Adult Enterprise Innovation Manual

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  • 1. THE INNOVATION MANUAL 1
  • 2. IntroductionBackgroundIn 2011-12 a diverse group of nine partner organisations from the Further Education(FE), Adult Learning, Voluntary and private sectors worked together to create aninnovative new qualification framework and curriculum materials to help adults gainthe skills to become entrepreneurs. This was underpinned by the creative use oflearning technologies, a strong brand identity and a sustainable approach tocontinued sharing in the sector.The project was entitled „Adult Enterprise‟ and was funded through the AoC/SFAInnovation and Shared Services Collaboration Fund. When the project fundingended in summer 2012 the original Project Steering Group set up a self-funded not-for-profit social enterprise to continue sharing the outcomes of Adult Enterprise withthe adult and FE sector. The results of this shared curriculum project caught theimagination of the sector and by January 2013, 34 institutions (seven local authorityAdult Learning services, one voluntary organisation and 26 FE Colleges) from acrossEngland had understood the merits of sharing an entrepreneurship curriculum andhad financially contributed to Adult Enterprise as member organizations to continueworking together. The Year 2 (2012/13) is now self-funded by member Collegeswhich has provided the new social enterprise with an important platform for thedevelopment work to continue. It is now running curriculum sharing across diverseinstitutions for field testing the prototype blended learning curriculum generated bythe project, which demonstrates that the sector can generate a cost-effective modelfor curriculum sharing.Using the ManualThis Manual1 analyses the learning points from this successful shared servicesproject to provide a useful model to improve innovation practice in the sector. It isdesigned as a ‗how to‘ guide for sector staff to improve strategies for innovation andcurriculum development through undertaking shared projects. The Manual is dividedinto nine sections and commences with a overview of the Adult Enterprise Project1 The Manual has been written by Christina Conroy OBE, who was Principal of RichmondAdult Community College and the Project Director for Adult Enterprise. It has contributionsfrom Dr Ruth Cherrington, Adult Enterprise Curriculum Manager, Peter Kilcoyne, ILTDirector and E-Learning staff from Worcester College of Technology (Dave Thurlby, E-Learning Coordinator and Adam Salem, IT Support Coordinator). 2
  • 3. Case Study, followed by sections that detail the key themes and learning points forthe sector. It is designed for practitioners who would like more detailed information. Ashort document is also available ―Adult Enterprise: Curriculum Innovation‖ whichprovides an Executive Summary.Christina Conroy OBEChief Executive (Adult Enterprise)ContentsSection Topic Summary Page Numbers1 Adult Enterprise Project A contextual overview of the 5-15 Case Study project.2 New models of leadership This provides a conceptual for Project Innovation framework and guide to enable 16-22 using Co-creation through sector leaders to effectively lead Partnership Model for innovation and direct projects to Curriculum Development successful implementation. It will identify the essential elements that are required to generate new ideas through co- creation and an overview of the key management principles to be followed.3 Using the Innovation This covers the ‗how to‘ of Code to create New creating new qualifications to 23-29 Qualifications meet the needs of industry, or new and emerging markets. It covers a methodology for qualification and assessment design with a toolkit to follow.4 Creating a blended This provides an analysis of the learning Solution manufacturing process for 30-40 creating blended learning materials within a pedagogic framework, and a toolkit for subject writers for developing blended learning and e-learning products. 3
  • 4. 5 E-learnification This section provides an overview and evaluation of 41-46 software available for online education and training with pros and cons. It also provides guidelines on how to ‗e-learnify‘ subject writers curriculum‘ content.6 Developing a shared This section provides guidance learning platform on how to adapt Moodle and 47-49 integrate education and training software to create a strong user interface and user experience (UI/UX) for online learning. A guide to managing learners, providing online helpdesk support, and collecting data for benchmarking.7 Managing a virtual team This covers the methods and processes for managing a virtual 50-54 team of curriculum writers, curriculum editors, assessment specialists, awarding body staff and e-learning designers to create a shared team.8 Brand development in a This section explores the shared environment marketing principles to create a 55 white label design and marketing proposition that can be shared.9 Models for network A toolkit for selling shared generation for sharing and services and creating a 56-57 sustainability sustainable vehicle for sharing. 58Bibliography 4
  • 5. Section 1Adult Enterprise project case studyIntroductionThe Adult Enterprise project, funded through the SFA Grant Fund and supported byAoC, came about because of a business problem experienced by Richmond AdultCommunity College (RACC) regarding its relationship with local customers and itscontract as an FE College to the national Government Skills Funding Agency. Thissection gives a background to the project inception in terms of an individualCollege‘s problem and an overview of the project.The business problem Richmond Adult Community College (RACC) is a General Further Education College for adults based in South West London, providing annually over 1500 skills and leisure courses for 12,000 part-time adults. Over 80% of its teaching was delivered by part-time, hourly paid lecturers the majority of which are professionally and industrially active portfolio workers. The College had been successively rated Outstanding by OFSTED (2006 and 2010) in recognition of its excellent quality of provision and its responsiveness to the local community. The College had its own dedicated Richmond Business School specialising in Digital Technologies, Business and Enterprise.The business problem that the College faced was: Between 2010-2011 RACC was delivering entrepreneurship training in an innovative way to meet local skills demand but this was not recognised by Government. The College was unable to generate funding for this activity and was at risk of not meeting its funding targets as a GFE. This had major financial consequences for the College in that penalties were implemented by the SFA if the College did not comply with its funding target. There was a clear mismatch between what the local community needed in terms of skills training and what was recognised nationally. The general narrowing of the curriculum in terms of what was recognised as fundable for adult skills was a general problem that affected all Colleges but it 5
  • 6. affected RACC particularly as a GFE College because of its niche offer to adults.Innovation through co-creation (Organisation and customer)Since 2008 the College had experienced strong local demand from unemployedprofessionaladults and existing small businesses, in response to the recession, for a broad rangeof shortcourses in entrepreneurship training particularly around new technologies. TheCollege hadgenerated these curriculum solutions in its Richmond Business School as a result ofa richdialogue between the users and part-time lecturers who were portfolio workersrunning their own enterprises or working for global high tech companies such aseBay and PayPal (Both have their European Head Offices in Richmond).This dialogue resulted in the users shaping and co-creating the Colleges curriculumto respond quickly to their local circumstances to gain the skills to get started as theysought to make sense of the increasingly difficult UK economy. The co-createdenterprise curriculum at Richmond Business School was innovative, personalisedand designed around the learning journeys of adults in Richmond and South WestLondon. The South West London economy profile has the highest proportion ofmicro-businesses with less than 10 employees (91% of businesses) than anywhereelse in the country. Of this proportion 19% of all businesses are self-employed soletraders. A rich eco-system of small businesses generates more small businesses asa result of the low barriers to entry, both for trading and in terms of the socialacceptance towards start-up. Annual destination surveys since 2005 had highlightedthat between 25%- 30% of College leavers from RACC went on to sell their workprofessionally, become self-employed or start a business after undertaking a courseat the College.Innovation as rule-breakingDespite designing and implementing a rich innovative adult skills curriculum that theCollege was delivering, RACC was unable to draw down national funding becausethe National Qualifications Framework (NQF) did not recognise this type ofentrepreneurship training for over 19s or enterprise short courses for adults. Incontrast the NQF only recognised enterprise qualifications for 16-18 year olds andsubstantive long courses for adults. The NQF (National Qualification Framework)system and bureaucracy became a gatekeeper to legitimacy and thereby stifled 6
  • 7. innovative approaches to meeting new economic needs. Consequently the Collegewas losing out on over half a million pounds of funding because what wasrecognised and funded nationally, and what was wanted locally, were at odds. If theCollege had tried to claim funding for this work it would be breaking the ‗rules‘ andundertaking an illegitimate act. If it carried on delivering innovative co-createdsolutions for contemporary economic needs it would lose money and face fundingpenalties from the SFA. If it stopped delivering it would not be meeting its servicemission to the local economy.In the perverse financial situation of potentially not meeting targets and not pullingdown funding the Colleges options were to either stop being a College responsive tothe community or try and change the national framework. It needed a way to makeclaiming the funding ‗legitimate‘ but also ensure the curriculum was sustainable sothat other Colleges could benefit within a national framework. Both solutions werenot easily achievable as the way the College had developed the in-house enterprisecurriculum was based on individual tutors and students through co-creation, and ifthey left the College had no sustainable curriculum plan or framework to repeat.Similarly stopping the entrepreneurship training during a recession when local adultswant to make their own job would also have been perverse. The College recognisedit needed a dialogue at national level to resolve the NQF issue and also develop astrategy to make the curriculum sustainable and usable by other learning and skillsproviders.At that time changing national rules was risky for the SFA because their strategy hadbeen to only fund robust, nationally recognised qualifications to ensure proper use ofpublic funds. Yet new qualification frameworks were needed to respond to changesin the economy. The College was able to generate a dialogue with the SFAregarding this provision and the use of a holding code Z90P (now the InnovationCode) to claim funding until the provision was on the NQF. This provided the SFAscope for managed risk but also local responsiveness. The holding code wasdesigned to fund qualifications for a temporary period if they were awaitingrecognition on the NQF.This still left RACC with a problem, as a small institution of how to create a nationalcurriculum framework for adult entrepreneurs to get NQF recognition. RACC hadachieved a solution to part of its business problem which was achieving its fundingtarget for 2010-11 and securing half a million pounds of funding but it still faced thechallenge of future proofing ‗legitimacy‘ and developing a national framework.Making innovation sustainable through partnership co-creationThe solution to creating a national qualification framework was to engage a diverserange of partners who had similar problems with the narrowing of the adultcurriculum or who were working in the adult entrepreneurship space without funding 7
  • 8. who could help co-create a robust national framework. For example what is neededfor entrepreneurship training by well-educated professional adults in Richmond willbe different for adults on benefits in East London. Yet a national qualificationframework needs to be flexible and robust enough to serve a variety of users. Apartnership of diverse providers was set up of like-minded leaders from thevoluntary, FE, Adult and private sectors who bid for extra resources to the AoC/SFAShared Services and Innovation Fund to develop the Adult Enterprise Project in2011. This provided valuable resources to enable staff across the partnership towork together and solve the problem for mutual benefit.The Adult Enterprise projectThe Adult Enterprise project was funded for one year from September 2011- August2012. 2 The overall aim was to provide a national qualification and curriculumframework that would be available to all Learning and Skills providers nationally from2012/13. The skills qualification framework was designed to be at level 2 and 3 foradults who wish to be entrepreneurs. The Project also sought to develop ‗blendedlearning‘ curriculum materials that could be shared with the rest of the learning andskills sector to enable national roll-out. The aim was to develop a prototypecurriculum development and delivery model for a new curriculum area(Entrepreneurship Studies) and achieve increased innovation and efficiency gains bysharing across diverse partners, disseminating across the whole learning and skillssector, and ‗designing in‘ flexibility and cost savings in how it could be delivered. TheProject Director was Christina Conroy OBE, formerly Principal of Richmond AdultCommunity College who reported to an Adult Enterprise Steering Group comprisingHeads of partner organisations.Five PhasesThe project was organised into five Phases. At every phase the project sought howto ‗do things differently‘ and ‗design in‘ innovation and efficiency. 1. Curriculum development (September – December 2011)This involved:2 The Adult Enterprise Partnership (www.adultenterprise.com) services curriculum project comprised9 private, public and voluntary sector Partners including 4 General FE Colleges (Richmond AdultCommunity College, City of Bath College, Morley College, Tower Hamlets College, Paypal (Europe),HOLEX, WCL, Community Links, Social Enterprise London). 8
  • 9. Researching the learning journeys of adults who want to become entrepreneurs and identifying what qualifications were available. Developing a new model that is more applicable to adults from a wide variety of backgrounds (socio-economic, ethnicity, age and vocational area). Using diverse partners from the public, private and voluntary sector to provide diverse perspectives on the learning needs of adult entrepreneurs.Research with adults over 18 from a variety of vocational areas, educationalattainment levels, and social and geographical backgrounds indicated that over 40%express an interest in running their own business or being self-employed, yet lessthan 10% actually do take the plunge. The lack of enterprise skills was cited as oneof the greatest barriers to business start-up. Further research across the ninepartners identified that successful adult entrepreneurs go through four main stagesto business start-up which are First Steps, Creating, launching and growing. Whilstsocial entrepreneurs often have to transition out of the public sector or voluntarysector roles before Creating, Launching and Growing their enterprises. 2. Qualification framework development– (January - April 2012)This involved the following: Developing a national skills framework at level 2 and level 3, and compiling it into unitised qualifications that were flexible and attractive for charging fees but inclusive enough to attract funding for disadvantaged groups. Ensuring the framework was robust and distinctive enough to be approved by OFQUAL. (The Adult Enterprise Partnership worked with Open College Network London Region (OCNLR) as the Awarding Body as the majority of the partners were based in London.) Setting up the skills qualification framework which has been devised in a unitised fashion so that an adult can select units of learning that meet their training needs at the right time during their learning journey to entrepreneurship. (The qualifications have now all been accredited by a national awarding body (OCNLR). Both the Level 2 and level 3 were approved by OFQUAL and were recognised for funding (both the whole qualification and the units in 2012/13). All of the qualifications became freely available in July 2012 on the NQF. Undertaking further work, due to the introduction of new regulations on adult loans for over 25s in 2013/14 to combine the level 3 awards into Certificates and Diplomas so that they are suitable and eligible to attract to loans).An individual can take whole awards or just units of learning. A credit representsaround 10 hours of learning. There is a rich mix of units including running a streetmarket, social media, and developing an on-line store that would be attractive asstand-alone or as whole awards. The rules of combination involve mandatory andoptional units. The assessment model is using an online portfolio of evidence 9
  • 10. (business development log) to demonstrate skills in developing their own businessidea and running a business.The new qualification framework is as follows:Name of the Award UnitsOCNLR Level 2 Certificate in Generating and Assessing a Business Idea 2First Steps to Enterprise credits Assessing Your Capacity to Start and Run a Business 1 credit Financial Considerations for a New Business 3 credits Understanding the Benefits and Tax Credit System for a New Business 2 credits Understanding the uses of Social Media for Business 2 credits Street Market Trading as a Business Option 1 credit Considering the potential to Run a Business from Home 1 credit Legal Aspects of Trading 2 credits Understanding Social Enterprise 2 credits Understanding how to Sell a Product or Service 2 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Deciding on a Business Model for a Product orCreating a Business – Service 2 creditsConcept and Planning Producing a Business Plan 3 credits Finances for a New Business 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Making a Product of Saleable Quality 3 creditsCreating a Business – Establishing a Service of Saleable Quality 3 creditsProduct and Sales Showcasing a Product or Service 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Selling and Branding a Product or Service 3 creditsLaunching a Business – Working with Suppliers 3 creditsProduct and SalesOCNLR Level 3 Award in Website fundamentals for a Business 3 creditsLaunching a Business – Launching an online Business 3 creditsTechnologies Managing an Online Store 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Keeping up to date with Current BusinessSustaining and Growing a Legislation 3 creditsBusiness – Business Survival Assessing Health and Safety Risks in a Business 2Skills credits Self-Development for Business Sustainability and Growth 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Sub-Contracting Work 3 creditsSustaining and Growing a Recruiting Employees 3 creditsBusiness – Planning for Giving a Business Presentation 3 creditsGrowth Project Management for a Business 3 credits Tendering for Work 3 creditsOCNLR Level 3 Award in Trading in Overseas Markets 4 credits 10
  • 11. Sustaining and Growing aBusiness – Business in anInternational ContextOCNLR Level 3 Award in Creating a Social Enterprise 3 creditsCreating, Launching and Social Enterprise for Voluntary Organisations andGrowing a Social Enterprise Charities 3 credits Developing Social Enterprise for Public Sector Services 3 credits 3. Content development and shared delivery strategies – (May - August 2012) A key aim of the Adult Enterprise project was to design a way to provide curriculum materials to share across the sector to support the new qualification framework and thereby reduce the costs of delivery. The pedagogic approach, which has been termed ‗flipping the classroom‘ whereby knowledge acquisition is developed through on-line content and understanding, meaning and skills is developed afterwards in the classroom,was used in planning the curriculum development. Currently teachers use their classroom time for giving knowledge but they would be more effective in generating learning if they spent more time developing understanding and skills in the classroom rather than lecturing content. Consequently Adult Enterprise developed e-learning content to go alongside classroom materials.The blended learning solution; The teaching and learning strategy that Adult Enterprise used is known as ‗a blended learning solution‘ on a learning platform hosted centrally to enable more efficient and effective implementation across the education sector. The e-learning content was placed on a customised Moodle 2 platform with embedded articulate software. It was customised to commercial standards. The platform was designed to facilitate easy management and tracking of delivery of over 80 standardised, separate L2 and L3 units to students across a large number of partner learning providers as well as delivering e-learning products with high user interface and user experience.The blended learning content; The blended learning content was developed by different partners and independent curriculum writers, with 50% of the curriculum materials to be used in the classroom and 50% to be available on an e-learning platform to be used directly by learners. 11
  • 12. A web front-end was developed www.adultenterprise.com to be the learner portal for delivery backed up by a Moodle platform hosted by a leading e- learning College as a service to the sector (Worcester College of Technology). By the end of the project funding the full level 2 content was completed and quality assured for sharing with the sector. New contracting arrangements had to be developed for curriculum writers who were disconnected from direct delivery in the classroom. Worcester College provided e-learning support staff to work with curriculum writers to undertake ‗e-learnification‘ of content. This deconstruction of the curriculum development and delivery process provided scope for innovation as well as significant efficiency gains.In addition to a shared curriculum, a shared marketing model was developed whereAdult Enterprise was branded alongside an individual College/institution‘s brand. Aset of shared marketing materials was developed with a shared website. All the artwork has been designed centrally which can then be repurposed locally. Themarketing pack includes a prospectus, promotional leaflets, display stands, posterdesigns, conference packs, learner badges, standardised hand-outs and powerpoints. The designs chime with the user look and feel of the learning platform. 4. Sector roll-out and Dissemination - (May -July 2012)Briefings were arranged with AoC groups such as ILT Managers, EnterprisePortfolio, Innovation Committee and the Shared Services Group which generatedsignificant interest. Forty Colleges signed up to the website to get more information.The Project Director visited individual Colleges to gauge interest to identify whatwould be the most useful strategy for sector testing. As a result of sector feedback itwas agreed to test the teaching and learning model, and the content across theregions with both HOLEX members and FE Colleges. The Adult EnterprisePartnership focused on having a number of the level 2 first steps to Enterprise unitsand the shared marketing materials ready for sector testing.Five dissemination days were organised hosted at Tower Hamlets College, LondonFashion Retail Academy, City of Bath College, Solihull College and WakefieldCollege, in July 2012. The dissemination events were presented by the ProjectDirector, Curriculum Manager, Assessment Manager and a Worcester ILTrepresentative.Over 100 attendees from around 80 institutions attended the 5 dissemination daysacross the country. Sector institutions were given access the materials to reviewcontent to enable them to give feedback. Excellent feedback was received on theprogress of the project, the blended curriculum materials and the shared curriculummodel. The overview was that sector colleagues liked: Excellent professional materials 12
  • 13. Meets a large market demand from different adult target markets Professional high-quality appearance Excellent range of units and attractive qualification framework Blended learning approach Cohesive marketing and branding materials Flexibility for delivery Flexibility for learners Relevant content to suit the needs of adult target markets Openness to ideas from sector colleges Support for refreshing and updating materials Quality of on-line platform Collaborative approach Pre-prepared for teachers Opportunity to deliver bite size elements Reduction of delivery costsThings Adult Enterprise needs to do to develop were: Development of a Level one programme Tracking student progress online Size of print on marketing materials Need for clear explanation of difference between level 2 and 3 for learners Clarity on funding for each qualification for each eligible group, clarified with SFA Combining level 3 Awards into Certificates and Diplomas in preparation for Student Loans in 2013 Need to raise awareness of JCP and HMRC nationally Usage with 16-18 and HE students Business Development Log needs to be more user friendly Access to social media in councils may preclude offering the social media unit 5. Developing a Sustainability Model – (July - September 2012)All the blended learning level 2 units were completed and were quality assured inAugust 2012. The aim was for interested sector Colleges to be able to start using theLevel 2 curriculum in October 2012, with the rest of the Level 3 content available in2013. By offering a blended learning solution the attraction for sector Colleges wasthat this will reduce teaching costs, save on curriculum development time, andstandardise the quality of delivery but also provide scope for local customisation.Although the project was funded ‗by the sector for the sector‘ the reality was that ithad to be self-financing if it was to continue in 2012/13 as AoC/SFA Project ceasedin its entirety by 31 October 2012. The overall conclusion from the evaluation formsfrom the dissemination events was that there was a clear consensus that there 13
  • 14. would be value in the Adult Enterprise initiative continuing in a sustainable form.Over 30 Colleges and Adult Learning Services expressed an interest in providing theAdult Enterprise qualification framework and blended learning content.The final stage of the AoC/SFA project was to explore what would be the mostappropriate business model for its on-going roll-out to the sector given that thenational qualification framework was freely available to the sector, in July 2012.Feedback from AOC and BIS was that because the intellectual property wasdeveloped with Government funds a not for profit social enterprise should beestablished.To date (January 2013) 34 Colleges/providers (this includes 4 Founder providermembers) have paid £5,000 membership fees to continue the work of AdultEnterprise and to continue to share the curriculum and marketing materials. In returnthey get unlimited use of the materials, reduced OCNLR fees, shared marketingmaterials, train the trainer events, central website and shared learning platform,curriculum writing opportunities for sector professionals and centrally providedlearner MIS on destinations and success.There is a good geographic spread across England with good representation in theNorth, Midlands and London and the South East.A Board of Directors/Trustees was appointed in their own right comprising six Headsof institutions from the original nine Founding partners after discussions with theirCollege/institutional boards (Morley College, Tower Hamlets College, CommunityLinks, HOLEX, City of Bath College, WCL). The Social Enterprise has beenregistered as a Company Limited by Guarantee. The 34 providers are as follows: Kent Adult Education and KEY Training London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham Accrington and Rossendale College Burton and South Derbyshire College Redbridge Institute Westminster Adult Education Service Doncaster College Warwickshire College The Sheffield College Highbury College Stanmore College Solihull College New College Nottingham Uxbridge College Community Links City of Bath College Morley College 14
  • 15. Tower Hamlets CollegeOxford and Cherwell Valley College (including Reading College)North Hertfordshire CollegeBirmingham Adult Learning ServiceWorcester College of TechnologyWest Suffolk CollegeSouthend Adult Community CollegeWest Herts CollegeNewcastle Adult Learning ServiceColchester InstituteSparsholt CollegeGrimsby Institute of Further and Higher EducationThe Adult College of Barking and DagenhamCentral Bedfordshire CollegeFurness CollegeSouth Essex CollegeTotton College 15
  • 16. Section 2New Models of Leadership Through Co-creationIn this section we explore the following: What are the learning points with respect to leadership and management. The concept of co-creation through partnership The management strategies for handling uncertainty and dealing with risk, and identifing the important role of diversity.Literature reviewThe academic literature on co-creation is focused principally on the relationshipbetween consumers and the firm. Co-creation is a form of market or businessstrategy that emphasises the generation and on-going realization of mutual firm-customer value. It views markets as forums for firms and active customers to share,combine, and renew each others resources and capabilities to create value throughnew forms of interaction, service and learning mechanisms. It differs from thetraditional active firm - passive consumer market construct of the past.The future of competitionCo-created value arises in the form of personalised, unique experiences for thecustomer (value in-use) and on-going revenue, learning and enhanced marketperformance drivers for the firm (loyalty, relationships, customer word of mouth).Value is co-created with customers if and when a customer is able to personalizehis/her experience using a firms product-service proposition – in the lifetime of itsuse – to a level that is best suited to get his/her job(s) or tasks done, and whichallows the firm to derive greater value from its product-service investment in the formof new knowledge, higher revenues/profitability and/or superior brand value/loyalty.C K Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy introduced the concept and developed theirarguments further in ―The Future of Competition‖ (2004) where they offeredexamples including Napster and Netflix showing that customers would no longer besatisfied with making yes or no decisions on what a company offers. Value will beincreasingly co-created by the firm and the customer, they argued, rather than beingcreated entirely inside the firm. Co-creation in their view not only describes a trend ofjointly creating products. It also describes a movement away from customers buyingproducts and services as transactions, to those purchases being made as part of anexperience. The authors held that consumers seek freedom of choice to interact withthe firm through a range of experiences. Customers want to define choices in amanner that reflects their view of value, and they want to interact and transact intheir preferred language and style. Prahalad and Ramaswamy identify that theinformed, networked, empowered, and active consumers are increasingly co- 16
  • 17. creating value with the firm. The interaction between the firm and the consumer isbecoming the locus of value creation and value extraction. As value shifts toexperiences, the market is becoming a forum for conversation and interactionsbetween consumers, consumer communities, and firms.Customer community leadershipRowley, Kupiec-Teahan and Leeming (2007) explore a case study of a leadingplayer in the UK and international ―sportkiting‖ market which focuses on productinnovation through customer community development. Their study provides insightsinto the development and management of a customer community, informing productinnovation and engaging customers in co-creation of a consumption experience. Thecase companys innovative product development strategy provides the catalyst forco-creation of a customer experience. Its marketing actions extend beyond productdevelopment and innovation to actively co-creating experiences with customers,fostering a sense of community among users, facilitating communication within thatcommunity, acting on the feedback, and continuously developing and maintainingthe community relationship. The companys marketing strategy can be summed upas ―customer community leadership‖. This paradigm proposes a new role forbusinesses in sectors where there is a potential to develop and engagecommunities. It provides a context for the effective facilitation of customer knowledgemanagement, within which marketing intelligence plays a significant role.Co-creation through partnershipWhilst the academic literature on co-creation is rich in relation to consumers andorganisations, it is less well-developed on how co-creation can be used betweenpartners through collaboration as a business strategy for innovation.Pavlovich and Doyle 2006 explored a case study of a range of diverse organizationsin Waitamo, New Zealand collaborating to develop innovation in the tourism offerafter the decline in day visitors to the Waitamo Cave system. The study examinesthe role that social capital plays when partners collectively develop new knowledgeto pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. They explore the structural, cognitive andrelational dimensions of social capital and showed that the structural dimensionhelps initiate partnerships, gain access to important markets and build capabilitieswithin partnerships. The cognitive dimension involved partners unfreezing the sensemaking frames of the parent company and co-constructing a new interpretiveframework, specific to the partnership, with the alliance partner. Relational aspects oftrust through professional competency, open communication and personal integritywere critical for close relationships to be formed in order that ideas could beintegrated and developed. Thus they argue that co-entrepreneurship is a processwhereby both partners contribute to value creation through their ability to transcenddifferences and negotiate space in order to learn how to learn for knowledgecreation. 17
  • 18. Leadership skills for co-creationIf co-creation through partnership is going to be successful the type of leadershipskills required will be different from traditional models of leadership. From aleadership and management perspective the National School of Governmentidentified co-creation and new models of leadership as imperative to respond to thechallenges and changes facing public services economically, globally and in termscustomer expectations. They ask the question: ‗What would it take to create moreeffective leadership of the whole governmental and public service system?‘ Thereport puts forward the findings from the Warwick Business School (Hartley andBennington 2009) research on public leadership which identified the need for newpatterns of ‗adaptive leadership‘ to tackle tough, complex, cross-cutting problems inthe community. Whole systems thinking and action includes the capacity to analyseand understand the inter-connections, inter-dependencies and inter-actions betweencomplex issues, across multiple boundaries, between different sectors, services, andlevels of government. They argue that leadership development programmes need totranslate individual learning into organisational and inter-organisational action andimprovement."Think about leadership not just as about individuals but also about ‗leadershipconstellations‘ which consist of a team, a partnership group or other stakeholderswho can work in a whole systems way.""Leadership development programmes in the public and voluntary sectorsincreasingly therefore need to cultivate the knowledge and capabilities necessary towork effectively across the boundaries and networks of the whole public servicesystem, in order to tackle the complex cross-cutting issues which concern citizensand communities."A shared visionA central theme is that diversity enriches but diverse partners need to all have ashared vision and values. This is the bedrock of co-creation through partnership. Thechallenge of the Adult Enterprise project was that it was required to develop aneffective national approach to identifying the skills and qualification framework thatadult entrepreneurs needed. Potential adult entrepreneurs come from a variety ofmarket segments such as age, ethnicity, social class, gender, educational andoccupational backgrounds so it was important to work with diverse partners from avariety of sectors who would have insight into this range of needs. However diversepartners create tensions because they have different world views. The view ofvoluntary sector practitioners from East London working with disadvantaged groupswas necessarily different from private sector partners in West London working withaffluent professional adults.The shared vision of all the partners was that adults need the skills to survive andprosper in business to generate sustainable self-employment and business start-up. 18
  • 19. 40% of adults nationally report that they would like to start a business and yet only5% do. There is clearly a mismatch between aspiration and ability which results inlack of confidence and inaction. All of the partners believed strongly that learningchanges lives and life chances, and if you give adults the skills to be entrepreneursthey will have more choices to support themselves, their families and theircommunities.Diversity is creativeThe diversity of partners provided a rich range of perspectives in viewing theframework required for adult learners wanting to become entrepreneurs.Often partnerships are characterised by working with the same type of organisations,within same sectors, of similar size, operating in similar markets. Co-creation throughpartnership requires a different approach. In the case of Adult Enterprise eachpartner came with a different perspective and expertise which proved very creativeand innovative.The partners in the Adult Enterprise Project were:PARTNER TYPE OF EXPERTISE ORGANIsATIONRichmond GFE for Adults Leisure and skills courses for adults inAdult Richmond and South West London, with keyCommunity specialism‘s in Digital Technologies, BusinessCollege and Creative and Cultural StudiesMorley Specialist Leisure and skills courses for adults acrossCollege designated adult London with key specialism‘s in Creative Arts College and Crafts, and Music based in Waterloo, central LondonTower A GFE College Based in Poplar in East London providing FEHamlets for Young people courses for young people and adults with a keyCollege and Adults specialism of Full-time 16-18 programmes, Technical skills and ESOL for AdultsCity Of Bath A GFE College Based in Bath, Somerset providing FE coursesCollege for Young people for young people and adults with key and Adults specialism‘s in Media & Performing Arts, Creative Arts and Beauty TherapyHOLEX A membership Representing 105 local education authority adult learning services across England. Strong 19
  • 20. organization specialism and connectivity to adult education and leisure local authority servicesSocial A voluntary Providing training and funding to support theEnterprise organisation development of social enterprises across theLondon supported by capital London CouncilsCommunity A voluntary Based in Canning Town in East London,Links organisation providing advice and guidance, training and tackling Poverty support structure to tackle poverty, with a key and disadvantage specialism in understanding and analysing the benefits system and the ‗black economy‘.PARTNER TYPE OF EXPERTISE ORGANISATIONPayPal, part of A multinational Providing a global online payment system foreBay private sector individuals, small businesses and corporate organization partnersWCL Ltd A private sector Providing project and change management business solutions for the public and private sector consultancy serviceOpen College A private sector Exam validation and accreditation service forNetwork London Region FE and adult education Colleges in London andLondon Examining Board the South East.Region(OCNLR)Co-entrepreneurshipPavlovich and Doyle (2006) argue that this type of co-creation should be termed co-entrepreneurship whereby partners contribute to value creation through their abilityto transcend differences and negotiate space in order to learn how to learn forknowledge creation. Diverse partners provide different perspectives that enrich thecreativity of the whole group.However Pavlovich and Doyle identify that the partnership needs to take cognisanceof the structural, cognitive and relational dimensions to generate new innovativesocial capital.LEADERSHIP THEMES BENEFITSSTRUCTURE A clear partnership structure helps initiate partnerships, gain access to 20
  • 21. important markets and build capabilities within the partnershipsCOGNITIVE The cognitive dimension involves partners unfreezing the sense-making frames of their existing organisation and co-constructing a new interpretive framework, specific to the partnership.RELATIONAL The aspects of trust through professional competency, open communication and personal integrity are critical for close relationships to be formed in order that ideas could be integrated and developed.Innovation as a national movementAll of the partners shared a common vision and were committed to solving thebusiness problem, and developed a strong trust framework for action. The SteeringGroup and Curriculum Groups met regularly and worked together to co-create thenew qualification framework, the curriculum materials, the shared delivery strategyand new social enterprise. This generated on-going team development and a sharedpurpose. Each of the partners was very engaged and proud of their involvement andkeen to encourage other providers to join in the project as part of a nationalmovement.Learning Points for Future Curriculum InnovationThrough Co-creation with Partners1 Develop a high level understanding of the curriculum innovation problem that you aretrying to solve e.g. the desire to be an entrepreneur cuts across vocational areas, cutsacross different localities, different sectors and adults from different backgrounds - Can oneinstitution innovate alone in a complex situation?2 Work with enablers such as SFA and agree the use of an Innovation code and get theirbuy in to the Project3 Identify partners who can help from different sectors, different localities, differentvocational areas and serving different adults, and will work effectively on co-creation4 Find resources to invest in co-creation as it takes time to generate effective solutions e.g.The shared services and collaboration bid to resource the project through AoC/SFA providedvaluable resources to move the project forward but with clear milestones and effectiveevaluation. 21
  • 22. 5 Identify the importance of diversity in the partnership and how it can be led and managed6 Develop a shared vision and an absolute shared commitment to project goals. Build trustand the inclusive sharing of information. Shared goals are more important than individualgoals7 Get the Structure right. This involves ensuring that there are clear roles andresponsibilities at three levels strategic Project Director and steering group leaders,Operational and task Management Project Manager and curriculum developers/practitionersand staying in touch with learners8 Ensure Steering Group cohesion, and try and involve leaders in their sector so that theycan be ambassadors to other Providers whilst staying in touch with Curriculum Developersworking on project task and engaging with learners9 Find committed suppliers who want to join in and add to co-creation effort10 Celebrate and disseminate to different sectors to ensure sustainability 22
  • 23. Section 3Using the Innovation CodeThis section covers the new Innovation Code Guidelines with a Table setting out theFunding Rules and a toolkit on how to identify and create new areas of provision andthe process for working with Awarding Bodies. In April 2011 Richmond AdultCommunity College was one of the first institutions to seek to use a more flexiblemethod of recognising and funding new provision for its short courseentrepreneurship programmes. This was the basis for the development of the AdultEnterprise Project in 2011/12. Since then the current regulations have beendeveloped in relation to the introduction of an Innovation Code to enable all providersto create new qualifications to meet the needs of industry or new and emergingmarkets.In Baroness Sharp‘s report A dynamic nucleus: Colleges at the heart of localcommunities (November 2011) recognised that learning and skills providersnationally needed to have a mechanism to fund ‗responsive provision which meetslocally assessed priority needs.‘ In New Challenges New Chances (December2011), BIS accepted this recommendation and stated that they would introduce anInnovation Code to be used by the Skills Funding Agency from April 2012 whichwould be used to: ―support FE Colleges and providers to draw down funding forprogrammes that meet a particular employer skills need whilst they aresimultaneously developed for the QCF‖.The Innovation Code therefore is a mechanism designed to help Colleges andtraining organisations respond quickly to local employer needs and emerging skillsgaps by designing and deliver new programmes. It allows them to deliver customisedprogrammes of learning without having to wait for new qualifications to be developedand accredited. This is possible because the Code is designed specifically to meetdemand where there is no current qualification offer. This could include provisionwhich tackles unemployment and helps learners progress and remain in work, orwhich addresses a particular skills gap within a local area. It allows them to enrollearners on a course that at present does not lead to a Qualifications and CreditFramework (QCF) qualification and draw down funding.Central to the use of the innovation Code is that there is the understanding that thequalification has been designed in partnership with business, with a commitment totime limited funding, and that the qualification will migrate onto the Qualifications andCredit Framework (QCF)‖ 23
  • 24. Providers are currently able to use the Code for a period of 12 months during2012/13, working with local businesses and employers to develop and deliverprovision. They will also need to work with an Ofqual-recognised awardingorganisation, so that the provision can be migrated onto the Qualifications and CreditFramework using the Innovation Code. The Code initially consists of six learningaims which will enable Providers to draw down funding within a Provider‘s existingfunding allocation whilst simultaneously developing the programme and qualification.The Rules for the use of the Innovation Code are as follows: 24
  • 25. GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF THE INNOVATION CODE 2012-14WHO CAN EMPLOYERS/LOCAL METHOD OF TYPE OF PROVISION INELIGIBLE PROVISIONBENEFIT COMMUNITY NEED IDENTIFICATIONThe Code is for It should be used for Local needs might LEVEL Large Employers with Direct GrantColleges and Developing specialist skills, be identified Provision delivered through the Innovation Code Provisiontraining Up-skilling in a particular sub- through a college can be at any level of learning, from Entry throughorganisations that sector, and/or training to Level 8 Apprenticeshipsappear on the Re-skilling as a result of organisation‟s TYPEAgency‟s economic conditions in a existing links with It can be: Where QCF provision exists and isRegister of particular local area, local/regional completely new provision planned to be removed fromTraining Specific skills required to employers, with adaptation of existing provision fundingOrganisations support a growth sector, representative a new combination of QCF unitsand have a Supporting entrepreneurship, organisations such SIZE Non-regulated versions of units andcurrent contract Supporting employment as National Skills The Code may be used for short course provision qualifications that are already in theas a prime and/or progression and further Academies, Sector where that provision can, for instance, support QCF.contractor to learning in a particular sub Skills Councils, someone into employment; or it can be used for For providing finance for awardingdeliver Adult sector or sector Local Enterprise slightly longer provision. There are six sizes of organisation (AO) for developmentSkills Budget responding to local needs – Partnership or provision costs(ASB) or Offender for example, adapting training Employment and based on credit value aligned to the QCF which 24+ Advanced Learning Loans willLearning and for the needs of local Skills Boards. relate to SFA Funding (Full Funding and Co- be introduced in 2013/14 and willSkills employers seeking to recruit Funding Rates): provide funding for the delivery ofService Phase 4 unemployed people ZINN0001 Innovation Code Award (1 to 6 Level 3 qualifications for learners(OLASS4) credits) £203 £102 aged 24 or above. As the enabling individuals to prepareprovision ZINN0002 Innovation Code Award (7 to 12 Innovation Code relates to the for and progress into an apprenticeship. credits) £401 £200 delivery of provision that does notIt can also be ZINN0003 Innovation Code Certificate (13 to currently lead to a qualification, theused by sub- 24 credits) £703 £352 Code would not be eligible for 24+contractors with ZINN0004 Innovation Code Certificate (25 to Advanced Learning Loans The Code can be used for boththe permission in 36 credits) £1,302 £651 provision. (Once a qualification has employed and unemployedwriting from their ZINN0005 Innovation Code Diploma (37 to been developed for provision learners.prime contractor 24 credits) £2,005 £1,002 delivered through the Innovationto use the Code. ZINN0006 Innovation Code Diploma (49 to Code, if it is a Certificate or Where the Code is used forThe Prime 72 credits) £2,505 £1,252 Diploma at Level 3, then the new unemployed learners, this shouldContractor qualification would be eligible for be to support them in moving intoshould monitor 24+ Advanced Learning Loans employment.delivery. funding, providing it meets other. funding criteria 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Learning Points on how to Identify and Create New Areasof Provision Using The Innovation Code1 LISTENS TO THE USERS - CO-CREATIONValue will be increasingly co-created by the provider and the customer, rather thanbeing created entirely inside the learning provider. Co-creation is the trend towardsjointly creating products. The interaction between learning providers and theconsumer is becoming the locus of value creation and value extraction. As valueshifts to experiences, the market is becoming a forum for conversation andinteractions between consumers, consumer communities, and firms. In ―The Futureof Competition‖ (2004) Prahalad and Ramaswamy state that customers want todefine choices in a manner that reflects their view of value, and they want to interactand transact in their preferred language and style. The starting point for anycurriculum innovation is this dialogue.Learning providers need to consider whether their portfolio of learning products arestill fit for purpose for both young people, adults and employers. The nature ofgovernment funded regulated learning providers is that they fall into the strategic trapof ‗wanting to deliver what they like to deliver‘ and ‗dusting down last year‘sprospectus‘. The starting point has to be community and business needs to shapeprovision in a much more responsive way. The Skills Funding Agency indicate thatthese local needs might be identified through a college and/or training organisation‘sexisting links with local/regional employers, with representative organisations suchas National Skills Academies, Sector Skills Councils, Local Enterprise Partnership orEmployment and Skills Boards. However often the users and potential usersarticulate their need to front-line staff and there is limited capability within learningproviders to collect and analyse this market intelligence for curriculum decision-makers. A clear message is to ensure that your organization is alert to shiftingdemand and need.2. Articulate NeedOnce you have listened to the users you need to develop a high level understandingof the curriculum innovation problem that you are trying to solve. Try to articulatewhat is the problem, who does it affect and what is the training solution. Seeexample below: 27
  • 28. What is the Type of Who does it What is the At what level Is there existing business need? affect? subject/ is it provision on the problem? Curriculum required? QCF? area?New types of Up-skilling Energy Energy Level 2, 3 Some unitsenergy in a business/recy generation/ and 4 are availablegeneration particular cling waste but new unitsusing sector companies management/ needs to berecycled who want to engineering accreditedmethane diversify The need might be for individuals or whole new industries. Boydell (1983) identifies that new training needs can occur at either the whole organizational level, at the job/occupational level or at the individual/employee level. The Skills Funding Agency identifies that new type of provision can be for: Developing specialist skills, Up-skilling in a particular sub-sector, Re-skilling as a result of economic conditions in a particular local area, Specific skills required to support a growth sector, Supporting entrepreneurship, Supporting employment and/or progression and further learning in a particular sub sector or sector Responding to local needs – for example, adapting training for the needs of local employers seeking to recruit unemployed people Enabling individuals to prepare for and progress into an apprenticeship. 3. Use ‘mash-ups’ as a source of creative ideas The term mash-up refers to the capability to mix and match from multiple sources into one dynamic entity. The term mash-up comes from the hip-hop music practice of mixing two or more songs. It is applied to a new breed of web-based applications to mix at least two different services from disparate, and even competing, web sites. A mash-up, for example, could overlay traffic data from one source on the Internet over maps from Yahoo, Microsoft, Google or any content provider. ‗Mash-ups‘ can be a very powerful way of developing new innovative curriculum and breaks the boundaries of traditional sector skills council approved provision. The way the economy is developing is where traditional areas merge and generate a new approach. For example Smart Phones were the combination of a phone, a web browser and personal computer. In the same way new areas of curriculum areas are generated through the merger of 2 or 3 subjects. It is useful to consider this when trying to address new and emerging community and business needs. 4. Identify the scale of the need 28
  • 29. If you are tackling a new industrial area where there are no existing QCF provisionthis will require much greater resources than if you are creating new provision forspecific individual employees. You will need to consider that this might be a nationalneed and therefore you might need partners to help you shape a national framework.In the case of Adult Enterprise the desire to be an entrepreneur cut across vocationalareas, across different localities, different sectors and adults from differentbackgrounds and one institution could not have create a new national framework onits own.The long term requirement is that a new qualification is designed in partnership withbusiness/community, with a commitment to time limited funding, and that thequalification will migrate onto the QCF. If the provision is very distinctive and nichethen you need to evaluate whether it might be better to run the programme as fullcost delivery for a specific individual or company rather than to seek to claim fundingfor an area that an Awarding Body is not interested in accrediting because themarket demand is too small.5. Review the existing QCF to see what is availableSince 2011 there has been a narrowing of qualifications accredited with a removal ofduplicates but there are still many vocational qualifications available and approvedby OFQUAL. It is essential to undertake an analysis of what is currently available asthere may be relevant units already written that can be reconfigured into a newqualification. Working with an Awarding Body (AO) is a useful first step. It is in theirinterest to accredit new provision that meets an identifiable market need that willhave resonance for the sector. 29
  • 30. Section 4Creating a Blended Learning SolutionThe Adult Enterprise Project developed through co-creation a new innovativequalification framework and shared curriculum across a group of partners which wasoriginal and inventive and met a market need but it also developed a strategy tomanufacture in a cost effective and efficient way ‗blended learning‘ products.In this section we explore: What is blended learning The manufacturing process for creating blended learning products The pedagogic framework It will also provide a toolkit for subject writers involved in, or who are considering developing blended learning and e-learning products based on the experiences of the Adult Enterprise Project.Meeting a market needThe new Adult Enterprise skills qualification framework met a significant market needand was devised in a unitised fashion so that an adult could select units of learningthat met their training needs at the right time during their learning journey toentrepreneurship. The qualifications were all accredited by a National AwardingBody (Open College London Region), approved by OFQUAL and recognised forSFA funding. In addition the Adult Enterprise Project devised a teaching andlearning strategy for wider sector roll-out which was ‗a blended learning solution‘ ona moodle learning platform hosted on a by Worcester College of Technology (actingas a community cloud) to enable more efficient and effective implementation acrossthe sector. The Adult Enterprise Partnership developed e-learning content to go onto a Moodle 2 platform which was customised to commercial standards thatcombined both online and classroom based learning. The aim was to create 50% ofthe content online and 50% deliverable in the classroom to reduce costs.Definitions of blended learningFrom the outset, it is important to recognize that a variety of definitions andapplications exist for key teaching and learning terms. Some are usedinterchangeably with a blurring of the boundaries that can cause confusion andhinder communication.A Google search in December 2012 generated 6,390,000 results including numerousdefinitions, discussions, books, journal articles, conference papers, numerous 30
  • 31. examples plus video clips. This plethora of results reinforces the idea that oneperson‘s experience of blended learning and preferred definition is not necessarilythe same as someone else‘s.An article in the Washington Post summarized it in this way:‗..blended learning is some mix of traditional classroom instruction (which in itselfvaries considerably) and instruction mediated by technology. The latter can be onestudent with a tablet or laptop, or small groups of kids working together on devices.‘(2012/09/22)The common denominator brings it down to it being a mix of teaching/ learning in theclassroom combined with some online learning in some form or another.For some institutions and practitioners, blended learning involves the reproduction ofa classroom situation online, a virtual classroom, with interaction between learnersand tutors through video-conferencing, Skype and forums/blogs etc. This isconsidered in a video made by Common craft and the key points are that: The students are part of a digital learning environment These types of environments necessitate Learning Management Systems (LMS) that go beyond traditional classroom management. Curriculum writers contribute to such environments and systems when they are producing materials for blended learning.Blended learning can also be described as a form of technology enhanced learning(TEL). The result does not lead to a virtual classroom in this sense but one thatsupplements actual classroom sessions. According to a study carried out by theUniversity of Oxford blended or hybrid learning is 30- 79% online and ‗typically‘ usesonline discussions. (2010 p. 25) Another basic definition from the same report refersto blended learning as ‗online with attendance. ‘(2010, p. 13) Whatever definitionbeing used, the aim is always to produce effective blended learning, that will enablelearners and tutors to make good use of their time both inside and outside theclassroom and that will open up new opportunities in both content, delivery andresults.Blended learning can be compared to e-learning. The Joint Information SystemsCommittee (JISC) defines e-learning as ‗e-learning facilitated and supported throughthe use of ICT. It may involve the use of computers, interactive whiteboards, digitalcameras, the Internet, the college intranet, virtual learning environments andelectronic communication tools such as e-mail, discussion boards, chat facilities andvideo conferencing.‘ (Ofsted Handbook for Inspecting Colleges, p. 68)Another definition comes from ‗Move_On_UP_Etutor_Guide.txt‘. ‗E-learning: ageneral term referring to the use of digital technologies to support learning andteaching.‘ What is clear is that e-learning differs from ‗traditional learning‘ where 0%content is online, according to the Oxford Report (op.cit: 25) Even so-calledtraditional teaching is changing now with some elements going online such aslectures, powerpoints (ppts) and assessments. This can be referred to as WebSupplemented- classroom/campus learning but with materials available on the web.(Oxford Report op.cit:1) This might refer to the intranet of a particular 31
  • 32. college/university rather than the internet such as ppts being posted only for studentsenrolled on the course, additional readings etc.The manufacturing process of shared blended learning productsThe manufacturing process for developing the shared blended learning curriculumfor Adult Enterprise was significantly different from traditional models of curriculumdevelopment where the teacher develops the courses and applies to an awardingbody for accreditation, the teacher designs the curriculum content for the course anddelivers and assesses the curriculum. In the model adopted by Adult Enterprise themanufacturing was disconnected from the teacher with the creation of a newqualification framework by partners in partnership with an Awarding Body (AO),procurement of curriculum writers to write content and elearning designers totransform the online materials into usable elearning content.The process was as follows:Stage 1: Market Map Need - The learning points from developing Adult Enterprisewas that it is beneficial to develop a new innovative qualification framework andshare its curriculum where the subject area is ‗ubiquitous‘ and can be repurposed fora variety of markets by different institutions. This makes sharing more attractive formore users.Stage 2: Development of a Qualification Framework - This needs the involvement ofan Awarding Body that is skilled in designing qualifications, has a goodunderstanding of the assessment and also how a new qualification fits alongsideexisting qualifications.Stage 3a): Content Creation – curriculum content needs to be designed and writtenby subject experts who work within a pedagogic framework that provides both on-lineand off-line content. The copyright needs to be owned by the Sharing Entity ratherthan individual writers.Stage 3b): Editing- This needs to be edited to ensure that separate content writers‘approach is consistent and coherent. This involves designing a pedagogic model fora scheme of work that reflects the blended learning approach to curriculumdevelopment. The scheme of work and the content selected needs to be clearly laidout so that the desired learning process can be clearly articulated.Stage 4: E-learnification – the content needs to be put on to a learning platform and‗e-learnified‘ which means that particular software needs to be used to enable thecontent to enable learning to take place online and offline. This requires technicalsoftware skills but also the ability to understand the learning process as set down bythe content writers and editor. 32
  • 33. Stage 5: Creation and hosting on a Learning platform- there is a multiplicity ofplatforms available but Moodle represents the best value for education as it is writtenusing open source software. However it requires a degree of programming anddesign customisation to make it attractive and accessible for teachers and learners.The content and learning platform needs to be written in such a way so that it can bestreamed on to a variety of devices.In the case of Adult Enterprise the business model was B2B (Business to Business)which was that the finished entity was a ‗white label‘ brand that could be licensed toColleges. The benefits of this approach was that the marketing brand could beshared and also awarding body discounts could be negotiated for a wide variety ofusers as part of a consortium use.A B2C (Business to Customer) model where individual Colleges could develop theirown curriculum products is possible but there is one big limiting factor and that iscost. This proposal seeks to address this limiting factor and empower sectorColleges to develop their own products at low cost thereby creating multiple creatorsas well as giving them the ability to share at low cost.See Fig 1: Manufacturing Process 33
  • 34. The pedagogic approachThe Adult Enterprise project‘s aim was to find ways to deliver a sharedentrepreneurship curriculum across the sector in a more efficient way using ablended learning model. Its aim was to seek to deliver 50% of the content online withcurriculum available for teachers to deliver the other 50% in the classroom. Forquality reasons, as well as efficiency, Adult Enterprise was also keen to effectivelyintegrate information technology into teaching and learning. OFSTED 2012 Reporton Learning and Skills state that the best teaching and learning is where teachersare “skilled at developing learners‟ vocational and subject expertise by engagingthem in stimulating and challenging learning activities. Their confident use ofinformation learning technology successfully helped learners become moreindependent in their learning through the use of technology at work and at home”.The pedagogic approach was rooted in trying to ‗flip the classroom‘ so theknowledge element could successfully go online but the higher order learning couldbe undertaken in a face–to-face interaction with a teacher. The flipped learningmodel, which started in the classroom, transposes homework with class work. In theworld of education, this means students get the presentation portion of a class ashomework through videos, screen casts and podcasts. Then during class, there istime for interaction, discussion, projects and individualised instruction. The model isbased on the idea that learner interaction and enrichment in the classroom are moreeffective than passively watching a teacher present or lecture.This model provided the starting point for schemes of work to be devised that couldintegrate learning objectives from both the online and classroom content. This isbased crudely on Blooms Taxonomy of Learning (1956) which set out thatknowledge can be acquired much more easily than higher level learning where theuse of the social aspects of learning is important.Fig 2 Bloom‘s TaxonomyThe Adult Enterprise Project used this model with curriculum writers to assist them indeveloping integrated schemes of work. 34
  • 35. STREAM SHARE KNOWLEDGE MEANING/UNDERSTANDING TYPE OF LEARNING SKILLS ACQUISITION WRITTEN GROUP ACTIVITIES CONTENT INFORMATION/ PEER REVIEW AUDIO/VISUAL DEMONSTRATIONS eg POWERPOINT, PRACTICE SESSION VIDEO, EBOOKS, DISCUSSIONS ON THE HANDOUTS, MEANING AND APPLICATION PHOTOGRAPHS OF KNOWLEDGE/CONTENT MOODLE 2.2 TEACHER LED CLASSROOMMETHODOLOGY/MODE PLATFORM WORK FOR INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS ON-LINE CLASSROOMLEARNING STRATEGY CURATING DESIGNING CLASSROOM ROLE OF EXISTING and ACTIVITIESCURRICULUM WRITER GENERATING SCHEMES OF WORK NEW CONTENT LESSON PLANS THAT WORKING WITH INTEGRATE WORCESTER ON ASSESSMENT,UNIT UPLOAD SPECIFICATIONS AND E- LEARNING CONTENTThe Scheme of Work for Blended LearningA model Scheme of Work was developed through a process of trial and error thatenabled Curriculum Writers to ensure that they had taken account of the need tointegrate online learning with classroom based activities. 35
  • 36. SCHEME OF WORK PRO-FORMA FOR CURRICULUM WRITERSUnit Title and OCNLR Level Credit GLH Unit sector Unit Writer(s)Unit Code Value Teacher(s)Please Complete in Full To be completed if knownPurpose and Aim: Provide brief statement (1 or 2 sentences)Part Learning Assessment Criteria Assessment Methods and Outcomes Evidence The learner will The learner can Online learning Classroom learning Please state Session 1,2, etc Please state Session 1, 2, etc 1. Insert as per Unit Insert as per Unit What will the learners be doing What will be happening in the classroom? Insert What will be assessed? outline outline on their own (or linked to other activities with links to any handouts/learning What is the learner expected learners through online guides that will be used and to submit for assessment? groups)? materials/resources. Clearly reference each e.g. [NB- not all activities have to 1.1, 1.2 etc. be assessed but learners Insert activities with links to advised to keep all their work any e-handouts/learning Please provide approximate timings for each as part of their portfolio]. You guides that will be used and activity - take into account that roughly 50% is can indicate what is for materials/resources. online/ 50% class-based activity. portfolio and what is for assessment (A and P) Please provide approximate Try to include a mix of teaching/ learning What will be the assessment timings for each activity- take activities - group work, role play, focus groups, products? E.g. Short reports, 2. into account that roughly 50% pair work, input from tutor, input from learners personal development plan, is online/ 50% class-based etc. set of notes, set of calculations, list of key Please provide in brief - for ‗at a Please provide in brief - for ‗at a glance‘ information- full websites, and use of Business glance‘ information- full details will be in details will be in your learner and teacher materials. Development Log etc. 3. your learner and teacher materials. etcAdditional Notes Insert here anything else you think would be useful such as any alternatives or optional, additional workResources and Materials:List here all resources and materials to be accessed and used for both classroom and online learning sessions.Resources can include- power points, YouTube videos, sections from books, learner handouts and notes prepared by tutor, indicative websites, TV programmes, film, newspaper articles,government reports, etc. Be as contemporary as possible but do include key works in the area that should be looked at. Newspaper articles and reports, for example, can be useful triggermaterials as well as business sections.You might like to indicate what is recommended for full participation in online/classroom learning (R) and those materials/resources that are additional (A) for those who have moretime/interest to pursue further. 36
  • 37. Toolkit for Curriculum/Subject Writers Developing BlendedLearning MaterialsThe Adult Enterprise Project used a Curriculum Editor Manager, Dr Ruth Cherringtonto manage all of the Curriculum Writers to ensure a standardised approach. ThisToolkit provides advice for other organizations who might wish to employ thisapproach for creating blended learning. This Toolkit was written as a result of herexperience of managing a diverse team of writers to create rich blended learningcontent for Adult Enterprise suitable for use by a range of Colleges across thecountry.Toolkit for curriculum writersUltimately, however, what Curriculum writers use and how they adapt any templatesand other materials, depends on a range of factors:• The specific nature of the courses under development• What level they are• The target audiences• The resources of the learning providers• The nature of the e-learning platform/Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)When starting out, curriculum writers need to be provided with their remit. Thisshould detail what is expected of them, the boundaries of their work, deadlines andso on. They will also need to be provided with related documentation and course/unitspecifications. These should be read through carefully to gain a clear idea of:• The awarding body e.g. OCNLR, City and Guilds etc.• The key features of the units/modules/course• The level(s)• Number of hours and, if applicable, Guided Learning Hours (GLH)• Timings in terms of unit/module/course length or session length, both classroom and online• Other relevant informationIt is important for curriculum writers to gain as much contextual backgroundinformation as possible especially when working for a particular body or organizationfor the first time. Further information about awarding bodies and the courses can befound by going online to their websites. Some areas to consider are as follows: Are there areas that need clarifying? If so, the writer should contact the organization/body/employer. What degree of autonomy does the curriculum writer have in terms of deciding number of sessions, content, activities, and outcomes and so on? Are templates provided that have to be used or are they only suggestions? What does the VLE - Virtual Learning Environment look like? How are curriculum writers expected to contribute to this? What is the LMS and how does it work? How are the materials to be curated? 37
  • 38. After considering all of the above and gaining any additional information required thecurriculum writers are ready to start designing their materials. They may alreadyhave some ideas about how to approach the unit. The best place to begin is with theUnit Specification and the learning outcomes and assessment criteria. These shouldguide writers into what sort of material and topics should be covered in eachclassroom and online session and help them envisage what will be the evidence forassessment.Scheme of workHow Many Sessions? How long should each be? What is the expected or preferredratio between online/classroom learning?If there is no given/ set number of sessions then writers must decide according tohow the teaching and learning is being built up throughout the Unit. The number ofGLH should also be a guide as well as the assessment criteria and expectations oflearning outcomes. There is also the possibility that the learning providers, whenthey deliver the Unit, might decide to merge some sessions or, alternatively, splitsome up into smaller sessions.It might be that three classroom sessions and two online sessions would work well,with each being 2 hours long. Writers are advised to carry out an initial mapping outof sessions and see how they look before filling them out with content and activities.Classroom Sessions A suggested time should being given for the session (1 hour, 90 mins, 2 hours etc.) A varied mix of teaching and learning activities should be included- not just ‗teacher talk‘ but activities in pairs and groups, role play and games, powerpoint presentations, guest speakers, recording (tape and video) activities where useful /feasible, etc. Any special facilities or equipment that are required such as computers, Wi- Fi/internet, TV, cameras etc., should be listed. Learner activities should be delineated as assessed/non-assessed.Please note: it is up to the learning providers to subsequently factor in time neededfor health and safety checks, taking of registers, tea/coffee breaks etc., not thecurriculum writers.Online Sessions A suggested time should being given for the session (1 hour, 90 minutes, 2 hours etc.) A varied mix of learner activities should be included in addition to researching relevant websites. Specific tasks/activities should be provided throughout the session with over- general and vague instructions avoided. Each session should have aims and specific learning outcomes- these are not just chunks of time to be filled. Tasks should be manageable and achievable within the time frame given and should facilitate improvement in the learner‘s research skills They can encourage further exploration and work outside the time set for each session 38
  • 39. Learners should always be aware of what they are meant to be looking at, finding out about or practicing.Sequencing of classroom sessions and online sessionsThis is up to the writer to decide, based on what is trying to be achieved. It might beadvisable for learners to do an online session prior to their first classroom session,as a ‗warm-up‘, familiarisation exercise or to obtain some information they can bringwith them to the first class-based session. If this is the case, the Unit writer needs toflag this up on the Scheme of Work.Sourcing and referencing materials/contentOnly websites and links that are reputable, relevant and up-to-date should be usedwith alternatives provided in case these go down. Wikipedia has become a verypopular website, accessed by millions on a regular basis. It is certainly useful as astarting point but we have to remember that the information placed here is notalways correct, accurate or reliable. Most teachers and lecturers discourage the useof Wikipedia so curriculum writers should give this a wide berth as well. Tutors andlearners expect and are buying into something more thorough in their blendedlearning course. Whenever any existing material is cited, whether it is a journalarticle, book, a YouTube video, TV programme, etc., the full details should bereferenced. When a web link is given as a reference, the date this was accessedshould also be included. When repurposing materials that you have used in othercircumstances, all necessary permissions should be obtained.Blended learning tutor guidance notes for classroom sessionsUnit writers need to provide thorough instructions for the tutors so that theyunderstand what they are meant to be doing in the classroom. Suggested timingsgive them guidelines to work with though also offering some room for flexibility.Suggestions for individual, pair and group work are to be detailed and where learnerinput takes the form of an assessed activity.Learner guidance notes for online sessionsUnit writers are to provide instructions and materials for the learners in a way thatthey can follow easily, that are user-friendly yet not overly chatty. Illustrations, videoclips, animations, examples and case studies should all be included wherenecessary.It is advisable to avoid just providing pages of text or notes to read. Links to textsand notes which learners need to find and research for themselves, with associatedtasks/activities, are preferable. The online sessions should be informative,instructional, interactive and interesting- what is termed here as ‗the 4 i‘s‘.Writers must also bear in mind that these instructions will be prepared for the e-learning platform/VLE by the relevant team. Instructions for them should also beprovided logically and clearly.Assessment and Assessment Guidance NotesAssessments should be written according to the assessment criteria and learningoutcomes provided in the course/unit specifications. In the case of Adult Enterprisethe assessments formed part of the learners‘ portfolio of evidence and were part of 39
  • 40. the Moodle package in the form of a Business Development Log. The followingguidance notes were used: Each assessment should be clearly numbered and/or labelled with a title such as ‗Going into Business SWOT analysis.‘ What the learner needs to do to meet the criteria should be detailed. It is possible for one activity to meet more than one assessment criteria. Each assessed task should enable the learner to produce evidence that is directly related to their own business or business plans as well as the assessment criteria. They can be uploaded for the tutor to access and assess but also downloaded for learner to retain. Each assessment builds on the others and leads to a tangible set of skills and experience. Any special instructions for the learners should be properly flagged up as well as any for the e-learning team. Learners should also be encouraged to make additional notes on any research activities they undertake as part of the online learning element of your unit content, even if not assessed content.ChecklistFinally this list was provided as a useful aide de memoire to ensure writers haveincluded everything in their package of materials in the form of a Checklist forCurriculum Writers. Checklist for Curriculum WritersITEM Submitted? (please Comments/queries tick)Completed Scheme of Work (withclassroom sessions and online sessions)Tutor guidance notes for classroomsessionsPowerpoints (where necessary)Learner guidance notes for online sessionsHandouts for classroom (where necessary)Assessment tasksNon - assessed activitiesAdditional resources/readingOther? 40
  • 41. Section 5E-LearnificationWorcester College of Technology were procured to e-learnify the curriculum contentgenerated by the Curriculum Writers in Adult Enterprise (see Fig 1: ManufacturingProcess for Blended Learning Page 28). To ‗elearnify‘ means the act of convertingnon-web or non-internet content into web based, eLearning, and or distance learningcontent.This section has been compiled by Dave Thurlby, ILT Coordinator at WorcesterCollege of Technology and provides an overview and evaluation of softwareavailable for online education and training with pros and cons. It also providesguidelines on how to ‗e-learnify‘ Curriculum Writers content and advises on theirstrategies and key learning points developed during the Adult Enterprise Project.Use of a VLE (Virtual Learning Environment)The use of a VLE to deploy online learning content (for both online and blendedlearning) has been the default method for the vast majority of educational institutionsover the last ten years or so. A VLE was used for the Adult Enterprise project,however, it was the way we delivered the content that is of significant note. The mainitems are as follows Uniform look, feel and layout to all courses. A recognisable corporate image and business like environment. A range of ―Out of the box‖ courses with complete curriculum, activities and resources mean the tutor can just teach the course with minimal preparation and administration. Development of a Business Development Log as a single container for both student assessed work and personal note taking. Online sessions delivered via an interactive learning resource, guiding the learner through their learning, supporting resources, required assessments and relevant documents. Self-help support documentation backed up with a dedicated support team (see relevant section below.)Choosing your E-learning Authoring toolsThis section will concentrate on choosing e-learning authoring tools.There is a wide selection of e-learning authoring tools available and the ones in thissection cover six options which were considered and evaluated at the beginning ofthe project. As this software was to be used by learning technology staff, and fundingwas available to purchase higher end products we could look at the full range ofpackages available. 41
  • 42. Some of the key items we were looking for in the software were: Scope for creativity Easy branding and colour scheme setting to reflect the Adult Enterprise brand Possibility to publish for delivery on mobile devices Easy to learn Well supported Access to tutorials and online communityBelow are the products we considered for our e-learning authoring tool with a shortdescription of what they offer. All of the paid for options have a 30 day free trial withfull functionality to allow full evaluate the product.Microsoft PowerPoint(Part of the ubiquitous Microsoft Office package)PowerPoint is often overlooked when developing learning content. When you lookdeeper into its capabilities it is more than possible to create some quite advancedcontent. Adding media, narration, animation and navigation buttons are the keyareas to look at. It is recommended to export a completed file as a PowerPoint Showfile type, which in most cases only allows users to view the file as slides.GLO Maker (FREE)This authoring tool focuses on good learning design and uses pedagogical guides todirect the development process. It provides powerful features in an easy-to-useinterface. Finished learning resources are exported to a folder which is a self-contained website, and is capable of displaying a range of content types.Xerte (FREE)Xerte was developed by the University of Nottingham. It is an Open Source contentcreation tool that allows non-technical staff to quickly and easily build rich, interactiveand engaging resources. There are a good range of tutorials, webinars and supportforums to help developers get to grips with Xerte. You can create sequences of on-line learning activities that can include a wide range of media types. In addition youcan add simple quizzes using various question types. One unusual addition Xerteoffers is that the presentation of the output can be changed easily by the viewers;this includes the colour scheme, screen, text font, text size and volume. (Please noteall prices are approximate as of January 2013)eXe (FREE)eXe is another authoring application for publishing e-learning web content withoutthe need to become proficient in HTML or XML mark-up languages. It wasdeveloped by a New Zealand-based not-for-profit educational research anddevelopment organisation. It is still being actively developed and supported by agroup of organisations. eXe offers a good range of activities and media types whichcan be incorporated into your learning resource. Export options also include IMS 42
  • 43. Content Package, SCORM 1.2, or IMS Common Cartridge formats or as simple self-contained web pages.Adobe Captivate (£285)Adobe Captivate is available for both Windows and Mac OSX. It has hugecapabilities as a learning resource production tool. It can be used to author softwaredemonstrations, software simulations and randomized quizzes that are exported asFlash files. There is potential for it to be used for podcasts, screencasts, or theconversion and modification of PowerPoint Presentations. This product offers fullcreativity in all aspects of content creation, and as a result, a lot more time isrequired to develop your skills in order to unlock the full potential of the programme.Time invested in this product results in more advanced, varied and professionallooking resources. There is also plenty of online support and tutorials, as you wouldexpect from a company of this stature.Articulate Storyline (£550)Storyline offers a near identical range of facilities as Adobe Captivate. It is onlyavailable for Windows at the moment, so this, for some developers, excludes it fromfurther consideration. The price for some may be prohibitive, however the product isso accessible and easy to use that time saved in training and increased productivitycould make this viable. The fast learning curve comes from a well-designed andintuitive user interface and the near eradication of action scripts to control interactiveelements of the page. As with Captivate, covered above, software demonstrations,simulations, quizzes, screen casts and imported PowerPoint presentations arepossible. Mobile Learning is also catered for with an iPhone app and HTML5 exportoptions. There are a range of video tutorials that can get you up to speed quickly,and a dedicated community area where resources and advice are available.Explanation of our choice of authoring tool.All of the authoring tools outlined above are good products and maybe be a goodchoice depending on what you want to achieve and how far you want to take yourauthoring skills. At the time of making this decision, in May 2012, Articulate Storylinewas new to the market. It offered an excellent user interface that you instantlyrecognise and is clean and simple. The Adult Enterprise project also requires thatthe content be compatible with mobile devices, which was only offered by thissoftware at the time. Photographic characters are available with this software, whichwe have used extensively throughout the online resources, to guide students, andoptions for the resource player window offered easy addition of logos, colours andstyles based to the Adult Enterprise corporate design guidelines. Since our initialpurchase of Storyline, we have purchased the full range of photographic charactersto reflect a diverse group of users. We have also purchased a copy of ArticulateStudio ‘09 a suit of 4 content programmes to further increase the potential andefficiency of our learning resources. More details on Articulate Studio‘09 areavailable here http://www.articulate.com/products/studio.php . We have found thissoftware to be very effective for the team to date. It should be noted that AdobeCaptivate has since updated its offering since we took the plunge in May ‘12 and hasnow addressed many of the shortcomings we found at the time, so, for some, the 43
  • 44. cross platform compatibility and price may make this a good option for those lookingto develop intricate resources.Guidelines of E-LearnificationIn this section we will take you through the key areas that require attention andconsideration when creating Moodle courses, and the online learning sessions usedthroughout the Adult Enterprise learning platform.1 Learner Profile and User Centred Design.Understanding your audience and their needs is probably the most important part ofthis process. Getting this part right will make a truly usable and successful product.For adult learners, it is crucial that a wide range of digital literacy skills are cateredfor. One of the methods I have found very effective in testing content for ease of useis Jakob Nielsen’s 10 Usability Heuristics http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/ . These heuristics allow you to constantly evaluate how yourusers engage with the course, and ensure they have a positive user experience.It is important to be mindful of the level of language used throughout the course. Theinitial group of courses we were asked to develop were ten Level 2 courses.Learners were at GCSE level, and so complex words should be avoided wherepossible to help students remain engaged.Often, with courses delivered via a virtual learning environment, learners find itdifficult to understand what they need to do outside of contact time and distinguishbetween what are the most important things they need to concentrate on. From ourexperience in the Further Education sector we are also aware of the importance ofkeeping students motivated. This can be particularly challenging when learners areworking independently online. A key area to deal with these issues was thedevelopment of a single interactive learning resource that covered all the learning,resources and assessment tasks that were required in a single resource. This meansthat the learner is guided and receives clear instructions about what they need to doduring their online session. These resources also provide a more immersive learningexperience and helps learners complete all their online session activities. Here are afew example pages to give you an idea of how these lookThis online session is backed up by a tutor lead classroom sessions. The AdultEnterprise courses use a blended learning approach called the ―Flipped Classroom‖. 44
  • 45. This requires the learner to do their basic learning and initial activities online thenextend and apply their knowledge during their contact time with a tutor.The use of photographic characters has been a key driver in the success of theonline resources. It moves this resource away from a passive PowerPoint slideshowto something that is perceived as being personable, there to help and of value. Whenwe have demonstrated these resources to many Colleges around the UK they haveoften commented on the expressions these characters have. This shows there is anemotional response with the resource, and whether this response is complementaryor not, it demonstrates that the resource is of significance.Further benefits of this resource include tracked progress, so learners can return tothe resource at a later time and be prompted to continue from where they left off, oruse the menu system to return to a particular part of the resource for further study orrevision.2. Building the learning environmentNow we have covered the items that would deliver a good user experience, let‘s turnour attention to how we set about building the courses.Challenges One challenge we had with a new project of this type was the number of staff involved, curriculum writers, Adult Enterprise staff and our own ILT team at Worcester College of Technology. We quickly found that a single point of contact between Adult Enterprise and our content development team worked best to deal with issues, coordinate work and communicate efficiently. This was particularly important at the early stages.Building the Learning the environment When the initial two courses were ready we set about developing these courses, first with the intention of finishing them fully, and then complete an 45
  • 46. evaluation process, so these courses could be used as a blue print for other courses to follow. This allowed us to define the expectations of our client so new courses could be added with a clear vision of what the end result should be. We found it best to spend some time unravelling a new course when we first received it so we could: o Identify what parts were important, o See how the course flowed and start to plan, page by page, o What the learning resource should look like.Amongst the learning resource development team we have a lot of teachingexperience. This allows us to quickly get to grips with new courses, develop theresources and know what will work for learners and tutors. Once we began to createpages of resources we were aware that it is important to limit text and information ona page, and we followed this principle. Learners need time to understand and followinstructions; go too fast or present too much information, and the learning processbreaks down. We also wanted to make the pages and the course visually rich, souse of icons, screen grabs and clear signposting were incorporated. This would alsosupport learners with poor computer skills.Much thought was given to our approach to assessment and learner onlinecommunication. For the Adult Enterprise courses a Business Development Log hasbeen used, and acts as a generic container to handle both assessed tasks and as apersonal space for the learners. Students can add as many logs as they wish byfilling out an entry page, where the type of log (e.g. assessed task or research note),text, actions points, notes and an option to upload files are afforded. Once entriesare entered, only the learner and their own institution tutors can view it. Each entryalso contains an option for both the learner and tutor to leave comments. So, for thetutor this could be used to distribute feedback and grades. The Development Loguses a database to collect entries, which allows tutors to search for the logs theywish to view; this could be by type of log, learner name or combination of both.We found that standardising the layout and structure of the courses has helped usdevelop content more quickly. This also helps with the overall look and familiarityacross all courses for our end users, so using the learning environment for them isconsistent and user friendly no matter which courses they choose.This project is ongoing, and over the coming years there are plans for more courses,primarily at level 1 and 3. These courses will be developed using the strategiesoutlined in this section as we have found them to work well. We will thereforeevaluate the first new course for each of these levels which are likely to focus onlanguage levels, information displayed per page, and the methods of assessmentdeployed as key areas. 46
  • 47. Section 6Creating a Shared Learning PlatformOnce the content was elearnified it was important for the blended learning to behosted on a Learning Platform with an associated Learner Management System.Adult Enterprise had selected a commercial design company, LogicSpot to designthe website but it needed to find a more cost-effective and sustainable solution formaintaining the hosting as it rolled out the provision across the country. AdultEnterprise selected Worcester College of Technology to host the website and alsoprovide a Moodle VLE and learner Management System. This section providesguidance on how to adapt Moodle and integrate education and training software tocreate a strong user interface and user experience (UIUX) for online learning. It alsoprovides a guide to managing learners, providing online helpdesk support andcollecting data for benchmarking. This section has been compiled by Peter Kilcoyne,ILT Director at Worcester College of Technology (WCT).Creating a Learning PlatformTo work in with the overall aims of the Adult Enterprise project a learning platformwas required that could be used to host the distance-learning element of the project.Worcester College of Technology were procured to provide this service. As AdultEnterprise was already an established brand both in terms of name and visualbranding, it was important to the validity of the project that the created learningplatform matched the extant visual branding. To achieve this, Adult Enterpriseprocured their web designers, LogicSpot, to investigate the theming of Moodle inkeeping with the overall Adult Enterprise brand and novated them to WCT. After ashort learning curve, LogicSpot developed a theme for Moodle, which matched, veryclosely, the overall Adult Enterprise theme which could be used by WCT.In addition to theming, the overall user experience within the Adult Enterprise projectwas at the heart of many decisions taken by the team. These decisions pertained tocontent creation and the tools and methods used to both assess and deliver learningcontent via the learning platform. To deliver a quality user experience and ensurethat the user interface was consistent and easy to use, the content and technicalteams at WCT collaborated to come up with a clear, navigable structure for coursesand a consistent look and feel for graphical elements such as buttons, hyperlinksand section titles. This approach of consistency between courses was well receivedby the Adult Enterprise team as it fit well with their desire for a branded, consistentlook and feel throughout the learning platform. The decided upon look and feel wasmade into a Moodle course template which can be backed up and restored ininstances a new course is required to allow the easy replication of subsequentcourses to the same look and feel.Whilst user interface was a big concern whilst developing the learning platform, alsokey to the user experience was the element of ensuring that all the Moodle tools anddocuments they engage with are simple to use. To enable this, much testing and 47
  • 48. revision was done around the Moodle tools, particularly the Business DevelopmentLog (BDL), to ensure that users are given a good user experience. In particular theBDL was created using the database tool in Moodle. This choice of tool allowed agood level of customisation to allow us to fulfil requirements whilst remaining simpleto use for students and tutors alike. To achieve this overall simplicity, using clearlanguage and imagery were of vast importance, making sure that any tools that werenot immediately obvious to use were accompanied by good guidance as to how touse them.This dual approach of usability and user interface combine to make an overall goodquality experience for users of the system for both tutor and student alike. Havingbeen through multiple iterations of testing and feedback the learning platform is wellpositioned to support this user experience throughout its lifecycle and will continue tobe iterated upon as and when user feedback necessitates.Developing a shared learner management systemUnderpinning the development of a shared learner management system is theconcept of supporting users, both tutor and student alike, in the use of the learningplatform that comprises approximately 50% of their Adult Enterprise teaching andlearning experience. To enable this, a simple to use but comprehensive enrolmentmechanism was required to acquire data from institutions to allow the creation ofaccounts for tutors and students. To this end, Worcester College developed a proforma that could be sent to institutions for them to fill in with the data on theirstudents and tutors involved in the programme. This pro forma requested data foreach student including their name, email address, city of residence and the AdultEnterprise modules they are taking. As well as this, the pro forma requests manyother data which are required by Adult Enterprise, but not by the learning platform.The pro forma, once filled in is returned to Worcester for them to manipulate into aCSV format. This CSV is used to populate tutors and students into the learningplatform and assign them to the correct roles, i.e. student or tutor and also to thecorrect courses for the modules they are studying.As well as ensuring people get on the system, another key element of the way theAdult Enterprise system works is ensuring that we have a quality, user focussed,support system and help desk to assist users with any issues they may come upagainst. As a first port of call for support a FAQs page was created to assist inanswering any basic queries users have such as how to use the BusinessDevelopment Log or open the file types and resources they will be presented withthroughout their course. If the FAQs do not solve students‘ issues they are invited touse a support request form to request further assistance form the support team. Aform was deemed the appropriate medium for these requests rather than an email aswith forms it is possible to specify required fields to allow the support team to acquireall the information they require to provide support to users. For tutors and centremanagers, however, e-mail was deemed more appropriate due to the widely variednature of enquiries coming through to the support team. In addition to email, thecentre managers and tutors are supported by telephone on a number specific to 48
  • 49. Adult Enterprise support. This specific channelling of support through differentavenues allows the support team to deal with different enquiries in the way that isbest suited to provide a quality response to users whilst ensuring that all theinformation required to properly give support is provided. To enable this highlyreactive level of support, the e-mail address support@adultenterprise.com wascreated the intent of this generic email address is that no one person is sent emailsby users so absences in the team can easily be covered without access to anindividual‘s mail box. Similarly with the support telephone number, it is configured insuch a way that we are able to redirect it to other members of the support team ifindividuals are absent from work for any reason.To enable the creation of reports and tracking of support activity, a job ticketingsystem was chosen to enable the easy recording of support whilst ensuring thatgood quality information is able to be produced. To achieve this, Worcester Collegeof Technology instantiated Microsoft‘s System Centre Service Manager a fullyfeatured help desk product, with reporting, service level agreement tracking andmany other advanced features. The usage of a proper ticketing system has beeninstrumental in tracking jobs, assigning them to support staff and recordingresolutions to issues, allowing us to look at patterns in support requests, and pro-actively change processes and systems to better support users so they are moreautonomous. 49
  • 50. Section 7Managing a Virtual TeamThe Project operated in several stages as set out in Section1 and at each stage theAdult Enterprise Team changed as the task changed (see Table below). Thestrength of the steering group in keeping momentum even when at certain stagestheir own staff were no longer involved in the project was also important for itssuccessful spin-out and the creation of a new team. Their roles as Heads ofInstitutions also meant that they could give strong institutional support and profile tothe Project. The opportunity for the Project Director to move from a strategic role to ahands-on role due to her departure from Richmond Adult Community College gaveadditional leadership resource at a critical time when the team structure waschanging to a virtual team model. This section focuses on how to manage virtualteams across a range of partners, service providers and independent consultantsgiven the learning points from Adult Enterprise.PROJECT TEAM STAGE TASK MANAGEMENT STRATEGY PROJECTSTAGES MANAGEMENTCurriculum This involved a Brainstorming/ Project Director coordinated Traditional ProjectDevelopment team of designated Meeting up in real- Heads of Institutions on the Model staff from Partners time/ Steering Group and they took meeting to generate Researching what is oversight over the ideas for a new currently available involvement of their own curriculum staff. A Project Manager from framework model a Private consultancy company and an OCNLR Development Officer coordinated the meetingsQualification This involved Reviewing and Project Director coordinated Traditional ProjectFramework individual team developing new Heads of Institutions on the ModelDevelopment members majoring courses and working Steering Group took on a specialist with OCNLR to frame oversight over the subject area (eg a new qualification involvement of their own City of Bath on framework for staff. A Project Manager from Social media) and OFQUAL approval a Private consultancy drafting new course company and an OCNLR units as part of a Development Officer cross-institutional coordinated the meetings team from Partner organizations meeting in an advisory capacity with OCNLR OfficersContent This involved the Content creation by Project Director‘s role Virtual ProjectDevelopment creation of a virtual Curriculum Writers, became hands-on to hold the Team Modeland Shared team. This stage Content Editing by virtual team together as aDelivery involved the Curriculum Managers, constellation of groupsStrategies procurement of Assessment design working on a whole work task other service by an Assessment without real time group providers some of Manager, meetings. It also involved which were not Web design for the tight management of connected to the web portal and independent service original partner learning platform, providers and melding them organizations as a Elearnification of into the Virtual team. The result of the need Content and the Project Director also had to for new expertise setting of a learner engage the Steering Group to 50
  • 51. PROJECT TEAM STAGE TASK MANAGEMENT STRATEGY PROJECTSTAGES MANAGEMENT such as specialist Management System ensure that they could keep Curriculum Writers, oversight on accountability of Worcester College the performance of the Virtual of Technology and Team LogicSpot.Sector roll-out This involved the This involved Project Director‘s role Virtual Projectand creation of a promoting the became hands-on to hold the Team ModelDissemination Dissemination Qualification virtual team together. The Team made up of Framework and new Dissemination Team the Project Director, Blended Learning comprised a mixed group that Curriculum Editor Content and running were not related to the Manager Dissemination Events original partner organizations. (independent around the country to The Project Director worked freelancer), generate interest in closely with the Steering Assessment sustaining the Adult Group to maintain Manager Enterprise model. It commitment and focus on the (independent also involved 30 long term benefit to their freelancer) and follow- up visits from organization on the output of team members from the Project Director to Adult Enterprise and member Worcester College interested colleges organisations. of Technology around the country which was who wanted more supported by the information before original Partner getting involved. organizations, members of AoC and interested Colleges around the country that hosted events.Developing a This stage involved This involved Commitment levels of the Formal VirtualSustainability the Steering Group charging the 34 Steering Group remained Team ModelModel re-shaping itself in a member organizations very high as a result of the Board of a new and taking success of the Project and 6 Social Enterprise accountability for the out of the 9 members with the Project income, registering as became Foundation Board Director becoming a company limited by members. The Chief the new Chief guarantee and Executive and all Adult Executive. A new registering for VAT. Enterprise staff work Treasury being remotely and there are appointed and the regular monthly Board Assessment meetings to ensure Manager, accountability of the virtual Curriculum team. Manager, Curriculum Writers and Worcester College of technology being formally procured.In the final half of the Project Adult Enterprise developed Virtual Team Working tocomplete the task of creating a prototype blended learning curriculum on a learningplatform that is shared across a range of institutions. The key learning points fromthis experience of managing a virtual team is that you cannot rely on being co-located to be an effective and efficient team. It became more important that teammembers understood the project goals and objectives whether or not they interactand communicate in the traditional face-to-face manner. The Project Director had theresponsibility to ensure that deliverables and milestones are achieved on time and 51
  • 52. with the utmost quality. The many moving parts to the virtual team makes managingthem that more difficult. This final sections looks at the learning points for managingvirtual teams.In 10 tips for Managing Virtual Teams Tom Mochal (2007) writes that:“Most everyone works in a team environment. It has always been understood thatthe most effective teams are those located together. In fact, many managers decideto co-locate their team after reorganization, even though the constant churn ofpeople moving from place to place is seen by others as unproductive. Against thisbackdrop is a global phenomenon that is driving team staffing in the other direction.The Internet, faster and more reliable communication, and collaborative tools areallowing people to come together on teams that are no longer co-located. In fact, thewhole concept of “globalization” is pushing work all over the world, with independentpeople and teams working anywhere and everywhere. These groups are sometimesreferred to as “virtual teams.” They are real teams and they fit a classic definition ofteams in terms of working together to achieve a common set of objectives. However,they are referred to as “virtual” mostly because they do not communicate andinteract in a traditional face-to-face manner.”Over the past 10 years, various studies have investigated the differences inperformance of co-located and dispersed teams, quietly assuming that members ofthe latter never meet in person and members of the former work together in thesame office throughout a project. But dispersion is not only a matter of degree; it isalso a matter of kind. Most teams are dispersed on some level. They can be spatiallyseparated (from ―across the hall‖ to ―scattered worldwide‖), temporally separated(spanning different time zones), configurationally uneven (for example, five membersin one location and two in another) and culturally diverse. And as past research hasrepeatedly shown, even the smallest degrees of dispersion, such as working ondifferent floors in the same building, can greatly affect the quality of collaboration.The key findings from How to Manage Virtual TeamsSiebdrat, Hoegl and Holger (2009) is that :• The overall effect of dispersion (people working at different sites) is notnecessarily detrimental but rather depends on a team‘s task-related processes,including those that help coordinate work and ensure that each member iscontributing fully.• Even small levels of dispersion can substantially affect team performance.• When assembling a virtual team, managers should carefully consider thesocial skills and self-sufficiency of the potential members 52
  • 53. Toolkit for Managing a Virtual Team1. Set project objectives and expectations for your team. The team members need toknow and understand what it is that they are doing together. If they understand onlytheir own role and their own work, they will always just be individual contributors.Clearly communicate the project objectives, schedules and individual roles andresponsibilities. It is important that everyone knows what they are doing, how theirwork contributes to the project, what other team members need from them, and why.Though everyone can work independently, it is important to constantly communicatethe team‘s objectives. Failure to do so can be catastrophic for the success of aproject.2. Set the tone early and remind everyone they are a team.If the team membersthink they are all working independently, they will act independent. If they know theyare part of a team working on common objectives and deliverables, they will tend tofeel better about their work and be more active in their collaboration with other teammembers. At the beginning of the project it is crucial to let the team members knowwhat is expected of them. Status reports, participation in conference calls, hours ofavailability, and deliverable schedules are essential parts of managing virtual teams.3. Establish ground rules but understand and respect different organizationalcultures. Even though the team members may be remote, they still need to exhibit acommon and acceptable set of behaviours. In fact, this is probably more importantfor virtual teams. Ground rules include things like responsiveness to emails, whenthey are expected to be working, determining which meetings are mandatory (in-person, Web-based, or via telephone), and defining expectations for communicationturnaround times. This is very important if you are managing team members fromdifferent institutions or who are freelance.4. Choose the right technology to foster communication. The anchor of every virtualteam is the technology used to support communication. So in lieu of face to facethen the use of online chat on social media, conference calls, online conferencingusing Blackboard and group emails are ideal. In addition, there are collaborationtools that allow team members to share and collaborate on documents such as DropBox.5. Be specific about time scales for completion. Never leave something to chance.Make sure that all team members know when deliverables are due. You never wantto remind them the day before and have them scramble to get something donebefore close of business the next day. In these instances the quality of thedeliverable almost always suffers.6. Get the team together on occasion and look for opportunities to socialize. Teammembers located together have opportunities to socialize throughout the day. Virtualteams don‘t usually have this same opportunity to interact with each other, so it ismore important for the project manager to look for ways they can bond. This mightinclude getting everyone together one time in a face-to-face setting — perhaps for aproject kick off meeting. Although it is expensive to bring remote teams together, it isa necessary element to managing a virtual team. In order to build and continue teamchemistry, gathering the team together strengthens personal relationships and 53
  • 54. working partnerships in both the short and long term. Never underestimate theimportance of team camaraderie and rapport.7. Communicate, communicate, communicate. You need to be extra proactive inyour communications to make sure everyone understands what is expected. Peoplecan start to feel isolated if they do not receive regular communications. It is hardenough to keep everyone informed on a ―regular‖ project. The communication lineson a virtual team must be opened up especially wide. As project manager, you needprovide this steady stream of communication.8. Be extra diligent in workload management. Be precise and explicit in assigningwork to the virtual team members. You also need to ensure that work is completedon time.9. Give people shorter assignments. This is not the time to give people longassignments and hope they are completed by the deadline. Instead of assigning asix-week activity, for instance, assign the work in three two-week activities. In theformer case, you won‘t know for sure if the work was done for six weeks. In the lattercase, you can tell every two weeks if the work is on track 54
  • 55. Section 8Brand Development in a Shared EnvironmentThis section explores the marketing principles to create a white label design andmarketing proposition that can be shared. Adult Enterprise went out to tender andprocured LogicSpot, a Richmond based web design company, and Desypha Designagency to develop an Adult Enterprise Brand.Desypha developed a primary mark identity, a fluid brand which could be adapted tocreate secondary brands. The use of geometric shapes communicated the idea ofconnection, growth, and not being restrained by a single brand mark created astrong unified brand which looks fresh when applied to different materials. Usingstrong primary colours was a positive and uplifting palette, and throughout the brandthe colours are strong and vibrant never pastel or flat and uninspiring. From an earlystage they designed the brand to work with partner logos to be overlayed on apartner brand or to be bolted on with a typographic brand mark. In addition they alsoprovided supporting graphic patterns for the brand, the concept for these isconnections, the idea of learners and partners connecting with each other and withthe curriculum to learn and grow.The website www.adultenterprise.com was designed by LogicSpot to also link intosocial media with a strong Twitter and Blog presence. The brand features on thewebsite, the published material and also the learning platform. The website acts as aportal for the Learning platform for Adult Enterprise learners across the partnership.In addition as part of the brand development a broad range of marketing materialswere designed and shared with participating Colleges using a Dropbox account. Theaim was to enable partners to repurpose the materials and add their own brand tosave them the design costs and also increase the collateral of the Adult Enterprisebrand. 55
  • 56. Section 9Models for Network Generation for Sharing andSustainabilityThe key success of the Adult Enterprise project is that it has captured theimagination of the sector and it is now self-funded and supported by 34 institutionsacross the country for its year 2 roll out. The key learning points from this project isthat if shared services are to become sustainable they need to consider the followingpoints:1 OFFER A WHITE LABEL PRODUCT OR SERVICE Have a product and servicethat is not owned by one institution. The Adult Enterprise is a white label brand thatcan be used by each College of adult learning institution as their own. There is noterritoriality as it is owned by everyone with the brand and content looked after by asector led, not-for-profit social enterprise.2 SAVES MONEY It saves each institution a significant amount of time and money incurriculum development and delivery, and provides a cost-effective solution forproviding adult learning3 HIGH QUALITY Adult Enterprise is very high quality, with time and resourcesinvested in seeking the best method for developing and hosting blended learning4 STRONG SECTOR PROFILE AND REPUTATION The role of the four Principalsand the HOLEX Chief Executive on the Steering Group gave the Project credibility inthe sector. This was reinforced by AOC who valued the Project and promoted itwithin their conferences and events. This gave confidence with Principals who wereinterested in developing their entrepreneurship curriculum.5 TOPICAL AND CURRENT The area of Entrepreneurship was topical and currentgiven the economic recession in addition the development of curriculum materials foradults complemented the work of the Gazelle Group of Colleges within the sectorwithout competing with them.6 SOLVED A DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM The sector has grappled with trying todevelop high quality blended learning and many teaching staff are very resistant toadapting their traditional classroom teaching. However the Adult Enterprise area wasa new qualification and therefore there were no teachers losing teaching hours as aresult of a college adopting the Adult Enterprise model. It was therefore welcomed asan example of a successful strategy for blended learning that could be used to helpchange professional practice in college providers7 LOW COST MEMBERSHIP Because of economies of scale and pump-primingthrough the AoC/SFA funding Adult Enterprise was able to share the benefits of theproject for an affordable membership fee (£5k) that enabled the development tocontinue in Year 2. The cost of membership contrasts well with other schemes in thesector.8 TRAIN THE TRAINER PROGRAMME Once new Colleges and adult learningproviders were signed up a programme of training was provided for College staff to 56
  • 57. use the materials and blended learning system. This provided connectivity to thecreators and helped teachers feel part of a virtual team.9 NON-COMPETITIVE Users of Adult Enterprise are not competing institutions andtherefore learning points are shared across institutions as the new members join thevirtual team.10 INNOVATIVE The methodology adopted for the delivery of learning is differentand innovatively creates and shares content using new technologies. It also seeks todevelop new models of teaching and learning and also explores the different roles ofa traditional teacher. 57
  • 58. BIBLIOGRAPHYBeetham, H. & Sharpe, R. (eds) (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age:Designing and Delivering E-Learning, RoutledgeBloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956).Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals;Handbook I: Cognitive Domain New York, Longmans, Green, 1956T. H Boydell ―A guide to the identification of training needs‖ 1983 London BritishAssociation for Commercial and Industrial EducationCommoncraft video on Blended Learning ‗Blended Learning in Plain English‘http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM_Y2NSJcmEwww.Move_On_UP_Etutor_Guide.txt Harvey Mellar et al., (2007), EffectiveTeaching and Learning: Using ICT. London: NRDCOfsted Handbook for Inspecting Colleges, May 2006. HMI ref. 2651OFSTED 2012 Annual Report on Learning and Skills HMSOTom Mochal ―10 tips for Managing Virtual Teams‖www.techrepublic.com (2007)National School for Government ―Whole systems go. Improving leadership acrossthe whole public service,‖ August 2009Kathryn Pavlovich and Patricia Doyle Corner, "Knowledge creation through co-entrepreneurship‖ International Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 1,Number 1-2/2006C K Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy ―Co-Opting Customer Competence‖Summer 2000Harvard Business Review K. Prahalad, Venkat Ramaswamy ― Co-creation experiences: The next practice invalue creation" C Journal of Interactive Marketing Summer 2004 Volume 18, Issue 3Sharma, P. & Barrett, B. (2007) Blended Learning, MacMillan Books for TeachersFrank Siebdrat, Martin Hoegl and Holger Ernst ―How to Manage Virtual Teams‖ July1, 2009 MIT Sloan Management ReviewTechnology-Assisted Lifelong Learning (TALL) Department for Continuing EducationUniversity of OxfordUK Online ―Study of UK Online Learning Final Report‖, March 2010www.UKOnlineLearning Study-FinalReport-Mar10-FINAL-FORPUB.pdfWashington Post Article-http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/three-fears-about-blended-learning/2012/09/22/56af57cc-035d-11e2-91e7-2962c74e7738_blog.html (accessed Dec. 19th 2012)White, D., Warren, N., Faughnan, S. & M. Manton 58