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A cognitive overview of ITS

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- 1. Intelligent Tutor Systems
- 2. Before We Start …
- 3. Intelligent ??? <ul><li>ICAI – Intelligent Computer Aided Instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to solve the problems they present </li></ul><ul><li>Individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor and not a Coach </li></ul>
- 4. Components Of ITS
- 5. ACT*
- 6. Features of ACT* <ul><li>Set of rules in which each rule represents a unit of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Productions are goal directed </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Compilation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Working Memory </li></ul>
- 7. Example : Symbolization <ul><li>Goal: Write an algebraic expression given a real world problem context </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor’s Pedagogical Content Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General tutoring rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content specific strategies </li></ul></ul>
- 8. To Build A Good Tutor <ul><li>Study what makes the domain difficult including discovering what types of errors students make </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a theory of how students solve these problems </li></ul><ul><li>Observe experienced human tutors to find what pedagogical knowledge content they have </li></ul>
- 9. Ms. Lindquist’s Architecture
- 10. Cognitive Student Model <ul><li>If-Then rules on working set elements </li></ul><ul><li>Buggy productions </li></ul><ul><li>If the correct answer is 5g + 7(30 - g) </li></ul><ul><li>Student model reports full diagnosis to Tutor Model </li></ul>
- 11. Tutor Model <ul><li>Again implemented using production rules </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the pedagogical plan for the received diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing heuristic </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial Strategies </li></ul>
- 12. Concrete Articulation Strategy
- 13. Introduced Variable Strategy
- 14. Explain In English Strategy
- 15. Principles For Design Of Tutors <ul><li>Represent student competence as a production set </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the goal structure underlying the problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Provide instruction in problem solving context </li></ul><ul><li>Promote an abstract understanding of the problem solving knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize working memory load </li></ul><ul><li>Provide immediate feedback on errors </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust the grain size of instruction with learning </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate successive approximations to the target skill </li></ul>
- 16. Still Only A Lot Of Promises <ul><li>Education has not been turned upside down </li></ul><ul><li>CAI still better than ICAI </li></ul>
- 17. Just To Wake Everyone Up …

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