. Project Scope: Which part of the process will be investigated? Define the start and finish points7. Benefit to External Who are the final customers, Customers: what benefits will they see and what are their most critical requirements?8. Schedule: Give the key milestones/dates. Project Start M- Measurement “M” Completion A- Analysis “A” Completion I- Improvement “I” Completion C- Control “C” Completion Note: Schedule appropriate Safety Reviews Safety Reviews if required Project Completion9. Support Required: Do you anticipate the need for any special capabilities, hardware, trials, etc? Page 32 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  34. 34. Example Project ChartersPage 33 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  35. 35. TEAM PROJECT CHARTERPage 34 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  36. 36. Page 35 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  37. 37. How to Prepare LSS ProjectsPage 36 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  38. 38. IntroductionThe Process of running LSS projects should not be under estimated.By their very nature this type of project is resource hungry, so without the correct level ofup front planning, the resulted will be eroded and the general perception will be that theLSS project is just another ‘flavour of the month’.Time spent on upfront planning and getting the support structure in place will pay dividendsin the medium to long term. To the people involved the process must feel well organisedand the perception must be that the whole senior management team is behind the LSSprocess and want it to succeed.As mentioned in other areas of this manual, the Steering committee and the SMT must beclear on the overall direction of the process and must also have a very clear idea of theprojects that are to be tackled and the expected outcomes.The purpose of this section of the manual is to identify some of the key issues, potentialpitfalls and also some of the logistical considerations that need to factored into the LSSplanning.Page 37 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  39. 39. Potential PitfallsUnder planningNot being prepared ahead of project meetings may well result in time at project meetingbeing spend ‘planning’ instead of doing. This will cause slippage against the project plan andthe DMAIC process. The result of this is less time being available in the Improve and Controlphases.AttendanceProject Managers and team members are expected to attend both the initial training andalso the project meetings. It is therefore vital that during the planning phase the workloadof potential participants is considered. Should a member of the team drop out partwaythrough the process this will have a negative effect on the rest of the team and also theproject will risk falling behind.OwnershipThe Project Manager should relinquish ownership for the project whilst the project isrunning. Although there may be strong characters in the team or senior College staff, thePM remains directly responsible for the activity and its success. However the PM shouldplan for transfer of ownership to the areas and people responsible for the process as theproject draws to a conclusion, since without this ownership being with the area responsible,sustainment will fail.ConflictBy the very nature of the process, people may well become a little uncomfortable with theprocess. After all it’s about change, something most people find hard. To avoid conflicts, thePM like all the other members of the team should listen carefully and ask questions whennot clear about something or when not clear about a task assignment. If all the team workstogether and sticks to the rules, the risk of conflict should be minimisedThe tendency to fear mistakes‘It sounds like a good idea, but what if it goes wrong?’ This is a comment that is frequentlymade in different forms. An experienced PM will be able to guide the team through thechange process without the risk of causing major disruption to a process. If there is a riskassess the risk and arrange a trial.Work on the basis, if we try and it works then we have gained. If the change is unsuccessfulthen we have learnt something. By doing nothing we will have learnt nothing.Page 38 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  40. 40. As a senior management team, reward attempts to change; don’t punish failure and don’treward clinging to the status quo.Getting everyone involved.The team size is really designed to keep the process manageable. Too many people andsome will become detached.The PM must be aware of people feeling left out, becoming quiet or starting to becomenegative. When this happens take action to get the individual ‘back’ into the team.Page 39 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  41. 41. Facilities and Project LogisticsTraining roomThe room used for the initial training should be large enough to present the PowerPointtraining material.The room is best set in a U shape to allow people to interact.As a minimum the Training room should also have:  A PC and projector (ensure that someone has the password)  1 flip chart / spare paper / pens  Blu tack  Enough tables and chairs to accommodate everyone.Project meeting roomsThese should be large enough to accommodate the team with space to spare. The projectmeeting room also needs to have enough wall space to facilitate the building of a manualprocess map.As a minimum the project meeting room should also have:  A PC and projector (ensure that someone has the password)  1 flip chart / spare paper / pens  Post it notes for process mapping  Blu tack  Sellotape  Enough tables and chairs to accommodate everyone.CateringOne of the biggest moans during project meetings is the failure to provide drinks andsnacks. Although this is an additional cost, this must be weighed up against the benefits ofsaving time and team bonding.The best balance is to provide tea / coffee / water at the start of the sessions and also againat break time. Biscuits and occasionally cakes also are welcomed by the teams and makethem feel valued. Normally if the session runs over a lunch period, this is not normallyprovided.Page 40 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  42. 42. TransportationConsideration must be given to the transportation arrangements of the participants whenproject meetings are on differing campus to those they normally work. Participants thatwork part time or differing hours also need to be considered.Experience shows these issues need to be considered in the planning phase of the LSSproject and discussions need to be held with the participants and line managers whereapplicable to find the best method of ensuring all participants can attend for the fullduration of the project meetings.Meeting timingsGenerally speaking, project meetings need to be between 3.5 and 4 hours duration in orderthat the process can work correctly.Location for the final presentationThe venue for the final presentation needs to be considered and booked well in advance.This should be a hall (or similar) that can be laid out theatre style and accommodate all theparticipants plus guests. If a celebration buffet is to be offered (recommended) then thisneeds to be laid out prior to the presentations of set in an anti room so that thepresentation is not disturbed.Allow time ahead of the presentation for the project team(s) to see the room and do anylast minute changes they may need.Page 41 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  43. 43. Collection of initial supporting dataThe collection of relevant supporting data is very important all the way through the LSSproject process. Initially when deciding if the project is suitable for application of the LSSproject approach, enough data should be collected to provide evidence that the process isan opportunity for improvement and the potential benefit justify the time and resource tobe spent on it.It is important that if there is not a valid data collection method in place, one is put in placeahead of the start of the project.Quite often in College data is available, but is not generally used or in the general domain.The best starting point nearly always is the IT or MIS departments as a lot of data tends tobe captured automatically and stored on various systems.Once sufficient data has been analysed and the steering committee are happy that theproject is valid, the Project Manager can work with the team to further collect and analysedata to understand patterns and trends.The original data should be considered the ‘benchmark’ or starting point. Anyimprovements can be validated against this original data.Page 42 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  44. 44. Initial trainingPage 43 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  45. 45. PurposeThe purpose of the initial training is to ensure all members of improvement teams have abasic understanding of the LSS tools that will enable them to work together on the projectand deliver the charter objectives.The delegates should understand the overall goals of the LSS programme and the processstructure in place to deliver those goals.It is the opportunity for the Project Manager to demonstrate their competence andunderstanding of LSS and build rapport with other members of the team they do not usuallywork with.If initial training is carried out correctly it will ensure all team members are behind theproject, understand why the LSS process is used and can use the tools proactively duringteam meetings.Page 44 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  46. 46. ContentA set of initial training slides were generated for the Colleges and these should be used forthe initial training.The essential content to cover in the initial training is:  Introduction  Agenda  Background to the project  An overview of Lean and Six Sigma  What is Lean  Just in Time  Quality  Smoothing  Value added V’s non value added  The seven classic wastes  Causes of waste  Waste in Colleges  A flow simulation exercise  Workplace organisation and 5S  Standard work  Six Sigma  The project roadmap  Project charters  The workshop process  The College Champions role  The Project Managers role  The Team Members role  Summary and next stepsPage 45 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  47. 47. DeliveryThe initial training should take between 3 and 4 hours and be delivered to groups ofbetween 8 -16 people.It is normal to have a break of around 15 minutes about half way through to suit, based onan appropriate place to stop.Preparing for the TrainingEnsure you have practiced the presentation and are fully familiar with the content.Have examples to explain the slides and make them relevantMake sure you have considered potential questions and how to handle themIf you are including practical exercises make sure these are well rehearsed and all thematerials are complete and availableCheck the room is appropriate for the number of delegatesEnsure the overhead projector and screens are working before handSuitable table or lectern for your notesEnsure a flip chart and pens are availableMake sure the environmental factors are right for training, temperature not too high or low,lighting is sufficient, room location is not too noisySet up the tables and chairs in U shape if possible, angled rows for large groupsDeliveryUse good vocal techniques, vary the volume and pitch for emphasisEnsure the pace is appropriate for the audienceReinforce the message visually with positive arm and hand movementsEstablish rapport by good eye contact with delegates, move about do not remain fixed toone spotWith presentation slides remove the slide when not relevant, keep it on if you are talkingabout itUse flip charts for added points and questions, write large enough for all to see with darkcolour pensAsk questions to check understanding and engagementPage 46 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  48. 48. When answering questions from the delegates listen to the entire question, repeat thequestion so everyone has heard it, clarify if you haven’t understood the question, and verifythat your answer has addressed the questioner’s issueSet up a question board on the flip chart to record questions and then answer them ifpossible and if not, use them as points to find out about and get back to the questioner orgroup as appropriate.Quite often participants request hand-outs of the slides. It is suggested that these are madeavailable AFTER the training session as this stops people reading ahead and allows thetrainer to take the opportunity of asking questions without the participants having theanswers in front of them!It is also suggested that any hand-outs are in electronic form to reduce printing time andcost.Page 47 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  49. 49. Running Project MeetingsPage 48 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  50. 50. Using the DMAIC Process to Structure MeetingsThe DMAIC process helps provide a logical structure to your meetings. Each meeting can beheld as a stage in the process, which will help the team to focus and avoid too muchdiversion and procrastination.In practice each stage of the process may not take an equal amount of time, so some stepsmay require two meetings or one meeting may be able to work on more than one step.Clearly it depends on the size and scope of the project, but the Principal of a meeting perstep is a good starting point.DEFINE MEETINGThe first meeting will be about forming the team, getting to know each other and workingon the project charter to ensure it is agreed and finalised.The meeting should start with an introduction by the Project Manager to the project andbackground to it. Each team member should then have the opportunity to introducethemselves and explain their role in the College and what is their previous experience of LSSis if any, what are their expectations and what are they are looking to gain from the project.Then the team should agree the team rules on how they are going to work together.After agreeing the rules the team should go through the draft charter supplied by theProject Manager and complete all the sections ensuring buy in from the team.The Project Manager should allocate a team member to be responsible for capturing theactivities and actions for the team.The initial measures for the process need to be clarified if not already in place.Actions before the next meeting should be identified and agreed which will be aroundbringing data, information, procedures and forms to enable process mapping to beundertaken.MEASURE MEETINGThe measure meeting begins by going over the project charter and reviewing the data,information, procedures and forms team members have brought to the meeting.Page 49 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  51. 51. A good understanding of what happens now with the process needs to be established in theteam.The critical stage for this meeting is the mapping of the process being studied as defined inthe project charter. The process map should be created by the team based on the actualprocess and highlight issues, concerns and opportunities with the current process. Eachprocess step is identified and mapped in sequence and allocated within the appropriatearea of responsibility so that the full complexity of the process can be understood by theteam.The process map can be created on flip charts with sticky notes as it is being developed.However, if practical it is helpful to have a team member allocated to transferring the mapinto the Bizagi software process map during the meeting.ANALYSE MEETINGThe analyse meeting starts by going over the charter and the actions agreed at the lastsession. The meeting is then about understanding the current process and identifyingopportunities to eliminate waste by finding unnecessary steps and handoffs. The team worktogether now with an understanding of the existing process to examine the limitations,constraints and delays that occur when the existing process is employed.The team should then brainstorm to generate ideas on how the process could be improvedand start to assess the effect an alternative method may have. Using the flipchart ideas arecaptured and reviewed together with the team.The team review any data collected about the process and establish if these are the bestand most appropriate key performance indicators for the process being studied.IMPROVE MEETINGThe actions from the last meeting are reviewed initially. The improve meeting is aboutselecting a new and improved method which addresses the issues raised with the currentprocess. Through the brainstorming teamwork and process mapping a new better process isdesigned which provides a more robust and efficient process. A new standard procedure isestablished and any further or better performance measures identified.In the improve meeting risks with the new process should be assessed and if practicalbefore the next session the new method should be trialled to make sure that the newprocess works as expected. Any further improvement opportunities should be identified atthis stage.At this meeting start to consider the final presentation and draft the plan for who is going tosay what at the end of project presentation.Page 50 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  52. 52. CONTROL MEETINGThe final meeting should again consider the original charter to ensure the solutions to beintroduced achieve the project charter requirements. Outstanding actions are reviewed andthe focus of the control meeting is about ensuring the new process is introduced correctlyand monitored to ensure the improvement is sustained. The new standard method ofworking should be written, any relevant forms updated and the appropriate training of thestaff using the new process should be organisedA key output from the session is who, how and when, are the key performance measuresthat have been identified for the new processes, to be monitored to ensure the objectivesof the project are delivered.The final presentation should now be put together by the team to show the workundertaken in the project, the outcomes and follow up actions.A RAG report should be raised identifying the actions, time scales and who is responsible fordelivery of the action. This RAG report is then the used to monitor progress by the ProjectManager and should be reported on a regular basis to the steering committee.Page 51 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  53. 53. Generating and Testing IdeasOne of the benefits of the LSS approach is its ‘bias for action’.As mentioned before, as we move forward in the process, the expectation is that Staff andteams across the College start to take ownership of the process, by getting involved in thechange process.We need to get staff used to the idea of looking at an issue then not only generating ideasto resolve the issue, but also looking at what they can do as a team to test and implementsolutions.Clearly we are not going to ask staff without the necessary skills to resolve complex issues.But the vast majority of issues people face day to day in College life are relatively simple andquick to fix. These are the problems we would like to encourage staff to take ownership forand not wait for someone else, somewhere in the College to fix.With this in mind, throughout the project meetings, every opportunity should be used to getpeople used to the idea of working as a team to discuss and generate ideas that are foundusing the process map and also though general discussion.These ideas should be captured by the team and where appropriate actions should be put inplace there and then to ‘move the solution forward ’by a member or members of the team.For example, this maybe agreeing to discuss an idea with an expert within the Collegebefore the next meeting. Or it maybe is agreeing to ‘mock up’ a change on a documentready to the rest of the team to see in a week’s time.Whatever is agreed it should be recorded and summarised at the end of the projectmeeting. It should be then reviewed at the start of the next meeting.The PM is responsible for facilitating this type of discussion. Do not fall into the trap ofproviding the solution to the team. Let them discuss the issues and find the solution.Page 52 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  54. 54. Safety IssuesSafety and the welfare of both College staff and students should be considered at all stagesof the Lean Six Sigma process.This may appear obvious, but as the leaders of the process it vital that we assess all the risksinvolved ahead of starting any activity.As a guide line the following need to be considered.  Are all the staff familiar with the environment?  Do you have people that are from different Campus or Colleges attending?  Fire drills, are there any planned?  Fire evacuation procedures, do you need to brief the team  Security, do you need to arrange passes?  Car parking, do you need to arrange visitor parking?  Location of toilets, do you need to explain this to visitors  Are there any members of the team with special needs that need to be handled?Page 53 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  55. 55. Team RulesAt the start of the project during the first meeting it is very helpful to get the team’sengagement and commitment by developing some team rules that are agreed just for thisteam.This can be played as an ice breaker game, where each rule is put on a card and the teamare asked to put them in order of importance to the team. The team then adopt the firsteight as the rules for this team.Alternatively they can be reviewed as a group discussion and the flip chart used to identifythe rules to be adopted by the teamSuggested possible team rules are:  Keep an open mind to change  Maintain a positive attitude  Never leave in silent disagreement  Create and maintain a blameless environment  Practice mutual respect every day  Treat others as you want to be treated  Every voice counts equally no position or rank  There’s no such thing as a dumb question  There is no magic wand  Understand the process and then take action  Be enthusiastic about the teams challenge  Meet your commitments to the team  Stick to the team’s problem when we are trying to get work done  Do the ‘little things’ that make teamwork fun  Don’t interrupt; wait until I’m finished talking  Do your fair share of the team’s work  Say ‘Thanks’  Don’t ignore peoples suggestions  Offer help when someone is overloaded; even if they don’t ask  Don’t say it’s not my job  Ask what you can do for the team not just what the team can do for youPage 54 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  56. 56. Recording Activities and ActionsAt the start of the project during the first meeting the Project Manager should allocate oneof the team members to the role of group scribe.This is an important role as this person is responsible for capturing all the ideas, issues orquestions raised during the team meetings as well as the actions agreed upon.The items should be put up on to a flip chart for use during and after the meetings.The session notes and flip charts can be used at the next sessions to ensure a good flowfrom one meeting to the next.The notes from the flip chart need to be recorded to ensure that nothing is missed duringfollow on sessions as the project progresses to the next phase.At the end of each session using the recorded details the Project Manager should send outto the team the agreed actions to be undertaken prior to the next session.An example of actions from a meeting: Actions for next meeting  Review the process maps and look for any further changes or amendments required  Develop an action list for the process, identifying quick improvements, medium and long term actions ready to present to next meeting  Identify key metrics and data capture methods to monitor improvements and report to next session  Consider ideas for the final presentation to discuss next timePage 55 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  57. 57. Keeping the Team on TrackThe Project Manager is instrumental in keeping the team on track to deliver the project.The Project Manager should ensure that they produce a structured agenda for each of theproject meetings and make sure it is available for each session.It should clearly detail the key areas to be covered in that meeting.A review of the charter at each meeting should be carried out to ensure the teams activitiesremain in alignment with the original objectives.At the start of each meeting ensure the actions from the previous session are reviewed andclosed out if completed or carried forward if not.Be mindful of the time allocated to the meeting and the agenda for the session.Remind the team of the task in hand and keep them focused on the relevant step in theprocess.Call a halt to discussions that are going around in circles or are not relevant to the projectprogress.Keep the team interested and engaged with positive debate, but ensure this is within thescope of the charter and time allocated.Page 56 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  58. 58. Example Meeting Agenda 1. Review Actions from previous workshop 2. Review Project Charter Objectives 3. Identify how proposed actions support charter objectives 4. Identify best practice points from project 5. Check process maps starting and improved process 6. Identify metrics and how improvements will be identified for follow up audit 7. Presentation ideas and start preparationPage 57 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  59. 59. Process MappingPage 58 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  60. 60. Introduction to Process MappingBefore we start mapping any processes, we need to understand what a process actually is.Processes are simply sequences of actions designed to transform inputs into outputs. Forinstance, baking a cake will involve taking various ingredients (inputs) and producing thecake (output) using the recipe (process), Similarly, the steps required to deal with anenrolment, from receipt of the initial application, to the student actually being signed up toa specific course, will involve a process, or series of processes.Process mapping is an exercise to identify all the steps and decisions in a process indiagrammatic form which -  Describes the flow of information and documents;  Displays the various tasks contained within the process;  Shows that the tasks transform inputs into outputs;  Indicates the decisions that need to be made along the process chain;  Demonstrates the essential inter-relationships and interdependence between the process steps; and reminds us that the strength of a chain depends upon its weakest link.More complex processes have a number of interdependencies that may cloud the issue, soit is vital to understand the start and finish point of the process to be mapped. Normally thebest reference for this is the Project charter, since if written correctly it will have theseindicated.It is essential to involve College staff in any process mapping exercise. This may involve themain project team asking others outside the team for their expert advice and guidance. Onlyby asking the people who do the work will you be able capture the information required.There may be some suspicion from staff about the ultimate aims of a process improvementexercise and how change will affect individuals. Up front communication is vital as is theopenness about the exercise, its aims and expected outcomes. Communicating this openlywill reassure the staff and securing co-operation.Page 59 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  61. 61. PurposeProcess mapping is a simple tool that helps all of the team to understand the working of aprocess. Most processes within the College environment are relatively complex and fewpeople will fully understand the complete process from start to finish. So going through themapping process as a team will help build a common understanding and will provide aframework where all of the team can ask questions and make comments.When process mapping a College process it is important to remember to map what actuallyhappens not what you think happens or what you would like to happen.Process mapping enables us to clearly and simply record existing processes, examine themthoroughly and develop improvements by:  Eliminating unnecessary tasks;  Clarifying roles within the process;  Reducing delays and duplication;  Reducing the number of steps or hand offs in the process  Improve the quality and reliability of a processIt must be remembered that making changes without truly understanding how the processis working today, and why, can lead to costly mistakes.If you do not measure a process, you will not be able to manage it effectively and if youcannot manage a process, you cannot improve it.It has been estimated that people can waste about 70 – 80% of their time by re-doing thingsthat are wrong, chasing things without result, querying incomplete instructions, doing otherpeople’s jobs and so on.Process mapping enables us to clearly define the current processes in chart form, identifyingproblem areas such as bottlenecks, capacity issues, delays or waste. Once identified, thisknowledge provides a solid basis from which to develop solutions and introduce and plannew improved processes..Page 60 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  62. 62. Using Current and Future State MapsAs mentioned before, process mapping is a simple tool to help us understand a process. Thenormal process is to map the current state of the process, warts and all. This map is thenused to generate discussion as to possible improvements.Once the current state map is completed the team must challenge every part of the process.The basic questions that should be asked at every step of the process are:  Does the step add value?  Is the step sitting in the correct place  Is the step being undertaken by the correct College department or person?  Is there any delay?  Is there duplication?During the process mapping process we are looking at:  Work arounds (symptom of a process not working correctly)  Form layout, can it be improved?  Over complicated paperwork and forms  The number of departments involved  The number of hand offs  Correct equipment to undertake the process  Physical movement levels (walking, transportation)  Quality levels  Overall lead time to correct the process  Problems caused by other departments not doing their job correctly first time  Problems caused by staff not following the process  Bottlenecks  Correct levels of data collectionNormally, the questioning of the process map leads to more unanswered questions ratherthan answers. All unanswered questions and ideas should be recorded. If they are not, theywill be lost.Once the team understand the current state map, the next step is to develop a future statemap. This can be one of two types:  Interim future state  Full future state.Page 61 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  63. 63. For most teams and most College projects the interim future state is the best level of futurestate map to use.This is where the team consider what the future process could look like in a relatively shorttime scale (3 to 6 months).After completing the current state map and looking at the issues within it, the team thenproduces a second map detailing the best process that they can envisage working.In producing this second map the team must challenge all the waste that they can see andcome up with solutions. The interim future state map then serves as a target state for theproject team and the College to work towards.Full future stateIt is possible (depending on how open the team is to blue sky thinking) to build a futurestate map. That is, one that is considered the utopia process by all the team.Normally this vision would take some time to accomplish and may well be outside the scopeof the original project charter. However this type of map can be a very powerful tool tocommunicate the long term vision for the process.In order to build a full future state map the follow sequence of steps is suggested.  Build the current state map  Identify the opportunities  Identify the value added steps in the process  Transfer ONLY VALUE ADDED STEPS to the new future state map  Understand why the process cannot work with only the value added steps  Understand why the process cannot be undertaken by one member of staff  Add back into the future state map, only non-value added steps that are deemed vital to make the process function safely and at the correct quality level.  Add back hand offs to other members of staff of departments only when they are required for a specific reason ( lack of skill or training is not a good reason as this can be fixed)  Once the Future state map in complete, discuss it with all the necessary departments and staff in the College.Page 62 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  64. 64. Manual Process Mapping as a ToolProcess mapping is the first stage in the project team really understanding the process thatthey are about to work upon. So allow a reasonable period of time for this part of theproject.Initially process mapping is best done manually on a wall for all the team to see. The bestway is to first cover a wall in paper. If a wall is not available then use tables!Identify the various departments within the College that are involved with the process andalso any external suppliers such as data processing bureaus. For each of the departmentsand suppliers add a ‘swim lane’.Starting at the agreed start point (as detailed on the project charter) begin mapping theprocess using a POST-IT.Each note should represent a step in the process. Using the POST-IT note approach saves a lot of pain when it comes to re-shuffling the sequence to get itright!Draw the process map to represent the process, as it actually happens - NOT what youmight prefer it to be!Keep it simple to facilitate broad understanding of the OVERALL process. Too much detailearly on can be overwhelming and/or lead to confusion. If you agree that more detail isrequired on a particular action, it is easy to highlight that box and produce a separate chartshowing the process taking place within.Leave the Process map on the wall if possible. This enables reflection and re-thinking.Continue until consensus is reached. Rarely is the process map completed without re-work.Page 63 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  65. 65. Basic Flowcharting SymbolsThe two most important symbols are: 1. A rectangle, representing an activity or task: 2. A diamond, representing a decision: You may also find it useful, when considering process improvement to label certain actions on your chart to highlight - Delays Transport/movement Filing Electronic storagePage 64 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  66. 66. For workflow, simply join the processes up with a line and an arrow to indicate the directionof flow.For electronic communication use the following symbol.You may also find it useful, when considering process improvement to label certain parts ofthe process or ideas on your chart.For this the best symbol is an opportunity cloud.Any ideals can be noted in the cloud and stuck to the appropriate part of the process toensure that the idea or discussion point is not lost.Page 65 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  67. 67. Using Bizagi SoftwareOnce the process has been mapped manually the agreed process needs to be recordedelectronically in order that it can be shared.In order to do this it is recommended that a software package called Bizagi BPMN ProcessModeller is used.Bizagi Limited is a privately owned UK company established in 1989. Its name stands forbusiness agility.The software is used in all types of business sectors including the public sector, financialservices, energy, health, manufacturing, and many more.Bizagi Limited offers two products:  Bizagi BPMN Process Modeller  Bizagi BPM SuiteFor the purpose of process mapping in the College environment it is recommended that theBPMN Process Modeller software is usedBizagi BPMN Process Modeller is a freeware application to graphically diagram anddocument processes in a standard format known as Business Process Modelling Notation(BPMN). One of the main advantages of the software is that it allows non-technical users tobuild process maps and diagrams by dragging and dropping shapes. Once the process diagrams and the corresponding documentation have been created theycan be exported to Word, PDF, Visio, the web or SharePoint to be shared with people whodo not have the Modeller installed.The software can be downloaded from: www.bizagi.comIf you are unsure if you have permission to download this software, please speak to your ITor MIS department who will advise you. If you have the relevant permissions please followthe steps below. 1. Select ‘Products’ from the ribbon at the top of the page. 2. Then under the heading of ‘Become a BPM expert’, find step 1 and click on Download our free Process Modeler. 3. This will take you to a new page where you will see a button to download the modeller. Click on this button. 4. This will take you to a page that says thank you for downloading Bizagi process Modeller. The download should start automatically.Page 66 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  68. 68. 5. If you see a yellow security bar appear either at the top or bottom of the screen, click run or OK. This should start the automatic download. 6. When requested, select the set up language - English (United States) 7. The software should now install. 8. When the download is complete, you should see a ‘InstallShieldWizard welcome screen’. Click on the Next option. 9. Accept the terms of the licence agreement and click Next 10. On the next screen enter your user name and details click Next. 11. On the next screen you will be asked for the destination folder. Accept the recommendation and click Next. 12. Click ‘Install’ to begin the final installation. The process should start automatically. 13. Once complete click ‘ Finish’ 14. The process should have created a shortcut on your desktop. To start Bizagi Software use this shortcut.If you have any problems, please speak to your IT or MIS department who will help you.Instructions correct July 2012User video tutorials can be viewed at: http://elearning.bizagi.com/A quick reference guide can be downloaded from:www.bizagi.com/docs/BPMN_Quick_Reference_Guide_ENG.pdfPage 67 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  69. 69. Examples of Process MapsExamples of a manual current state mapPage 68 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  70. 70. Examples of a final Electronic current state map using Bizagi softwarePage 69 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  71. 71. The Final PresentationPage 70 ©Scott-Jardine 2012
  72. 72. PurposeThe purpose of the final presentation is not only to share with the steering committee andother College staff the outcomes from the project along with the lessons learnt, but also it isalso the ideal opportunity celebrate the successful completion of the project.In presenting the outcome of the project, it is an opportunity for the team members to gainsupport and commitment from the rest of the College staff for the new process that is to beemployed.It is the opportunity to gain wider support for the LSS process and engage other staff thathave not yet been involved in an improvement project themselves.From the steering committee and SMT point of view, the final presentation should belooked at as an opportunity to say thank you and put weight behind the suggestions that theproject team has made.Page 71 ©Scott-Jardine 2012

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