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Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.
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Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential for enhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius.

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  1. Selected under-utilised fruits and their potential forenhanced fruit security and commercial exploitation in Mauritius. Name: Babooa Anusha 1
  2. CONTENTScommon name:avocado ................................................................................................................................................................... 4 consumer potential ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4 product marketing characteristics ................................................................................................................................................ 4 production potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 economic potential ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5common name: star fruit/carambola ............................................................................................................................................... 6 consumer potential ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6 product marketing characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 6 production potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 economic potential ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7common name: passion fruit yellow................................................................................................................................................. 8 Consumer potential ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8 product marketing characteristics ............................................................................................................................................... 8 production potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 9 economic potential ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9common name: pomegranate/grenade fruit .................................................................................................................................. 10 consumer potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 10 product marketing characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 10 production potential .................................................................................................................................................................. 11 economic potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 11common name: acerola/barbados cherry ...................................................................................................................................... 12 consumer potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 12 product market characteristics .................................................................................................................................................. 12 production potential .................................................................................................................................................................. 13 economic potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 13Common name: custard apple/atte................................................................................................................................................ 14 Consumer potential ................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Product marketing characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 14 Production potential .................................................................................................................................................................. 14 Economic potential .................................................................................................................................................................... 14Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15List of references ............................................................................................................................................................................ 16Appendix ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 2
  3. IntroductionMauritius enjoys a gentle maritime climate with summer extending from October to April andwinter from May to September. In summer, the island is under the threats of tropical depressioncyclones of varying intensity, usually in the months of November to March. On average, onecyclone passes within 100km of Mauritius each year. It receives on average an annual rainfall of21,00mm of rainfall with 70% of it occurring in summer.Local fruits are very rich in minerals and vitamins and should be consumed regularly. A largequantity of fruits is imported especially during winter when the local production is low. Thus soas to reduce imports, the Mauritian government has adopted strategies to encourage fruitproduction. Several authors have highlighted the potential of several underutilised fruits and theneed for research to improve their utilization and nutrition security. Fruit security will not onlyimprove nutrition but also enhance job creation and provide Mauritians with increased incomegeneration.In this review, the potential of selected fruit species: Avocado, Star fruit, Passion fruit,Pomegranate, Acerola cherry and Custard apple, with their diverse uses have been discussed.They were selected because of recent research interest, their potential for fruit security and theiradaptation to the Mauritian climate. 3
  4. COMMON NAME:AVOCADObotanical name: Persea americanaFamily: LauraceaeCONSUMER POTENTIALThe avocado has a unique flavour amongst fruits, consisting neither of sweetness nor acid butrather a mild „nutty‟ sensation (B.W.CULL,2000). In a survey carried by Harker in 2009, it wasfound that consumers prefer avocado fruit with at least 25% dry matter and select bruising as themajor defect followed by rots. Avocado fruit maturity and quality characteristics are oftenvariable resulting in variation within a shipment in ripening rates, shelf-life and quality. Inferiorfruit quality is seen as one of the key factors impacting on supply chain efficiency andprofitability (Margetts,2009). Research has shown that if a consumer is dissatisfied with the fruitquality, then that concumer will not purchase that commodity for another 6 weeks(Embry,2009).The total dry matter in the edible portion of the avocado,at 30%, and the protein content ataround 2%, is greater than in any other fresh fruit. The flesh recovery from the fruit is variablebetween varieties but ranges between 70-80% (Popenoe 1920). The fruit is rich in vitaminsA,B,E, minerals, dietary fibres. The avocado fat consists predominantly of monounsaturatedoleic acids, which has been found to reduce harmful LDL-cholesterol while maintainingbeneficial HDL-cholesterol(Minas K. Papademetrion).Retail and consumer surveys over the last 15 years have shown that consumers are not alwayssatisfied with avocado quality, mainly because of poor flesh quality that cannot be determineduntil the fruit is cut(Hoffman & Ledger 1999). Another constraint is that most consumers preferother more edible fruits that are available throughout the year rather than the avocado. However,with governmental support and more consumer awareness, the fruit can provide much neededhousehold nutrition security.PRODUCT MARKETING CHARACTERISTICSIt has wide range of uses from savoury to dessert. In an overview of the South African avocadoindustry in 2007, D.J Donkin has estimated that 10-20% of the annual crop is processed eitherinto „guacamole‟-a savoury dip or oil is extracted from reject fruit and is used in cosmeticindustry. It can also be consumed fresh. Processed avocado products are sold locally as well ason the export market. 4
  5. PRODUCTION POTENTIALThe fruit is generally pear shaped, the edible part being a thick layer of greenish-yellow pulp. Itis contained between the skin and the large seed. The fruit never ripens completely on the treebut continues to enlarge in size. A fruit will only ripen after it is harvested fron the tree(J.Lawrence). The fruit needs careful handling as spoilage rates are high. Trials at the KenyanAgricultural Research institute(KARI) have succeeded in extending the shelf-life of the fruit fron5-10 days and has helped to reduce losses of fruit destined for export. The fruit is susceptible to arange of problems related to water stress resulting in reduced yield and fruit quality. Maturefruits have a dull appearance and there is a slight shrivelling and yellowing of the fruit stalk. Ifan immature avocado is picked, it will not ripen to an acceptable eating quality and will oftenshrivel and develop fruit rots. External colour is not a maturity characteristic and its smell is tooweak and appears later in its maturity stage. Since maturity is a major component of avocadoquality and palatibility, it is important to harvest mature fruit (Gaete Garreton et al. 2005).According to Tony Whiley from the department of Primary Industries,Queensland,although treesmay start to bear fruit in the second year, commercial quantity are generally not harvested untilthe third year. Yields depends on variety, season and level of management and are very variableacross farms and districts( It can vary from 7t/ha to 20t/ha). Kosiyachinda and Young( 1976)found that the edible ripe fruit can have its life extended by up to 40 days by storage at 2°C.ECONOMIC POTENTIALWorld production of avocados has increased more than four-fold over the past four decades,according to FAO. The US is the largest importer(the fruit is an important economic crop overthere), followed by France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Avocados present goodprospect for small-scale farmers wanting to diversify output. However, they need moreassistance in meeting phytosanitary regulations stipulated by the European market. With propervarietal selection it should be possible to exploit the possibility of off-season production, thusincreasing the availabilty of fruits for a longer period during the year. Fruits produced can bemarketed easily ,particularly to meet the requirement of the growing tourist industry. Threeeuropean countries act as hubs/redistribution centers for the avocado trade in Europe:Netherlands, Spain & France, which is also the largest consumer. Growing demand by thesecountries has resulted in a 14% increase in imports since 2005. Industry analyses indicate thatfurther expansion in demand is likely as consumers become educated about the health benefits ofavocados( Brett wedding 2011). 5
  6. COMMON NAME: STAR FRUIT/CARAMBOLABotanical name: Averrhoa carambolaFamily: OxalidaceaeCONSUMER POTENTIALThe fruit has an attractive star shape with a pleasant flavour. Carambolas can be promoted as afruit with a high content of vitamin c and minerals such as potassium and sodium, with a fresh,sweet/sour taste that quenches thirst (MATRADE 2004). Its vitamin C content is comparable tothat of citrus fruit (35-40mg/100g), (J.-P. Lekeu). It posseses good nutritive value, as it containsvery low fat, high vitamin B&C , good source of potassiuma and fiber. Two fruits a day provideone with a daily intake of potassium of 600mg (Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia,2004). Adisadvantage is the oxalic acid content of up to 0.51%. consumer acceptance depends uponflavour, texture & nutrition factors. The fruit is a pleasure both to the taste and to the eye(Charles J.Wagner et al. 1975).PRODUCT MARKETING CHARACTERISTICSCarambola fruits are suitable raw materials for wine production. The juice also containsfermentable sugars(sucrose) which couldsupport the growth ethanol fermenting microorganisms.The physico-chemical characteristics of the juice suggest the feasibility of modifying the juiceinto a suitable must that could yield adequate amount of alcohol to form wine(Sayali et al.). Itcan be consumed fresh but there is an increasing use of it as a juice. It may also be processed intopreserves,jams & jellies. On a rare note, they are used in black tea infusion. The pulp has apleasant, fresh, acid taste and is slightly fibrous. 6
  7. PRODUCTION POTENTIALIt is a decorative, evergreen shrub with alternate leaves being dark green and a little shiny. Thetrees are long lived andconsistent bearers(Malo and Campbell 1972). The fruits are ovoid berries,golden yellow in colour, with a juicy, slight acid pulp. Fruits are harvested when it is still green.It is only with increasing ripeness that the fruit acquires its sweetness. The longer it is stored, itscolour changes gradually to bright yellow, with time, the fruit even turns to a dark yellow. Thisdoes not impair the fruit‟s texture or its nutritional contents but is a sign that it has reached theoptimal ripeness. After harvesting, the fruit does not produce sugar. Consequently the sweetestfruit are tree ripened. The fruit is considered mature when the colour begins to „break‟ fromgreen to gold between ribs. Properly cultivated trees may begin to produce fruit within 10-14months after plantring. This increases quickly as the trees mature, yielding 250-300lb/tree afteras little as 7 years(Phill Ross, 1997).ECONOMIC POTENTIALMajor star fruit importers are Netherlands, France, Germany, Singapore. A small niche marketmay be developped for canned carambola juice as an end consumer product which could be soldthrough oriental food shops. Full production can be achieved at about 4 years after planting.Therfore it is a quick return crop, unlike long gestation crops such as mango. Investment incarambola production ,thus is not along term propasition and the crop can be planted with otherlong gestation crops to bring about early returns (W.KUPPELWIESSER). 7
  8. COMMON NAME: PASSION FRUIT YELLOWBotanical name: Passiflora edulisvar.f.flavicarpaFamily: PassifloraceaeCONSUMER POTENTIALPassifloraceae is a high value and export oriented crop.It stands out not only for its exotic andunique flavour and aroma but also for its amazing nutritional and medicinal properties. However,consumer understands of the fruit is still poor. It is unfortunate that the fruit is at its best when ithas begu to shrivel and looks least appealing (Jr & Julian W.Sauls). The 2007 research by Bakershowed the following-“All wholesalers and retailers agreed there was strong consumer demandfor passion fruit. These views were supported by consumer research which was also undertakenat the same time. The most positive feature about the fruit was its unique taste and flavour. Otherpositive attributes included its aroma, visual appeal of the pulp, ease of use and versatlity. Themost common criticism from retailers was how quickly the fruit wrinkled. An associatedcomment was the short shelf life and wastage with passion fruit. Inconsistent pulp content werealso criticised. Promotion of the fruit was strongly supported by retailers and wholesalers.Consumer education about selection,storage,uses and health benefits was reccomended andnecessary,they believed”.The fruits are rich in mineral,salts, vitamin especially A(carotenoid) and C(ascorbic acid). Itsjuice has a wonderful aroma and flavour. fruits are seldom found in the Mauritian market for thefruits are refreshing and is a low-energy fruit with fairly rich amount of carbohydrate and highseed oil content. The pulp contains on average 13% of sugar (J.P Gaillard 1988).PRODUCT MARKETING CHARACTERISTICSThe principle processed passion fruit products are juice and pulp. The major uses for these are asingredients in yoghurts, ice cream, jams, flavouring and in fruit juices. The undiluted juice ishighly concentrated but is as excellent additive to other fruit juices or it may be drunk as an adeif water and sugar are added. It is widely accepted in different markets and there is a largepotential for exports not to mention its pharmacological properties (Borges et Lima 2002). 8
  9. PRODUCTION POTENTIALIt is a climacteric fruit. When it ages, the epidermis wrinkles but this does not affect the pulpquality. It keeps well for 4-5 days at 8-12°C. The shelf life depends on stage of maturity but isgenerally 5-6 days. The yellow variety is more attractive than the purple one. Yields are higherfrom 10-25 tonnes per hectare per year and as much as 55 tonnes in certain cases with a juiceyield of 30-40%. It is less likely to be affected by pest and diseases. In order, to optimize flavourquality and storage life, the fruit intended for export should be harvested with 70% yellowcolour. At this stage, fruit harvested at stage of ripeneness will have a larger storage life. Apassion fruit orchard may have alife span of 3-5 yers. The fruits are harvested when they havedropped to the ground. Green/immature fruits should not be pickes off the vines as they will notripen, they will be off flavoured and have the higher concentration of cyanogenic glycosides(atoxin produced by the vines). Fruits should be collected 2-3 times per week( Edward A.Evans2007). Shelf life of the yellow passion fruit is shorter (1 week) than that of the purple passionfruit(4-5 week). However, yield is higher than the purple variety(30t or more/ha) and the yellowones are more vigorous,have larger fruit size and greater weight, 6-8cm and 70g respectively.ECONOMIC POTENTIALThe economic life of the passion fruit is considered as five years.It is not economical to maintainthe vines afterwards,even though yield can be obtained after five years. Purple skinned dominatedemand for passion fruit in Europe and the yellow skinned ones is little known, thus creatingopportunity for an exotic niche market (Dr Peter Jaeger 2001). The Unite Kingdom is the largestconsumer of the fruit. The market potential is small but is high valued and also high priced. Thefruit is potentially a foreign exchange earning crop. Brazil is the biggest producer of passionfruits but consumes everything on domestic markets. 9
  10. COMMON NAME: POMEGRANATE /GRENADE FRUITBotanical name: Punica granatumFamily: PunicaceaeCONSUMER POTENTIAL Pomegranate is a handsome deciduous and somewhat thorny large shrub/small tree. It has longbeen cultivated as as ornamental and for its edible fruit. The product that consumers are currentlywilling to pay higher prices for are larger red pomegranates. It has a pleasant flavour and arome.There is a growing evidence that pomegranates contain agents(antioxidants) against cancer,particularly cancer. Increased world consumption is partly driven by these claims andobservations (Tony Portman 2008). It contains iron, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium whichhelps in better regulation of blood in the body. Sugar content of its juice is about 12-16%. Thissugar is light for digestion (Ravikumar K.T. 2009). Both peel and pulp contain many differentkinds of antioxidants-flavonoids,anthocyanins,tannins. Many studies have shown that tannin iscarcingenic and excessive ingestion of tannin from 1 or more sources,over a prolonged time isdetrimental to health(morton J. 1987).PRODUCT MARKETING CHARACTERISTICSIt can be eaten as a fresh fruit or fresh/concentrated juice. It can also be used as a dye and asdecorations. It has pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. It can be processed into products like colddrinks, carbonated drinks, wine and syrup prepared from pomegranate juice. There is potential tomarket the juice on the domestic anbd export markets. Pomegarante have high level ofpolyphenols or antioxidants and is now being promoted as a health food especially for the juicemarket. Juice extracted from each fruit is about 50% of the fruit weight. Aril juice is used as abase to make wine, beverages. Waste material after juice extraction is used for pharmaceuticalsand cosmetics. The fruit is highly decorative and the arils are used as accompaniment to a varietyof dishes. Demand for fresh separated pomegranates arils as a complement to dishes ishigh(Tony Portman 2008). 10
  11. PRODUCTION POTENTIALThe plant takes three to four years to mature and 6-8 years to reach full production. When planthas reached full production it can produce up to 20-25 tonnes/hectare at maturity. The tree isadapted to many different environment. Fruit weighing more than 500grams with superiorqualities have immediate and ready acceptance in the international market. The plant vigourdeclines after about fifteen years. Fruit cannot be ripened off the tree even with ethylenetreatment. Growers generally consider the fruit ready for harvest if it makes a metallic soundwhen tapped(Villas T.Jhadhav). one major problem is cracking at time of maturity leading tohuge economic losses to farmers(Tony Portman 2008).ECONOMIC POTENTIALPomegranate is a high value crop. The entire tree is of great economic importance. Demand inthe international market has widened the scope for earning higher dividends from thiscrop.Profiatbility up to 1.5 hundred thousand/ha/annum have been demonstrated by somegrowers. It is, therefore, highly remunerative crop for replacing subsistence farming, thusalleviating poverty levels. It provides national security and has high potential to developwastelands and an is an ideal crop for diversification. Moreover it makes higher contribution toGDP with a small area (Vilas T.Jadhav). 11
  12. COMMON NAME: ACEROLA/BARBADOS CHERRYBotanical name: Malpighia glabraFamily:MalpighiaceaeCONSUMER POTENTIALThe skin of the fruit is very thin and easily bruised.The fruit is attractive and a pleasant tastewhen fully ripe but very susceptible to damage. the fruit has been historically known as aconcentrated source of natural ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Juices from Acerola cherries is usefulfor fortifying the ascorbic acid content of other fruit. The fruit has been used as a commercialsource of vitamin C in dietary supplements as well as other food products. In general, ascorbicacid content of Acerola fruit tends to decrease as the fruit matures. Antioxidant activity ofcombined Acerola and phytoestrogen extracts could help reduce the oxidation of LDL, thusreducing the risk of heart disease. It also has anti-fungal properties. One fruit of Acerola willsatisfy the daily requirements of an adult for vitamin c. In some countries, it is known as the „treeof life‟ due to its exceptional nutritive and tonic properties(K.R.Chapman).PRODUCT MARKET CHARACTERISTICSIt can be processed into fresh juice, frozen ice, baby food, ice cream and vacuum dried powders.It has limited fresh uses due to its tender and perishable nature. It is widely consumed fresh inareas where it has been grown. The bark consist of 20-25% tannin and is used in the leatherindustry; the wood is hard and heavy. Trials have demonstrated that it refuses to ignite evenwhen treated with flammable fluid unless perfectly dry. It has medicinal uses such that it isbeneficial to patients with liver ailments, diarrhea.dysentery, coughs and cold (JuliaF.Morton,1987). 12
  13. PRODUCTION POTENTIALIt is a small (3-5m of height) attractive shrub which can be used for its ornamental value in thelandscape. The fruit is bright red berry-like juicy drupe. Average fruit weight is 7-10g and eachplant produces 20-30kg of fruit. Fruits mature from green to red but can be a yellowish red whenfully ripe. It can ripen within 25 days. The fruit quality starts to degrade quickly after harvest.Transport and handling of fresh acerola fruits only accelerates the rapid decomposition of thefruit quality. Thus cold storage and timely processing is extremely important. Hand harvesting isthe only method used at present.ECONOMIC POTENTIALAs fresh fruit, export would be very limited because of highly perishable nature of the fruit. Asprocessed products, acerolas would have some export potential as a source of ascorbic acid. Inthe US it is used in the pharmaceutical industry and in European countries , the extract is used toenrich pear and apple juices. It represents an alternate source of income in the agri-business. Thefruits‟ demand has increased in the recent years due to its vitamin C content for nutritionalsupplement. 13
  14. COMMON NAME: CUSTARD APPLE/ATTEBotanical name: Annona squamosaFamily: annonaceaeCONSUMER POTENTIALFruits are very sweet with a fragrant pulp. They have a pleasant and exotic flavour which isconsidered to be the most desirable characteristics of custard apple. It has a unique and creamytexture. Consumer can benefit from desert product available in the cooler months when fewothers are not available. It is easy to digest,has no fat,low acid and plenty of vitamin C and A .Consumers have poor knowlegde of how to buy , ripen and prepare the fruit (AGACA andHAL,March 2006).PRODUCT MARKETING CHARACTERISTICSIt is sold mainly for fresh consumption( eaten raw or used in fruit salad)or for the preparation ofjuices and ice cream(Leal,1990). The leaves and the bark of the tree have potential medicinal andinsecticidal applications and the kernels of the fruit also contain toxns. Bio-fuels can potentiallybe extracted from the seeds. The seeds, leaves and young fruits are insecticidal. Leaf juice killslice and is also used in tanning(Julia Morton 1987).PRODUCTION POTENTIALIt is a very branched out tree(4-6m tall). The fruit is round,spherical or ovoid and 5-10cm indiameter(Purseglove,1966). It is well adapted to semi arid regions(Maia et al,1986). It isharvested when it has lost all green colour and ripens without splitting so that it is readily sold inthe local markets. If picked green,it will not colour well and will be of inferior quality. The treeis naturally a heavy bearer. It takes 20-25 weeks to reach maturity.ECONOMIC POTENTIALExpansion of the custard apple industry has been limited by the availability of high yielding,quality varieties and suitable rootstocks. Yet the increased demand for custard apple tree hasencouraged the collection, characterization and evaluation of germplasm aimed at obtainingcultivars(Sousa et al,2001). Produce from the fruit tree could possibly sustain s diverse range ofmicro-enterprises,ranging from food processing to the manufacture of organic insecticides. Eachof these small businesses represents job opportunities fo the local community-either operatingindividually or organised as micro-credit co-operative groups(Dr.S. P Singh, 1995). 14
  15. CONCLUSIONThe Mauritius standard bureau manages the ISO 9000 series and is responsible for thecertification, but exporters may use foreign certification bodies if requested by their clientsoverseas. The governmnent is pushing the agri-sector towards enhanced fruit security and hasadopted certain strategies. Some of the major objectives are mentioned below; 1) A total of 23,500 hectares in Mozambique have been made available to the government of Mauritius. The latter will be allocating plots of land to private.local and foreign investors on the condition hat 25% of all crops produced are made available to the mauritiuan and Mozambique government. 2) Special loan schemes with an amount of up to Rs 40,000/arpent or Rs200,000/borrower, have been devised for fruit producers. 3) A targeted area of 100ha for the minor fruit species will, in addition to constituting a gene bank for all these species, provide an economic production potential of around 3000t of exotc fruits by 2015;the fruit village will be consolidated. 15
  16. LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Dr.S. P Singh, 1995, commercial fruits,362001 2. Guide du rayon, les specialites, fruit et legumes,Avril 1997,ISBN-2-87911-091-2 3. Prof Dr Aliah Hanim et al, seminar on‟‟opportunities to increase Tropicalfruits exports in Europe”, 15th August 2008 4. Implementation and coordination of Agricultural Research and training(ICART) in the SADC region(Mauritius), July 2008.pdf 5. Blueprint for a „Sustainable Diversifird Agri food strategy for Mauritius 2008-2015. Ministry of AgroIndustry and fisheries, July 2008.pdf 6. Ministry of Agro industry and Fisheries, strategic options in crop diversification and livestock sector(2007-2015) 7. Betty Molesworth Allen,1967,Malyan fruits;An introduction to the cultivated species(with Thai and Tamil names),Donald Moore press Ltd,Singapore 8. Queensland Department of primary industries, 1984, Tropical tree fruits for Australia 9. B.W.CULL, Factors important in assesseing the potential of tropical tree fruit species for Australian Horticulture 10. Phill Ross,1997, opportunities for commercially under-exploited tropical fruits,vegetables and nuts, Queensland Horticulture Institute Centre for wet tropics Agriculture 11. Morton J,1987,Custard Apple, In; fruits of warm climates,pg80-83 12. AGACA and HAL,March 2006,Custard apple,industry strategic plan 2006-2011 13. Julia F.Morton,1987, fruits of the warm climates,Barbados cherry,pg 204-207 14. Sally Christie, 2007,December 19, pomegranates-Albanian export crop to Europe and the region 15. Jr et Julian W,Sauls, the passion fruit,University of Florida,IFAS extension.HS60 16. Saurindra P.Ghosh.Avocado in India,FAO corporate document Repository 16
  17. APPENDIX Figure shows a timeline of the selected under-utilised fruits, (each fruit is represented by the colour used above) 17

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